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o^al Jrnfltitiition of <&ttat Britain. 


<M[IMil AT 



L O N D Q N : 





LI a'ff ARIES 

STACKS gallon. 


TjlH quken victokia. 

prit^ce op wales,, f.ks. 

IVmc^mf — Tuv Duvt or NonracitBxitLASD, E.G. D.CJL. XiLJ>> 
Jftmorary 5f i*rfMry — Sju Fileokiuck UiiXHWELL, BiaT. D-C-L. F.U.B- 

llAHAOitna. 1880-90. 
WinihinCrrt:ki«,R«|. PR.?*.— T.P, 

Tb» KL htm. Sif WilJi»in EC »mw. 

Ma nnr f.r.s. 

VliEjiim H II vat at. Kan. D.C-L- IJ^-D. 

Uow. JaLn Uflpnpnf Ikt, A1,A. 

WlllJniii lli'nry t^^v^^a^^ VJti, Y.XtJ^ 
M IbtL O.R. 

Uni ATtlirirlliii*.lL-r,r. 

Tjbitow. 138'J-00. 

All^l I'ftTpiniirl. Ku]. 

Ul|i*rli9 UuwKtilt}. 1:kj, M. [n"t C,K 
John llnf>LEih«iri, F^ij, M.A^, 

Vjfl/^ lliitrlfj, K«q- F.R,!!- FR.CXR 

Artlinr Wimnni ItUrkiir, Km, M»\, 

John Bdl SMrwirk.KiKi, J,P, F,R-0,S, 
Ttiomu Rdwiiiri rh^iti-i\ IC-4, Fh.U- 


Mr r.M 

'b Viticiiiil. 

..,J .T^ ,.f.fu< .' .'rrfo/y— Ml. Ht^tiry \oUlig. 
^ntffaVirf iM fAr rA'^ijir^iiM^i/^irrr < — Vr N ^ Lxiiiioi. mill Hf, J. W. lluktb. 



■ ' > 





}uL 21— €i& William Thomson.— The Sun'a Heat.. 1 

„ 28.— W. Baldwin gpiNQsa, Esq.'Tho Pioe&l Eye in 

Lizoraa 22 

Febi 4. — Edwin Fkebbfield, Esq. — Some TTapablished 

R«Gorda of the City of London 28 

„ 7, — General Monthly Meetiog ,. ,. .. .. 31 

„ 11.— Epwjbd B. Poulton. Esq.— Gildod Chryealidefl .. 33 

„ 16. — WiLLUH CuooEEs, Esq. — GenesiB of tbe Elements 37 

„ 25, — Captain W. tb W. Abnky.— Sunlight Colonra .. 61 

March 4, — Victob Hokslet, Esq.— Bwdn Sorgcryin the Stone 

Agea 72 

„ 7.— General Monthly Meeting 73 

„ 11. — The ViN. AncHDEicoN Fabear. — Society in the 

4th Century A.D, 76 

„ 18» — Geobob John Eohanes, Esq. — Mental Differences 

between Men ftod Women .. .. .. 78 

„ S5. — The RmuT Hon. Loan Ratleiqu. — Colours of Tbm 

riatoa 81 

April 1, — pRopcBSOK Drwau. — Light »b an Analytic Agent 83 

„ 4. — Geneml Monthly Meeting ., 01 


1887. PiLge 

April 22.— Sm FaxDiRiCK Abil. — The Work of ^e Imperial 

InstitDta 99 

„ 29.— FRontBSOB H. 8. Helb Shav. — The BoUing 

Oontaot of Bodies 130 

May 2.— Aimoal Meeting 133 

„ 6. — Thouab Lauder Bruvton, M.D. — The Element of 

Tmth iD Popular Beliefs 131 

^ S.^-General Monthly Meeting 136 

„ 13.^J, S. BuKDON-SAifDKBaoN, MJ). — SoDie Eleotrio&l 

Fiflhefl 139 

„ 20, — Bksjamuh BAsn, Esq.- Bridging the Firth of 

Forth U2 

„ 27.— Edwaw> E. Elbih, MD. — Etiology of Scarlet 

Fev» 150 

June 3. — Davio Ghx, Esq. — The Applications of Photo- 
graphy in Astronomy .. .. .. .. 158 

„ 6.— General Monthly Meeting 173 

„ 10- — Thouab Hodgbih, Bsq. — A^oileia, the Frecnisor 

ofVenice .. .. „ .- -. -. 175 

Jnly L — General Monthly Meeting .. .. ,. 178 

Not. 7.— General. Monthly Meeting 181 

Dec, 5. — General Monthly Meeting -^ -. .. » 185 


Jan, 20. — The Riobt Hon. Loan EAtLvoH. — Dif&action of 

Sound 167 

^ 27. — JoaiFH THotfBOH, Eoq.^The Explon^tion of Maefti- 

Land * 199 

Feb. 3. — Fbank Cbibp, Esq. — Ancient Microeoopea (no 

AhBlract) aOl 


^^^^^^^F ^^^^^V 


^B Feb. S.^GottQnd Monllly Halting » » .. » 

901 1 


la— W. H. P&KflccEAq.— S^otrlArDpiinCollieriM 

2(14 1 


17. — Sin Hexuv DLiL-TTiiN- — ^omn DcrclcijimaaU of 
BugliMb Pottery iLnriiig lliu lut fiftj juiru 

212 1 


nu&ater Abtx7 

317 1 

^H UAiGb 3.— O. Mrmorr Ta>T, Em}. — Pvieoiu md Poisotiiaga 

t£JO H 


$,«-Gi<titMHl Mtttitbly Ufwting - 

230 1 


9,— L*Lnt &?Ti3'iiiv, Emj. — S- T. G^londtfo .- 

2Sd 1 


ttibutioD of Coral Iteefo ik&d Idftudji 

251 1 


39» — 8m FajuiKMCtf Biuiiwei,l, — A LlmjIuto wfih, — util 
vFitboDt, — point [ntf Ahalrarij 


H April 

, 9.— OoDoroI Monthly Uooling 



I8l — PBorvuoii FiiWEfc. — Tie P/^j Boom *rf Mm 

'2C6 H 


SO. — Tim RjonT IIoH. Sm WiLLriiB IL Gnort, — 

284 1 


ItftchinM .. .. ., 
1. — AdoiuJ Uooiujg 



^- — J. R* LACuOTOif, Eaq-'-TLoliiTiiioibloAnabda; & 
ToroooUnuy itotrovpoot .. 



7. — GdOflTBl Monthly M(*>ttrLg . 

SZ7 ■ 


11. — Pkonnoi W, Ciuadlka EoiicnTB-AtT»rK)i. — Souhr 
onrious prupcrrticH of McULi lUiJ AHoyB 

307 H 


18. — M. Al-rnoirvt Bir;«AiiD. — La rcitfoiiiicttoa u1i£oittllo 

d(M rociI)u« ToIofti]ii}ueiL (it ^Vta^A) 

HSi} ^^1 




I.^Photemoi J. A. Evnra.— Eui>jqiii]ieAaj:id bow Ia 

n 00NTKNT8. 

1888. Page 

June 4. — General Uonthlj Meeting .. .. ., ,. 3G4 

„ 8. — Pbofebbob Dbwab. ^ Phosphoreaoeoco and Ozone 557 

July 2. — General Monthly Meeting „ „ ,. .. 370 

Not. S.^General Monthly Meeting .. ., „ „ 372 

Dec 3.— (jenoral Monthly Meeting ,. .. .. .. 37G 


Jan- 25. — Pbofebsor G. H. Dabwin. — Meteorites and the 

History of Stellar Systems 379 

Feb, 1.— Pboftobor W. 0. MolNToaH.— The Life-History 

of a Marino Food^Fiah 384 

,» 4.— General Monthly Meeting 403 

„ 8. — Sib Willuii Thohbon. — Eleotroatatic Measnre- 

njoftt 561 

„ 15,— Pbofkhhob a, W- EtrcKBB.— Electrical Stress .. 406 
^ 22, — Eabold Gbiohton Bbowke, Ea^, —In the Heart of 

the Atlas (Ahitraci deferred) 409 

March 1.— Edhund Gobbb, Enq.— Leigh Hnnt ,. 409 

„ 4,— General Monthly Meeting ,. .. .. .. iOO 

„ d-— PnorEBaoB Olitbb Lodob. — The JMscbarge of a 

Leyden Jar .. .. ,. .. .. 413 

,, 15- — SiB Jaues N. DoDOLASS.^Beacon Lights and Fog 

Signals 425 

„ 22-— Eadwea&d MuTBBinai, Esq, — The Science of 
Animal Locomotion in its Relation to deaign 
in Art (illastraled by the Zoopradscope) {no 
Abstract) 444 

„ 29. — A. GoRDOff Salamon, Esq.— Yeast 571 

April 1.— General Monthly Meeting .- .- -. 445 

00HTBNT8. Til 

1SB9. Fsge 

April 5. — The Ret. Canok Ainoee. — Trtto and ¥als& HDmour 
in IjitGniuTo (no Abstract) 

„ 12- — Tbe BiOHT Hon- Lord Ratleioh. — IrideBceDt 

MiL^ 1. — AdduoI MoetiDg 

,t 3. — Sir HKsiiT E. Rose oe,—^A1u minium 

„ G, — GcDcral Moutlily Mooting .. 

„ 10.— PnoFESBOB Dewab.— Optical Propertiee of Oxygen 
and Ozone .. 

„ 17.^Pkopeb8oh SiLTANDB P- THOUPflON. — Optic&l Totqu© 474 

„ 24.— The R^. S. J. pEaBi,— Tbe Solar Sarfaoo dnriog 
tba last ten jeara .. 

^ 3L — Pflopessoel Dehktri Mendel^ef. — An attempt to 
apply to ChemtBtrj one of Nevton's prinoiples 

June 3. — General Monthly Meeting „ 

,, 7.— AnoHiBALD Geieie, Eaq.—'Recent Reaeflrobefi into 
tbo Origin and Age of tbe iligblandii of Scot' 
land and tbe West of Ireland 

y, 14.— C, V, BoTa, Eeq. Quartz Fibres 
Jnlj 1.— General Monthly Meeting .. 

Nov. 4. — General Monthly Meeting ., 

IXc, 2.^Gonor*l Monthly Meeting - 

Index to Volumes !• to XII, 













!a;v g: 

^ ' t 

V. ^Vjb*^^^" ^^^^^^ E*i.-Tlh? Si'i^uw 
.l-'-'"-' " 

( yi» ) 



Hap of the Britiah Empire (Qaoeu's Jabilee) ,. „ „ 99 


aoval fn^umim of QStfal Bdtam. 


m, Eiq. D,aii. LLJ>. TM&. &Uiuger au^ Vio«< 
I'Kmdiwt, in tho Chair. 

Tnoiwdx, LLD, F.ILa ACBJ. 

tATTUL m]L»Qi-jti ir ma mfUHn or vluhit. 

^MHt haniAO litatoiT «0 knoti' thai fcir mvotaI lliotuaQd jroara Uio 
miQ hM li«afi giTing bi«t uitl Itt^ht t-i the o^rtL oa nt iitc#t^ia. pmaibly 
Kilh Ham<i aunudcT&liln duutiuiiitf;** uid p^jmlIjI/ Aith »oi)ii.i jn^t v<iry 
■tmnll jiro^eBfiivG vMriilioi). The n<<x)n.lBi cf ugrii'itUtiro, md ili« 
Diktani hifltorj- of pIaqU ^u'I antmhU wtibm 11^^ tiiuu vf honuut 
hivtoiT, abCDnd with oTidonoc thnt ihcro Iim booti no oicoodingly 
f[rcAt chutgo in tho inteiuitf of the wm!^ bcot aud light wiLhm tlio 
Inut UiTW Uumattfid jubtH ; hat tor all iLul, iLtru luuy hnvn Irivin 
TttflACiMl* of qiiitt> M innoh vi ^ or 10 pnr cnnL^ an va itiiiy jddgo by 
ooDSidoruig thftt iha tnUUjiity of tho itolor rftdibticin to tho ioslh in 
CJ por cvnl gTCfitor In January thiui in Jtily; luid iicdthi^r M tho 
oqafttojr HOT in tho uur^eiru ur tKiuUioru tciulbj^hcrcti hw» [hifl dltfor- 
«n<w 1ki(>ii tlittr^j^TArAi] hy «xperi6Doe or genenhl i.ili««rvblir?ii of atij 
ktQiL Hut ui for tho mor^ A(;&of the sui>, irrcHpfict j vc of tho (^uoetiou 
4)^ diifonaitj, vo have proof of aom«ltiiiig vootlj moro tltiui Ihroo 
tluiDiudycftni in gwlogi^ul hiaWr^, with ita irrefEngAblo oridoaco <if 
(xll]lil]mtJ^ of lif** on tho earth iu tunc jjoat for iuuh of tbuuukndAj uid 
prohfthly for inillianfl of yeftnu 

U«iTO| tlMHii VTO bthTQ a splendid cchj^ot for coDtMnjilaTion tad 
rcKATob is Ndtor-j^ rtilomphy ur Phyeica — tha »;icuco of dcud 
mutter. Tho J»ua. u tuvru tii«ou ufniia^Mr uf Ibc moduratu dimniiHiiJQH 
which we know it ta bnTo, Imimdfid all nncnd by cnlj ether,* baa bi^aa 
doisff work at the rate of four hundred and e^venty-BiE tbonaiuid 
B^U^ niliion miUioti bono-powor for tbruo thoowuul joors ^ ud «! 

* Itk* nm WMBM aud It^hiji tbn w-rtTi hv kav^ Ewiioo. «ijdt«d Ln virla« of 
bUttbilA-bottflnpcnliiRk nnl inniintEb'l ihTnuicii ftfnftti^teleonmAnJy aUheI 
Ibo 1ucJvlfr4na* Mhn, vblctj fllli hit >^iu.ii u fia m Iho ivdMoat itifcr, mnd luu 
flio pfvpciif vf tidDMbitticijc ndUitt hc«t (at llsbt) wllboat ib^f btoxalm 
bMtcid t i«l ihKi I Ittvp ■■ right Lo drop 1bd«d{MlivftliiimiufoicnihhMfcUM 
the iDoJkM; U.r frlnvQ thu aarUi^A ■nrfM^, ibfdogfi i»hi«b *« m«im Mni-btMl 

;««]i8tLl> end ItirmiiEh vLmH [U< pUuiibi inovH. wm nJIcal Mhrr VOCHI yven 
Mtire tbmlMi luurjwl tlio uuisr T^f "hi^plrdrf^ i*t!icr.*' <* 

'nmnnilri eihof.* and 

vlher CUnpuuliLlii. fmciuifullT tupmvol 1/-^ In? jkojalUrli f<tJkF>na], atiil I tf ml Limt 
ckvuM* ef t^K t'rcAf (it Jaj will dov T^ ^^lEry ^iIj m^ li I use it.t vurd tllriir, 
Hfo ked Mmjtl4« to dtiuitu titc niKtiam vboH aodaUtofy iDotit>iki oaniliLutd 


Sir fr£l^«n TkomarAt 

[Jw. SU 

pMdbly a liigher, cortmmly not nmrh Inirer, nbu fir % few tnilluin 
yoiLTK. Qow it ibiit lo U> <<ipUiiiiyl? NHtunl philtwuphy uftonM i^vudu 
tlio qurbtic>:ii luid tio (>L)jbkM»t vrlio U tiJjt crigH^udiii Irjiik}^ to uiahvcr 
il c^a bibvo imy 4>llicir jufttficJutL^'U tLan ihnt LjU wLi4b wturhiug tiuuo 
\h <K-cti)»J4jd Aitli wurk bu »omc utlK^r lubjix t or HubjvctA i>f lus 
privinc^ by which lio liua luuru h^pu of (whig kIjIq U iuItilik^ EtH<*iji<fi. 

It may ha Ukeri m flU «>jUUt«fK><i rottnU of i«Ei<in1ttiu iit<{i];ry that 
th« BUQ ie ncif a burmng Hic, and td merely a whitu hi>t Suul luaua 
cwl[xi|{, witlj. ftOLUo littiu acc(«fii<tu of fic^b cavigy by cauKui^rH 
ociywiciiinlly fftlUug in^ but of vtiy nnukU iiPooUHt Ui iminjiariHuii with 
tbowboJc uoto-gy of Li?at whioii be j^tefcoulfruiu year t.» y-.-AT. HollO' 
holtx'rt iiytia »J llio luut^oriu tbc^ry <if tliu on^iti <•{ tbu sui/b \^^lAt^ 
liany be ikCoi^{>ti;J Jie L»viug ttic Iiighusl iS^gre^ i^t^ H:ii.iiitiEc probability 
tljuL cAii bt; ii»« k> luiy utisuuiptivu rcgujiHug <K;tiou5 i>f ^i^ihlfi- 
torio tiiim*- The* k>Ji*niiiliiiI |iririi'iple if Ihi- otjjldiiAtioTi ii Ibi*; ftl 
simiv littri'id i^f tjuitfi loug pn^I, tbu faun's initiitl bbbt w«« ^uniiriitfid 
by tli4 <M>llLAiuu of |>iei;o8 of matter j^aTitationally utlmcLoa itfgothot 
fruiD ilutAiit H]>aix^ to buill up bis iirct^ul uut^ai (vdU tJniakagQ due 
tr* ccuHii^ f^iv'^N through ibo work d^^iki by Uio iruiEuul gmvitibiou uf 
ftll parttt of tbi:> ^hriukiiig uifLas, iLo vubI huiit-faiofh^o riLpueily in 
virtue li \t'liL{j]i tin cooling h^a been, and oontiLUt'S to bi\ e<> t^tow. 

Ill jhJiuo oiborwUo cxcolloQt b»kB it id " ^.irodtviii^ly '' tttatcil 
that tbu ALIU Ih bcH.'umiug holler b^.^causo of the uoudeuruitioiL* Fium- 
iloXi'H havi) Tio pliuu III soicuix!. TJi«ir rvmovjU le tba NiibrititiiUoL of 
truft for laliut tiatewvuU lUid thoiigbt^, not dlnnya bo easily 
oflootod vtM in tbo prosv&t onnc. Tko truth b, that it is bccauac tho 
bUU U bcvouun^ loee Lot in ptaen 0/ vijual ttcjuifjf tbut Uin 
irjutfi l« allovod tu ymld gnbhuLlIy iiu<1tir tlii.* uoiich^nmiijj b^cidtuicy 
of gmvity ond thut from ngo t^t n^e cijiolin^ and condQTuatioTL go on 

Aa OHacutidl diltul (ri IdiiliuholtK'a theory of dol&r beat ia lliot tbe 
VUii uiu»t bu fluid, bui;auBO ijirou Lliough givuL at auy mt^mtnil hut 
ononnh from the siirToce t** lUiy doiith, boworor grant, inifardfl, Ui ba 
brLlliantly iii(^ut]d<.^«4caut, tbu 04.iDJai.<tioii of bout from within tbrongli 
auijd lunttor of wiu tUo hi^b<ist ooi^diit^tLug qunlity known to m, 
vroiilil uut enfQcu tu lunintEviii the luciitLtUieccLce of Haj aurfucQ for 
Inoro th&ti a faw hjur^* uftor wbiuh all woiihl ho ilarkuoHd. Obrt'irvt- 
lion coiLfiriuB this Doocluaiou so far ostlio oDtvriLrd nppeflmitce of the 

• [KMOflf H'obnutry 2!, 1SHT-— The" T>inj(3rin " njfwrcd lo burr. \a. no I how 
And. npffljr a mi»-sUTnniiHTi( (fanliy nnrl ninnir.'iMj panKloxirol IJiiouwh Ihn 
omlnioa of an e^oallal DocntUJiiu) of an uaLouialiEiLg aitti an*i ltiitn'riii-\ii am- 
oluvioa of A puiirr by J. Uoaint Laai>. wtiJch npFmicd hi tbit * Amurji.-au Jounul 
of tieteiicft for July 1^70 (roftrttd to moru piLrliiuJ(irl» vu \t- Jl b-i|*fw). la 
M4 iVH^,.iLjlj'.i l^';1ltlllr VnrrDTtdiu^/ fifil MUUjIj, p, 5DJ^. tha oininBioEi ia lUppUnd 
In 1^ ••■i\:\rt,-, ';. (,!.' .1 ("ii IIP pn|.uEi>r tiplAnnll'Mi i>f ihn ilrriiimipt 'if LnTiri'i eon' 
rhjhL'tji , ktuii ihi' iLjlrji.^ii la tiimilarly aij'iiifiHHl hi RlU'i '^t'L^r «f Ihr Fli'nT[:itii»' 
Ifli. MJI. iO-. Jiiiii SD;*, *iiL i?iai|i1isrc m^ndiui^^o at ih« " pitnu^ln^./' And uw I 
Uki thifl (^iiforiDhity oT cotrx<t\D^ m; liojly i^oirDoliLra of tho " [Jiuudok " bj tba 
iotarticia vf Ihu flw vnida m itaiuM adJud toliuQ ijof tho pwiihgrapb- — W- TO 


«v fot^ TMtrn A0O, Ihftt tho «an u a nolid duoIous inoJcaod in 
• Am4 of tioUittUf witAUd d43w. In re^tT, Ibo ckatlor of U» 
«rtn iLoU of Um vui. Mm whBdi lb« Lnl id mdiatod oulwknU, lawt 
ife **^^"*g boDcifiui dctucr, and no Lcouiiiiti)^ iinninblc in Jta bigh 
^"^^ I miut fall <Iqvs. And hotter fluid frob wit^un irm^t roiti up 
its pLki«. Xli* tMl]iM»l«D0 currcnU tbllii oootitiaftllj pi^^ 

in tkU snwl mM* «f fl«2cbg laid conelitQle thft prorittc* of 

n »OM BUtl noro knoirI«d^ of tli« tciiuJ motioiift cf tho 
lI ifigndioalf, And of ILo fplouid tad aU-imjH>rl«Al rcvoltiiig 

Tb fom MHMi >d«n of Um aoi'miit »f Cho bnU vrlikJi fn hein^ 
tt/di^m^j emrrieA nnU* tli«twua'>4urfjuxiuid ndialud out ioloBpAov, 
nd «f 1^ flynAiuiciu raUtion* Utv»«D it and lh« coUir gnkrttetioo, 
hi M flitf diTiJ» Umt pri>diicioii» nsmW {I7G X 1^) <'' lKn»-i>0Hcr 
hj ibo aombof ^€1 x 10^*,* iif •qiuroDietrcft * in tbo «nn*« »iirfifc/>o, 
ud ve iiiid TH.OlW bonHV|Niwwr u the uicohvLkia] valaa of the mdio- 
im paraqtutr* mvir*. Iinft|^iL«s Ui«n, t1i««Dgw* of eight ironcluHi 
UflMtbj idi^ Boebuuioioi ooaQt]«M uhaSU, pallojB,»nd Ultd, to do 
ill fliM- ftT&il«tte work cf. d«j lO^OOO borvc-piimr 4r<ic1^. iit jwrjwtuit/ 
dnnng niw mu^ [iHldki In u fluid iMiulniiiud in » aqiiBm mAlrn 
Ttt Tift tbii'i b'ttt wonld bfi gJTf^n out trotn (ha aquMro rnctf** 
wrfaaa «f lb* floid w u givon «iit from ovoiy «ittiiire rtMsin of tho 
m'a aor&M- 

Bnt now lo pMi fern m practiollT uniioMiiUe coinltinAtioii of 
EM*, mad a pbjraitfally iiuj4>mibla {ivldU w\<\ fiuii] and contamiag 
d. toirardfl a mor* jirttCUcal aunbination of loat^r for prodaoicig 

A «qaam vttra b aUiul 101 (loon nc««tj 10'764> >l^An ft^i. or a 
V jaid and a Aflk (xa«* dWIj t'IfiO wiiurv janJi^ Tho aii.-iro St n 
tM thau 40 \M*h*m (39 3? ioobM - 3-k>^l fnt = |-im wdai Tho 
ittM^ 9%hA «■ «h«ll h>t« ca QM pf*M«lJ;» bvin^ a thouavd BMna, i> a 
ttUa a* it awn ('iBift tf tha BnUali rtatnu inilo). ThW la reund Aamt«n 
lie Bilai !■ OfuJ lo lOD kUomoOtai aod IQl kilomrtHa la vqual to KlO 

niilaa Tba aitfal v>d coacrgMirr trrij miiI niuLc of brain |Krwitf iovulivd 

bAtMaaf ibaBHliaAi nvaam of iaabf*, fori. jupU pfri^hiM. nr m4B,<pr jftt\M. 
'•UMtTAeriaaff*^ Btrtlinb klatut* uiloa, uauciaal uLlfm. H^iurv rr^L t^^oj Kjtuio 
iw4a)l rood {WIO «quaii> rhM*)! tfvn (1 mlaj. nu; tai myapfjli^, huf it i« 
ittlTafbrt of mj navn^ At QvI nKki-iitiiir LliaiTms am jn ihvtt, Ui ac^llTlLf 
ft Biiia pp— r por aqwcv lacb ur pv aiiuvm foot, tad hb ndiu^ aod iha oarUi'a 
btia la Dtltiah «iaUita nj]«, «ail fnr ming oBdadiTQlj (be i^oo- 
i nygtaai intrridaovd bf (ba FnuAh ainatjr j*ta9 mart, and now In 
M# In af«7 cAvlllaud Mnmlzy rtf th< wotIiI, mj^ppl tCne knd ikiid Uia 
thOMIIIabVof VtftJtAniaiica^ Tlio BiiUilt toLi la lOlG tiiiiia^i^j FivjicUtaii. 
«Mfbt itf ac«bi« iBOUoof «U aalca (I0t$ kdr>|T*oituc*). Tlie Prucb (un, 
tf Im kflovrannfa. la -9>4V of Ul< 8iia*b tm- Thti* f^r tavtr piaotnj 
ftiki^H^ •««b *■ IbMaaftha pN^rul pkp**, th« dillbrpiw* b*tiHWD Uia tin'lub 
Mftahwiab lo» mmj tot ik«I«v4. 
n *i _ 


9if WiUimm TJi^nMon [Jfto. SI, 

tL« Muno ctTiict: »ti11 Ittitop tlio iiU»1 vnt ikK^ pitiMlo aui fiiiid. but 

pt»n) Lhu val im LLo KurfiMic of a ciul, HulJd.liDiJiogtibCoiiA ^loLcof tliQ 
■wme HiKe (fll7,0LK) kilnmoti-Mi raditu) ne the mm, iLiid nf HoiiRtty (L'l) 
eijnal to Uie tun '£ mean iliiu^^il^', lr]btoa<t uf namg eteain-powr, Ivt tbo 
piuldlo bo ilrivcu by u woi^lit cloRovniltn;; in il yti ciottvaUhil lr«Uiw^tliD 
T»t. Aa lb« eimi'loat jiuebiblu mc:^bnjjijtiii, tj^ku u long lerlicAl dboftt 
with llie ii»<1<1lf? nrnuiiiiid cm tbu tii|i of it 6*j uh to itim hiinfflmunj. 
Let tliET freight be n mit wi.<rkin^ nn n fiort-w-thraai] on tbc vertitul 
Mlmfl, M-itli ^uicloe to pi-uvijut tbo tiiil frmn turning -tbe avrn^v anl 
tbo guides buiug jlU Abikjlatul^r frictiijuluAA. Lot lb« pit bo n metro 
■qoftTO ftt it« upper uml, uud kt it Ikj ticuviitijd i^idtc duwii U> tbo 
flunks oei}tr»> cvurywbere nf aqiiAru borUontal ri(?^iEon. iLud tfi[ieriiig 
UlifblTuIy to a pifiJil LTi tbe <«ntre- Li.'l iht} wuight Iil< sriii|ily lbf> 
«Ii»T>1<^i inntlor of tbo eim'a itiiuii^, wiLb luonOy n Uttl<i olcniunoo 
iijMOO butneeu it aiid tbc fotu ^dea of tlic pii, itnd witb ■ kil^iuctie k>r 
f» CTit off tbe UtwcT pointed tinl ti> nlliiw t^imcti for itH drttiinL Tb« 
tnn^ of tbiH vtrigbt i* ^'£f> Triillion Ij^tiA. Ita bonvitiew^ Uire4<-i|i|ATii?ni 
vf tbo hoavimi«0 of ftn o<^nal muui at tbd «ii»'a earfML(it ii» 244 laillion 
toDb Bcbur eitrfiLOC-btaviuccB. Now n bi>r«C'po>^-or i«, per bonr, 370 
jiH^tri'-'tuiiK, terri;«lriu1 mufjMxvLcAiiuctK ; or 10 luc^'i-tuuij, euliu' 
lLi)tfli^e-beiivii}i>nt^ bovnaee ■ ton of iiintter ts twoitty-si^Ton tiitiOH ua 
buvy al lb© sim's *urfi*0G hh %t tha o&rr.b^e. To dt> 78,000 borw- 
power, or 780^000 metre-tonji ardar Biiifaco-boaTirhBMi per bc'nr, oar 
Ht i|;bl lEiiist tbtreforo do0c<jid at the lato of odo metEe in 318 hoati», 
or nltihiit 3S ULcti'^A par yvor. 

To advfinc'O A»irtbi.Hr Bl^p, bLiII tli?oiigb irnprnotio^blti mj^Gbumifiiri, 
tovbrdfl Ibo priicttcal nietbcid by wbicb tbo Bou'ti haat ifi prodnood, lot 
t]]f tbrond of tbo BDFCw hv of aiiifonnXj dbcrcoBrng etoopncee from tbo 
»iLifnuo dvnuin'DkrdB, so tbat tbo wbKjl/ of tbu woJglat. na it in ftUcFrroJ 
Ui di.>«ifM>nr1 by tbo tniuiug uFlbe Borew, bIibII he in simjil^ pni^K^rtiori 
to ilitftntLi;!^ fi'on; the sna't ceatre. Thia will LdvoIpq ft uniform ooxt- 
duTjAAlion of tbo matctifll of tbo voi^bt ; but ft cundvufhntii^tn so ox- 
Cijcdiogly Hmnll an tbe oourso etcn of tens of tbcjuHHida of ycftte, Ibal^ 
wbatiiver b« tbo tupjiumxt uiLliirijib in&tal or Htoiii<. of tbo v^oi^t, 
tb^j 4.dHatio roBJBlnitoo agniiiflt tbe oondouantiun will be utterly ]m|i«r- 
coptil>lo IB flompntisou witb tbo gmviliitiomvl forcoe witb wbich wo 
arc concerned. Tbo work dona pur motrQ of doeoeiit of tbo top end 
nf tbu weigbt will hv jufit four-fi[tbe of nbat it vrpa wUou iha tbioiul 
of tbe ftorow wna uniform, Tbus, to do tbo 7i^/bK) horso-powor of 
work> tbe top or^d of tbe worgbt tQU&t descend at tb« nt^ of 3& lootrda 
por yrar: or 70 kilomotroB jtcr 2000 ycan^. 

Now lot tbo ttholo aorfaco of our cool eolid sun bo divided into 
nqiioreev for evuuiplu fts Dtarly lu (uhy b" of onw sqnriro inotro utirt* 

I, »nd lot the wbolo ninn; of tbo stiej bo divideci into louginroH^d 

nkmide or pointed role, oncb 6'}7,{}00 kiJomelrea long, ivith thelf 

poiuta mcotiog at tbo ooatr«. Let each bo mounted on u Bcrt>vt, oa 

ttlruody deacnbod fot tbtj luitg tA^jtitJug wdigbt wbiub vo iirst ouu' 

Hid(jr«u ; and lot tbe piidillo at tbo to]i ond of i^acb eci^^w-abaft rovolvo 


£. — G«non1 Honthtj If Mtiag .. 

, 10.— W. n. riKvcK* E^i-— S«i«t> Iaiu|« id Coniu ios 
t, li- — 6m HsxMv VoTVTi>». ^ SfonQ Devdopcneiit* of 
Engliftk Pott«rj (luring lh& lust ttUy y*mn 

VUMllor AblHQT 

„ l^,*-4)«iur»] VoQLh] J Heeling . .. . 

„ 9.— Lntn &TU-B«r, E*q,— 3. T, OoTcridgr} .. 

I6<— Jo«x MtJUAAT, Ea^.— Struetiiro, Origin, And Dift- 
triWtion of Cofftl Uixde and XatondB 

,, 33^ — 8tK FkKttKMcic rt«A«w>i,u — A T^x!lur« v\xht — And 

Apiil % — Ctnoml Moaihlj HootiAH .. 
n 13,— P»©r™»B Fu*wwi. — Tlw Pygmy lifter of M^n 
» 20.^Th() ItiGitr Bom. fitH WiujUi B. Qwy^ — 

Uftoluiioa 1. 

Sky 1. — ADnaal Hoeiing .. .. „ 

H 4. — J. iu Laiwitoji, E'q.— Tbc lanooiblo Amui^ : n 
Ter«cutctui7 Gctmapect .^ 

a 7.^0«B«ni M-mlM/ Mc^^tiog 

^ II. — PiboniMni W, CiUMiiLiii RuBBKTfl-AtiBTiii. — Sumu 
fiuriou8 pn>]wrt{f« of Mutulit ftuil Alloys 

V 18*— U- Alfsoku HivaaOw— Lft rvpnxltn^tion ftf tifidoU« 
doe rovliot Tolc«ai(|aDi, (in iVmcA) 

„ 25— Pli*»««0*Litioi, E«-l. — Portonfcl H^tntiAoftCion and 
Df cri pi^oa • ,. 

FfitMi L— 'PaovtMoa J> A, Kwt]to.~Euil<inAknviiI hov lo 
iVHwnn: them 









S « Sir WiUian Thtmtfm {Jut. fft, 

nd-1u>t on iti iippor siirfw^e, the wliole fiit full of 6iiid wtruU go on 

Oooliug witli etLrudK: )<.]jjvrui.iH8 imlil^ nft^r po^tiMy ftlhJiiL a inillinn 
million milliun y('At9 r>r bo* it wonM hu all nt the same lompftAtnrij 
An tl^o apooo to wLiob ite iippor end radiiitoe. 

Let preoiBcly whal v^a imvo Ijcxm ctJiiaiJaring be done for oTery 
(IDS uf our pyramiilnl rihle, with, Lowevnr^ in tlio fir^t pluco, thin 
p]LH)Hj.iii» of TTiHttf-T iinpi^rriiviiA U% lipjtt ^piirnfrng «very jnt from 
Its f(.>nr BiirrouiKlLBg nuigliboiira. PrtHrisely the Ukmn serivs of 
ovdpldOA vo LftTo been aonmiloring will take plwvc in crorj obo of iho 

t^iippi>B(i tlio wlinJf! lyimplpi miWH to 'h* rntiiliii(j; h1 t.Vi rato nf 
oncv roEiTkJ in twi^DTjr-livc daya, n'bicli is. nhoiil a« exnctly na ve kviow 
it) tbo timr^ of tho Eun's rotiktion about hia uia. 

Now at tho instant *bcn tho paidlo stops Id M tba p^rtilion* 
bo autiuUeil, ait iLat i1ier> «ltnJl bo purftct froudom fur cutrt^ite to 
ii*ivi imrftitatod in any diractinn^ e]jvi]>C ha f&r na rosisUHt by thn 
vtAcoeitY of tkio fluid, and Igavo llie ptoc!« of mnttor, wbicb wo may 
now Will the Bou, tj himBclf- Ho will imincdiAiely bc^ti ehowing 
Jill lL<] pLuuonicnii kuonu in HiJnr physice. Of ct^urao llic obsorirer 
iriighl )iHTO hi wftit • f'lw yimra fur snneprkln, Kfitl » ftiw ijuarlor* 
contunoa l(> dtecoTor jierioiin of aunapfiu, but lli^y wonkl, I thuik 
I may eay probably, all bo tbtiro jant ac thoy arc, boona^o I tbink 
■we may Icol tbftt it U most probnbfc that all thwHi actioiiB luo dne to 
tbo Huii'a owD fmbfltunce, and not tu eKttrtiul mflnuMi:vH uf any kind. It 
In, linwover, qnitti prwHiblc, and indeed injtny whn know mont nf tbfl 
mbjccl tbiuk it proJmble, thnl aomo of tho ohiof pbanomona duo 
to miUBpote ariBo from influioa of tnctooHo mattor oirallng rouiKl tba 

Tba crnoT^ of ohtjnical conibiiiatinu is ax notbing ixt[ti]ttri^ with 
lti« gravitntioncil energy of RbHnkngo, to vliioh the sun'a artivitj 
IB almoBt nboUy duLS A Iwdy falling forty-six kilometres to tlio 
ann's snrfncc vr ihrutiijh tft^r Run'fl olmovjrhcrri. Las as mncb work A<m& 
va ib by ^TBTlt/, ar» C'^rrT'fiponda ti* h bij^li odtimaLo of cUt«nio»l 
nnergy in tbe hnming of cnmbiistible mntorijils But chotniwd 
oombinationB and diBsooiihtioTis may, as nrgixl by Lookyor, in his 
bixtk on tLo *Chomislry of llio SuHj jnal now piibljEbcd, bo 
tborou^My pi.itont ilulormining inilucnooa ow flomo of the fc^turoa 
of uou-iLnifi»r[iiity of tLo bri|jbt;iL>u in tbo grand pbejioiuuuu frf huu* 
■pota, bydrrigeii fluiHOJi!, and onrj^tia, whiob nuiko thi* provinoe of Bolar 

1kby»n<«B. But tboa<> are (inotflioiie btdriiia;iiig to a vory aplaudid 
iraiicli of aolar ecioncc tu wLioh i>nly allLitiJon <m\ bo lun^a at thr> 
pri^Auut time* 

What I'rinremB ns as in iho oxptimatJou of BTin-ligbt and min-hoat 
may be smDmaiinud in two pr'ipositione : — 

(!) UipxntiiT <inrK<iilA tlir^n^tiont thi^ eun's ]iqii)<i nuas are con- 
tinually inJkiaUiuvil by fjiitili bitgbtly receded by rmdiatiou fallliif^ 
down from thci Kitrfuer, and boltar lluid nisbing np to taka ita 


OK the .Suq'« ifnal. 

(3) Tbo work dona in iuiy time by ti^t maltiol gravitoUoa of ftll 

(lie [ArU of tha fluid, jki il BhiiiiJui in Tirtuc of thcr lanmng of ita 

LlemponUiuv, i« l?ut IiUtt li^u thiuj (ho litllfi Ituui iliau, tliuL vru miky 

Its* pTu*-t1fb^11j iH]na\ tA) tb» t^yiinmit-Al {K^nivnlnnl of Ihe bout 

bl is ndiftttfd from tbo aqq in the aam^! tinux 

The r»ta of iihniilugo contsp<iadij;f; to tho prount raU> of 

ikr iwliAiiou Uu bcisu provi^d tij u», lij Uiu otninidtiralbu uf our 

|iAjnAnit<ui) tii<Hl<<t, til \m SUt mt^tm* au llm ntfVnttt itvr year, or uiiu 

>ujai}dUi of it« otrn Icn^h on llin radiiui jht two thnnumd 

Ucuoo, if tLo aolftf nuliAtion bu boon Abfiit tlio nnina tu at 

ire«c&t for t'wo hundred thouAnud jcnnv liin ziLiliop mast bavu been 

hgn;&ti-r by uuu jwr otut. Lwo liuudnvl Ihuiimuil yr-ar& u^'u iLiiu at 

irounL If wo with to carry onr oaleiilntioTifi imioh furtbtr hack or 

LrwAfd thou two htnidrod ihcusKnd yaan, wa muat rookcin hy 

UsRDMM of tL« mipruc^ of iho tfuoe rndloot oud txct by dif- 

e[m|>1y <it tLo mliu», to tvk? i.uti' bcuutiut tbtr cbani^ uf 

ty (whirh, for AT»infiU\ wonid \it* tlirw pi^r i^^nt, fi.»r onu jit>P 

l&L chwigu erf tha ra*litu), ThiW the nilo, cjwdly vorkc^d out 

to thti |iniioipl«» iUuDtTAtf^d by oar moobncioal model, ia 

aa] diflVjraraw of lbi> rno-ijiroonl of tbi> rwlitifj o~»rroHi>i>r]d ti> 
^n&l qqancitiH af lic^t rftdmlcd anay from million uf juaxu ta 
RuIUoiti of yuanL 

T&kc two oJCAoiplW'— 

(I) If in ]j«j^t Itmij Ili«r« ba« bociii *« taucb ft« flJtoon xnlllirm 
tnt* tbn boAt rftdiolfid from tbn hdh wi i« at prtiwiit rddiatciil nut in 
COM jt^f, Ul^ •oLlt rodiiu mu«t havo bvun four tiiii^ ut gr<oftt as «t 

{':£) If ibo •»»'« eOcctivo t^oraud i-afncity cati bo mftbtelaeil 
ly uirbt] 

kifp; tJU twi'-iity uiillitni timcii Um |ir(;a«iit yoaj'fl ftoioDnt of 
t U ndiAted MWiy, tbti buh'ic radiiiH muvt bu bnlf tibat it i« tmw. 
t it It lo bft mtoftrkud tbut thu doa«)ty wliioh tUu wuull iicply^ 
Wng 11-9 tiifioe tbo dvosity of wjktor, »r jt^»t About IIxj ikuAity 
fif liilU probably too cmt U> hIIuw tW frc^ jihniikaifo a* uf a 
ling ^a bl bo «til) oontiiiaml wjthoat obKLructiii:t tliruugb ovnr* 
<v4ing of thb tntj1f>cu1<«. It iM4<iait, tlioivforts tuiMit pn.ibfiblo 
tbftt vo cA&&ot for tbo fu1ur« rocki^n on muro of fu>bir nidtnlii>n 
D, if 00 much M, t»cuty million tlai«# tbo fimonnt At iirmotit 
imtfil out in ft yi»r. Jt Li aIm^ to bo rcm^ifkcd tliut tbn i;rcntTy 
inifthud radiating «iiHWw, %t a iLuch lovtir tviniviutiiro. wuuld 
give out ftXLtiviaLlj niach Iom hMt than tbo tmM m bU |>ro»uiit 
ooBditiMi IC^TC*- Tb43 Mm4 ooTudtlontticni lt%\ Ncwoomb to lUo 
COBcJmiuO "thai it i» Lozdly likely Utai tbo Ban can ooittinao to 
glTO mttciMit haftt lo «npport lifv on tbo uurtla itmvh lifu uh wu ijuw 
9JQ M)i]tti&|i«d will), ftt L«ut) far t&n miDiim yo&ni fVoni tbo jhronetit 


lit iJ] omr CAkulAlioo* hitherto wc have toe lamplicily tftk«ii 
doiuity ft* auifijnu throagtunit, luid njnikl to tbc Lniv uicftQ 


Mt the Sana tTcal. 

oofluAutlj rttdi&tmg oat heftt &1 Ibc 4chinl rftl« of ll;« bia's beaU' 
siTing bCtlTily. Lvl us uont voaKi*l'>c % liulv niuro iii iluUul di« rml 
Ihroni and mtTcmnntH nctiiatly nomumnd in ihtj proorac of coolJn^ 
hy t«d±*licni from tti^ titt^nuoat rrgioo of iLo eeid, tbo frUing mwu^a 
cf tli« flvid tbne ooolod, tLc couBuqiKsut miung up of the vbL>lo hum 
<of ib^WDi. tho r»a1tiuic ^ImiutAboJ «lABli« f««UtKQoo to preoourtf in 
'•qol-JmM |>ArU, ftni] llio mruvnincnt mhruikagi> of tbo whole BiftM- 
iiDd«v tha inllannfFo cif mutml graTitation. I iDitat flrat oipljun th^t 
thii " dftvtio ronaU&QO to prtttsuru " in eIoo to 1)43*1, and iii, in fact, 
vbftl I faftTc, in tho p7«Mait Lootiira, coUod ^'8ir Uui»phrj Burr's 
IvpiiLuta motion" (p. S). I Oftllod Jt ao bccaoso T>arj £r«t tiwJ tLo 
ip pfta M fun "mpTt1i(irA mntion" Ui diw-tibn tfar Ann mUimioWTiUp 
inohoDf to nliich bo on'l otli«r fbimdcni of tho Kiuotio TlioorT of 
U««t httnbotcd tLo ulikdlio TwiManoA to ooinprcWitan prcnuUtoJ by 

Jnu^fio, ififit'ttt) ai ih^i AtoTDfi uut mi^rlocalos of cho vnrioiis 
«nlw£ATLoi?B vhioh Cfitutitutc tho ftnu'« nini-c^ a va«t numbftr of «laatio 
globed, hko EchoolboyH' mntblcs i^ billiiurd hJIa, Conndur tint, 
ftiirvberc on cur i^trtli a fuw millu^n ritioh biillA put iuto li rooia, 
lftr;.'u viJi>u|£li U) hi^M u lhiiii>siiil tiii;i» iLcir iiumb^T. wilh j-flif^tly 
linri waIIii iLEifi rciling, Imt tyith a ml wo4>tdi door ; or, vrhnt vanM 
be ctilj mi>re tonviniont fur onr pnrpott*. n tltWT of tbin tiloHlti: tbuut 
Bt««J« anpporkd br joiaU oI^4'.< <njiju^]i U>;-cllior tii prciTiiul it fri>iD 
dn»piui; LDOcmTuuivutlr lu ^jiy pMt Su|4]h>«c m tbo Wginuin^ tljo 
fnarbl™ U» ha lyiTip nuitintiliw* on ih<i floor, lu tbin tiundition tliey 
rcjirvH-nt tKv atoma of a gri*^ km for inttiLcot^ oiyg^n. iiitritgi^u. or 
ifaydrogvjn, [i)>t»>]i]tcty dtpriTcd of h^nU u^d ttiorotVrre lyiui^ frowTi, 
or as noloculnr dit^b ttr^vfo on th') dovr of Iho ctiiiUining Tt^flol, 

If novr a Ump bnnppliinl (MiLow^tbo niygcc. aitrufruu. or bydrogon^ 
t|ho mMoncA hoooming wonnnJ by haikt condnoUc] ihruri^li thr.< flnior. 
Ewill ru« from iu c«jnditK<n cf [ilwuilntoly cold ttolid. or of iTicohvrenl 
fiDolecuUr dnet, and will nfiTEixik nq a j^aa tbfouAli t^o wliolo fiiicbiKvl 
If utoro ajjd inorcr bi^Hi bi> aippLici] by tbo Iaoip tUo prcMura 
thn gaa ontwunU in nil clirrtriiDnH agiLiuat tbu iavido of tho 
lolodng vobmI vriW hpcomc grMt^r and |^al«r. 
Aa a rwlo moohunicaL analocni* lo ttu* varmiog of a gaa by hMt 
[•ooudurted ibron^ Iho door of iU contauiintr tomoI, from a laup 
tn\A b^luw it, n:lDm lo out toota with floor i-tromi witb mnrUoftt 
iaftd employ Horkmon tn go bolov tho door and atriku itd uiiib'nddo 
■ ervat mauy plawi v«hoiDcnl]y with maU^t^ Tlio mnrbUit in 
iimodiato C'>TiUot wilh tho ll'>or will bo^n to jump frnin it nnd fnU 
iar|pljr Lack a^u iliko watH^r Id a pot on a fire HiioroDting bflfom it 
m). If tLo n'otkineii W(»rk cmnrgnlimlty f^itou^^b tbctu will tm 
anil mora of commotion in tho h««p, till ^tery 4tii« ttf tha billi 
;tc< into a Atabo of trrogiilar vibration, trp and dovn, or obliquely, or 
'ninnlhlly. bol io no fiiol diroclLon ; nnd by inulnal jooUini: tbo 
hi-Ap iwoUh np Ull ihv cinlinp 1/ tho nxrm prcvcutrt it tt\iia Bwi-llinu 
ly fcrlbor SnppcH* now thr dcinr In b<urrmir, Uko Ibo wallt and 


Sir Witlifin Thfimmm 

[JftQ, 21, 

Milin^^ nbnolutcif H^d. Tbo ^orktnt^n may omua (lioir work of 
hjimmcricig. which would uotr be no more nT^Iing U^ *»piiout tho 
ui'ili'xH of llie niurMtt8 wiiliin, iHji wuiilL \y^ h Ihui]) ihf»jilio(l uiii^Me 
to wftrm tlift ivmtfinls rif a Vfisffl^l, if tlio \cfiwil were tn*do of iHral 
xoiiUot impcirmonbio to boAt. 'I'iiD marbluB boing pericwlly olulio 
vill ooQtmuc for crcr * flying about in tboir roum etriking tLc valla 
Uid flour nud cuilijij; iitiJ vuv uuolLcr. hjjiI reimidDiu^ ul a ixkualaiut 
AfAfage kl|] Jitioii uf <l(M]A[>r pni^vil jiifit DV€ir tbe llour lUiii lofls nnd 
less doTiB^^ up to tbo ccUibg. 

In tIJB **oTi6tflcl nTom;;<i condition il^o oTcmgc Tolodtj of tbo 
untitles will lio iLb erune ftU tLrougb tlio cru»d. from cuiliug t> floor* 
kiid will b" lid miTio fn nil ilirictJoufl, Lihri/nijiiliJ, or TvrlirAl, ur 
iiiclin^, Thft continually rfpoatcil hlfiws upon ftny part of the 
wpJU ;kr Cdiiing wilj tti tho apf-ro|^te be cquivakot to a ocmtmtioim 
proBBuro wliicb will 1hi ia Bimpla proportiun to ttic aTcraj^o doufiity 
v{ iLv unfiiil ub llio j>bbc(i. Tliu ^jjiiiuutiou of |iruBtiiu'G imd douuL/ 
frum tlm floor upwiirda mil bn prrriHrly tbn noma aa thai of the 
douBity and prciuBa™ cf our atmosptcro oalculnlod on tlj© tupposirioa 
of cquul tcmprrutiiro ftb oil hcj^LN, noootdiug to tbo woll-kuowu 
fvtiuiUA uud ulrk«4 fi.<r Iludiug bvi^Lta by tLo Inruumter. 

Id rotLlity llii^ Irtujuinilmii ttf tlid Hl,]]i(if>jt)i(iro it* vicl nrdform fntm 
tlio groTind iipwnnlB, bni diminiHlicK At tlio rnti.' of ikJiout 1*0- for 
Avcry I'i'J motrtMi <:if vm-tioiil niicciit m fi^^o Air, uiidiaturb«l hv munn- 
tttiu0« (kctiordiii^ to obec^iYntiuiia mudu iu InUIooha by thu uto Mr. 
WcMi. ofKon, Lliroitgb» liii>;i.i nujjitu of iKii^blH. T))i« dJiiuQutioa 
of l**mpprulurp Tipwards in our lrrrc*triftl ntmoBplKTre in mnst iinpflii^ 
tnut And MuggrvliTo m rDspuot to tliu oonntitution of Iho aoIat 
ik1mi>ipboroi mu\ til>1 munOy of tbc uttDufffi^uro or outi^r abMl of tba 
miii^ but of tlic whole: inWicir iluirl tuilk; Vkkli wliicb it i« contiiaxtitR. 
Tbi^ twi) rjMiM Imvt: eo laucb in coiamun tlmt tbcif; iti [a cucli orvii? lonn 
of bmht from tbii oiltt^r purLsof tho atti>oaph^rt> by rn'linbion intk KpA««t 
Aod tbftt in <i'in««qik<u<M»<'ircnlAtiu^<!nrrvoteAr(i piLH^ict'd tlirou^h Uiu 
couliriuoiie Anid. hy vrlncb u tLoroii^b iiiiilnjj; up mid duxvu i» 
roiLhlnTitly pnrfoiined. lu bliD cnse cf Uio torieatrlAl (ii^m^ppbvrc ilio 
liiwrit purtA nrtrivi^ by rtuitoct boat fnim tho mlid tnrtTi. wuriiu'd 
lUily by thv ftUri'« riLtliAti'^n. On tlm ^ivt^rit^ itf uigbt mul dhy, H0 
thu lur ik«G ui>t hoDomo wArmor ou tbi] vLok, it irLimt riLdiiil^^ oi^tintci 

• Tci juatiff Ibis ilAtflinflni I nnwt wnpfl th'y rrviilM ihnl thp Idoul pDjfi'^lly 
»]iu(l& lalUvlnrlh «e 01V liniffitiln^ iDiitl t>p>auppo«Hl •nmcihow tnbfivi^ vDoh n 
«CTn<^itm lliLit mch takfv adI^ a rii'IlTittc avi^rmfi* proponinn of lu nlmrc of ibn 
LiTLciLr i-mruv *if Lbt! wUnk- muUiludu. "u tJiul uii IhiT nvuini;<' Lin:"' U ii coiivUiut 
P^£i|ji>rli.»j ii( vii,.t-:y Eti tliL- fn-ii>1til'>ry fn(>iiriTH"jf iIk. 1»uIIb : thi* ntlior imrt bdip;r 
ih'i Tibmtiiiy or njtuU'Hint ieicAi'>iih <ff !hu hqpU <if tr*nli Vnll. For nimpUf^ity olmJ 
wn »ttpi>iMi' rlii> iiilli E<p III' jh^Tfii^Ely mnm-tli nnd frii^tfnnUniH iin tliat wi- ahjill nnt 
hr (mrjiili^l by Tr^^l Iji ri\Ufii\i-t llirm jw liHvtl^ nnj' rttlnCj^n* n^^tii^H^ x^^b ni (VMit 
Ikitlt vfltti rcvil I'rictkiiiNl c'lllininiift vi>u1i] Jiwjuirk Tbu rotlf« of ttic twokludd nf 
ViL<r^ for oTi^mrkry ciw>(.-44 u'l^ordiag Ui L'luMaioo. to wiLinx iM duo Ibia c««'Ltlal 
roiitribiiLinEi lo tJio kjrictir tlioory. b af Hid whatc QUL-r)^*. tUrtTO Gftlia tr&nt' 
Ulioniil t-lMr>-ilrtbt vibntiifitul. 


Mt tha SviCi B<aL 




«piee «A mccli Lfi»t w dl tlmi it goU, Wli ftnm ilto otkTtb I17 «ontaot, 

ir^an iha tan on its u«y to the Mrth. In thi^ ca«u uf tLo tnu the hent 
wtiottKl from the unUir p^rlA of t>jo aluirjftphohn- i« vrhclly dnnvfid 
from Uic iuloriDr. In totli cA»n% CbA wtioj^ tliiUl ninm ia kept 
tbtiniD^My mixed by curmaU uf otxilcd fluid coming dttyu mnd 
wviDor fluid rilling to bkn \bt plbiw, ftnd bi be cvuled and ^tbAoend En 

h'oir it M ft woll kooTQ |imp(vtj of j^ukci (uul of fluidn ffooomllj 
(exccfit nonu ppcoiol cwioAi v Utnt of wstor nitZiin a fair dogrcon of 
iU ft^rzin^ trinptnttoiv. in wliioU tliu fliud uiiilor ixiuntuit pruwurti 
dontinctH vtiti HuMof ti.mijti>r4tnn>) thitt coiulmtfiAtE<iTk nnit rAmfofifinnfi, 
•fl^bod k^ fhii|£nii^Er;l4lkiim oiid diajinutionfl of proBfluro &i>m vithcut, 
prodoca cIovfktiiriiH uid luircrinita of tcmporatore in circa inMELnuon in 
*hioh tUti giwi in ]>n!Tcui*^ from citlttr t^fcbiiig btNit frwn or giTini^^ 
lirfei t> »ny timli^riHl eiti*mnl t> it, Tlm^ 4 '|iiriii(iT.y i^f uir ur otiii 
pui tokoii atordiQiuy tiom|>»raluro (aty Iti^ C- or h'^' F.)iuid 
to double itn bulk boooniM 71^ <X oockr: tatd if tho otpuwion .^ 
«ODt]];ticd to thitty^twa tljats itn origionl bulk it booomoe gooW 
148^ TurlLer. or duwiL |o nbuul ^00 C. buluvt tliu UiLLtpjnitaru uf 
IriVSirtg w»t<ir, fir 10 vit)iin 73" of nhsolnio rold- Sneh c-hdiip*'* •« 
thMD octadlv tkko pUcii ia lunrvH of ^ir rudug in tlio atuitflpKn? to 
bcii^Ktd of cLf^hl or aino kilijinut^ni or of twotity or tvi'i.mt_r-tiTu 
kiloiDut^re* Cvrr^poudiui; dilT-^r«uc<^ tfi t<ii»[ATtitiiro tljcro cirtft^nty 
AM thrAnghnnt Oia dnUl miuw of tlio fiim, hut of vnry dlifL^ront 
nuffltitodoB boc«Q«o of tiio iToDty-^ovon fold gfvaUr gmvity nt tha 
•na ■ varficD. tbo vaDttLt^tsn uf tLo ipuoo tbrouffli which ihirv m froa 
oircnlAtioii of Sard, add ln^l> tWt^b not UuMit. ti>c oiioniionhly hl^bor 
t«in|i«rftl(irn ijf thit Attlur fliiiil Lbbii i^f thu ti'tnafHul fttiiinApbi-L^T jit 
pomlN of aqTlAl disunity in thn twir ThtnTiow of tlio lEolar Goimtitritinn 
luv boon tn^kied mBthcioiilicfiUy with $^^t po^t(|^ 1>y Mr. J. Honi'-r 
LiD0| of Wttabin^iioi. L'.^., in u wtj itnj>L>rluTd jmpor rciul UTuru tlia 
NMtiMil Aettdviiiy 'A Si;)< jii:iiM>f 1Ij< Uuitvd St.i&ti* in A|?ril lAt'^^, 
ftnil pvbtbilifvl iHttifiirtlinrd^ytdopmnilHin tHo * Ammnin Jimtiml of 
Senonop/ for JoLy 1970. Mr. Luno, by strtrt mittWirnitifql tn7n(rui.Mit 
fiDtltftLo Iav of dintf ibctioa of draiflity and tuinpurixtviv dl Ihrtrngb a 
^obo of luMOOgMOODS BM IcJt to iUclf in «p«o<i> nod loeinjc In^nt by 
ndinlioik outminbt no «1owly tlial t!»o bc«l^»rryiug cumaitji pjvduoo 
\mt lillle diftlnriinnco from the globnlitr form. 

Ono very rr^krkkbla oud itaportnnl rwiill nbicb li*^ find" ii, tliat 
Ibo dciieilj *t tbv <^i>atro ift ftboiit twonty " linir« tho moan iloaBtlj ; 
■od Uibi wboiJiur ibo com* UiUrt:» or i^iiLnll, luid wbctbcr of oxygr^a, 
Bitongoi, or bydro^tr^, or other mibsiuncri} ; pnividecl only it bu of 
oao kittil of gu tfLT<>i)gboQt. and thit Ihu dori«iiy in tbo i>iinira1 furU 
ia BOt loo gnol to aHow th^ ctnduiiMttiou (0 tuRO |i)noo, ncodrding to 

* Worklnii out l^aM'i fvnlTUini imlc^mJcnily. t And tt| ■• ivry nnil* Ihe^ 
riad MBihrr. 


Sir William TAomam 

[Jftn. 21. 

tbo onliniLry i^daooud liiw of deUGity, in oriuplo proporti4>ii to pt«Hii)n> 

fuE tbc nmto lc]i][>onitursSi Wu ko'^w tlit« Uw W lioM witL BomcwiiAt 
fiirt^-iiiiJEriim bir, tiiiil fiv ivinh <if itit Iwii rliltT nttintitii* 
iii'l nUn^gon, snpftrntcly, niii for bydivi^^^Ti, to Joui^tieB 
bimdn^d titno^ their dciiititiL<« nt our ordinary alnao' 
pplberio prciwiiru. Bnt whcu tliu UDTDprvhtiiing furtw ia sn^cicDtly 
bicmmwi. tl^v/ u}l sbovr gnvit^u- rvvIfitMUiiCT Ui i^^ud^uisatiua Lluri 
iwrrinling t.i Ihri Tnw nf simple priiprn-tion, aiirl it upome moet proTnilile 
tlmt thorn in foT cTorj gnfi a limit tii7ycm<) wluL^b the detiEitj cuukot 
b<> iuuroiuicd by auy pn^siiro Lu^tivir ^runL Lauo rooiurUa tlmt 
Uiu ilcrnnt/ %i tbo ceotre of tbo mud wuuU 1>o "Dcnrly ctue^tbird 
grTHl44r timrt Uml of iho metal irlaLinum," if tLf; ^tkn-nim Uw buld 
lip Ui m gTcnl n rfo^fco tif PondijiiftftlLm for tbo higredicEls of lb© 
■Db'i] tnABi ; but bo does not aug^eut Ibie sapiKneitnoii as probftblo, 
nn^ li« &o doubt U£-ri:CB wilb llio i^CUCnil opiui(»» tbnt itt all fr<^ 
b&liilit^ tlic iD^^dE^EjE.^ uf tbo feim'a iua^a, at tb^^ jlcLui^I Um|;e^Bt1LrGS 
corrcepcitflfng to llictr poi^itinus in biH interior, obey the umiple 
fABcond low througli but n ts>]upMrhtiTL4^ emdll MpQ» iimards from 
tbo Borfacrt ; and lEuil in tb« cmitmL r(^^f>Tia tbcry arc mneb }csa i:od- 
dmEtul iLan nocordicigto tbitt hi7- Aocurdiug t<i Ibo etiupte gii6(X)ii8 
}aw, llie vnn'rt <--4rntiiil ilensiLy would be tbirt^-un^ tiin«« tirnt of 
WAtnr; ve ViAf oMMnma tbnl it in in all probiibility mncb }esa tbAQ 
ihis, tbonf:h «onBidor»blf grcBtor Ibwi tho ini^nu douaitj, 1-4, 
Tbia IB b «!(!« ranj^u of aiiocrLuinly, but it AViuld bu unniBQ ftl 
prt^Atut tu narrow it. i^iiuiuut n% wnan> of the niftjn i^Kredicntevf tba 
nun's vbole ma^ nini uf tlnj lawn of piosnurt'. diiiisity, and i;«mpi.<ra- 
i^fCf oTan for knoAii kiudfl of miittur at vci^ grvut preasLiri^fl and 
TWy bigb tcinjJorrttTirflfi, 

Tiw qnv-«tii^o. Ifi tbc «l^D bflooutiiig colder or hotlctf is ancioeeil-- 
Jn^l; crjKiplicnttit] uue. uud. la ituiij eillter to put it ur tti armwur it iH 
a pnriuloXf iinluvB wu defiuo exactly ^borv tbo tvinponitnro la to 
he rockone^l. if wo ask. How dooB tho tempwmluro <if (jqui-dcuefl 
1>orl">na ijf Uio aim vnry from Ago to ago? tb<j ikiipwur ci^rbaiuly ie 
that tlio ntfittirr of tbe s\m of vbiob tie dpnsity bjk8 any ».|;itLid vjilue, 
for i^XLLUiple, ibc ordinary deuinty of iwt Htiuosphoro. Womcs olnnys 
]ets and Jusfi iiot wbiLtov«^r l>o iia ploca m tli^ flcnd. ftud vrliatGT«T 
bo tlio< lJk^V of coinpn>«Bion of tljo daiilT wiiotbor tlL<i Aiinplo gneooue 
]aw or i^[iytbiug ftom tbat to abfloluLc iiEooniprcn^tbilliiy, Dut tbc 
di*.|jLiico inwnrdi* fr*nu tho Kiirfut'eut wbinb a cuustiut <l(^n*dty is loie 
found dJnnuUh^'H vitb 4hrinlc4gt^, nud tbne it may bo tbnt nt conittitut 
d«ptbs iuwAF^U from tb« bounfliu^ aurfnois tha t<tniporiktura ia bo- 
e^iining higbcr nnd bigbor, Tbia vouli cartainly l>o Ibc caso if tbo 
go^oua Ijvw i>f Gondeu^tio]] hvl<l tbrougbout, but ovuri thi<n tbc 
elfeolive radiMiiiniLl '(^iii^c^niliirts in vjrtuit I'f wbifb thi.' auh EbitiU bis 
be^at itutwortle, uii^lit bn bf'conting lower, b<<cran«o tho t<jnipDraturo« ttf 
M^ui-danfiti purtiona nro dearly bocoming Jowor undor all oircaiu- 

LvNiTiiig now tht^Hu uuin]4ic^atod und djillt-nlt r^iiotitionA to tb<i 


on lU Sun'« IL^, 


ftoi«nti£a bivcstiMlon who ate devoting ttcmtiolTod lo advancing 
Ibo 0oieiu» of mtr plijna, «oneidcr tL« <«Bily ondcuitood qoca' 
tion. What U tii« tomptinktvc of tbi> ccutro of tb« sua at nnj tliuo, 
ood dovi it ttm> or f^U »? tiuiti udviiuixvi? If iru ^^ biick m f«V 
uillioo jCATft lo ft diDA vrhnn wo maj bo]tnvo thn nnn tk> Iiati> b«oii 
viboUj gi«aotn to thft ooatrc, tU^u oorUitJy tho oontnl Umpcra- 
Inn niut bibTo b^on «nf;me>itiaf( ; of^in, if, u in pouiblc thouifh aat 
prubfeUo at (bs iiubvuI tiiuri, but mnj ynjintWy va tLu cuir at H«a9 
fbuuw lhn4), lYitnTH ha a vvilid iniclinn, Ibnn ocrlainly tbn ^vntra] 
l4im|>ctaturo noiiH bo angmoiitji]^, bceiuH tbo conductian of binit 
OUlHWrdtf ibtodgb tbo Molui would bo loo al'yir 1c ocinipcDiuto Iho 
ftngnuaWioa of prMam duo b> aiii;mcii1iilio& c-f ;;nvilx ia tbd 
AliHnkifi^ HM Hroond tbo ito)U. Ilitt at ih o-nrtufii time iii t}i« 
hliLtory of a wholly floit) g1nb(\ pHmitinily mm onoii^h llirongh- 
oat to bo fpitfcoTiK, alirinkiiis acuJur tl:iu iufluuuoo *^ Jtu nwn i^itI" 
tetion ftUfi its mJifttion uf boat vntnortU iuto cobl BunviimdiDiE 
wpaooi wk«ii iktp MUilrttl ]huIa bun.' bficuuiu flu luuuh cxfudtMiiwd as ti» 
tMM Avthtf flDnddiiMtkni ^rcjilty mor^ than warding ta ibn 
^MOOi law of ftimpb proportioru. it tcaat to mo oortuin tb«l iho 
«ftrlj p txew of bo(7i>ini(ig iA-*nncT, vf]>iob han boMi doiuoDBtralcd by 
Lau, Itid KowcouU ^i^ Bftll, utQflt oeaH, i^nd tliat tho cuutral 
UMnmtatm mivt bo|E>i> lo diminudi on acoonat nf tbo coolmi^ l>y 
liition fraot th« aoraeo, uid the mUiTig of tfao cooled fluid tbrungb- 
tbo inUnor. 

Now we c«iQo to tbo most btorc^tiof! fiui of oqt Bqbjoot — tho 
riy bJBtory of tbo Son^ Fivo or ton nitUiou yuvi ngo bo lOftyhsTO 
'be«n fthont dnnbUi bin pmcnl diiuriDttrr ^iid an ci^^htb of bi« prnnnnt 
doiujty, or ' 175 of Iho dco^fily rjf vmtor ; litit wo cannut, with 
ij probabilitr of u^dkhI or 8|?ocii]utiCFi;, i^oijti coiitinituuedy much 

Wo CAUAOt, boWOTtT, bclj' Mltiu^' llo tlUt^tlOU, Wbit 

thv conditioa of tbo ami'* matter l>rTfvTO it CAUko ti>/ulbur luid 
hotf It nnyhnvobom Iwu irool naLJd inuocs, ^bioh colliilctd 
tbo ToJocily doo to tb«ir matiid mTllotion; vi, but vitb 
loM c/ probtbililj, it may bavo ooon tvro tufwfr^a otiUiilJue 
Uica CijuPtidrrAbly ffritixUj tJtiast tlio lelocilJiM duu to lutituid 
io&. Tlili tMt liapjKisiititni impliutt that* OAlHrif; tbo twfi Uidirji 
vid B foiT bruvily. tb^^ rnotiuO vt tbu wutro of iuorttA of B rolo- 
Jivdy lo A, luuBl, wb<in tb« dUtauocs botwoou Ibotu waa groat, b&To 
dirodad wiUi gr<*t wctnoi* to mot IhrougL tbo ccntro of 
of A ; sadi gnat miotaoM tluU tbo rotetiooal mcoDdntunj, or 
uotDont of momcutnin/' * &ftor oolliidou wa« no morv than to lot 


Tbit IJ iL t*«bukttl i:ir>nwlon In dfaanrtf* ahli^h n^ui l^lnpartuiooor 
mlatimly to iBri^luiUin tie imailon rouml kn biti, HmnnntUTn Iji an 
fina alioul • IiiiudrtEl and AAy jaikn nvniwliDEi miiUiriiuUi^ALui sihi 
Jam (id ntCBi ipokti »a<] wi^jIo Lktia) to t^^nir^ imntUii'iu^I if]i]>itrt»ji<]|i i't 
HoOAt of a <MipI«, akORUKkt of o vaffivi iD^iiDfitLt at ianrlin, m^ninnt 
■ovad an axi^^ moiTttat of moaienMB round ^naili^ and (v)rrf«|inrt'lih|£ 
iblnaAUw In Kraaob and Oonaai>. arp cxpnakoiu vhloh hava b»ti 

the AUfi have hi« prcsont slow rotitioiL wbcn filmmk to bia preMut 
dimcnriomi. Thm oiotvdtn^^'ly oxact aimiti^ of tbo oao haiy at tb* 
utli^r, BO to l^tuak, in. mi tiic dry tb<:[irf i^r probnbjlity, ciD<w<tinglj 
Im(Jiiiliti1iliv Oil LhoothfT 1in(t<l, tl^nni ih roi-burjty tlmt t|jii titi> boclini 
A lULd B nt rcHt Iti tjiaro if loft lo tbcinH-lvi.'it iiiiduitiirljiy] tiy olh^ir 
WUoK nud only [rktl(ii>fiOL<rl by Ibvir mutujilgnivitatioUr nboll ooUiib} with 
djrcct inipnot, ami Ihnrtt^'K \\ii\i u<t notiuu cif tbuir ixmtro <jf iu^TtUk, 
Atiil ri'> rvt;Lti{iiiMl [iLi.'iiji^(itikiu of ihi: i:%'iai]>oitiii\ Xttjtiy itftur iLv cuUiBJuu, 
TblU wo Kf tJml tlm dry pruLtiljility of <yh|lLBiU)n iKrtwortn IW[» nHgb- 
buuri of ft vii»t Tunubor <.if tuntiiiLUy iitlructiri^j bcxiicu widaly Meat* 
tcrvd lhTu»];b »|»iboo je raacb griM^Uir if tliv boilii^v bo all f^ivcb a 
ruftt, tljjitii if llicrj bo giTcti roaving ia atiy ninii^'in ilir(LC'ti»iiii ntid tritL 
any r<iIocIlIc« (H-aituiIuiaUti iu uuiujjuriairu nitb tljn TvhiiJriitA wlik^h 
tbcy ^(-iJuliL tti.'i|ii]ni in fiilliug fnxii rvvi iuh] t'tilliiiiiiii. In tbU coi^ 
noirlioij it U iijon interesting to know from HtolUr lutrLiiioiaTt ftidod 
0t> «}iji;iuiully a4 it l^os rccxratly licoti by tho Bjrc<}t^<«ci>|>r, tbki tbo 
r<3l»tivu umtLoUH of tbo vijiible Atnrs vid out mu aiu i^uivinlly very 
■nmU iu (■ompariBLiii witli tbu YiluL-ily (C13 kilumetitns jwr «£piM>nil) 
wbEvh n hiitty ututlJ floijiiiro m fAlliu^ trto r.bjt sun, lUii] oru compcu^ 
iiblo vitl) tbo modonw liltb^ velocity (2D'A kilomotrua p«r euotad) of 
1L« oortb iu hor orbit round tbc siui. 

To IJx tho iUoUk tliiiik of titu coul imlid glob«». cocb of tba natne 
uifsiit deiinily hfi Lli» <iiirlb, ujid of linJf thfi buu'it diiimatvr; givcoi at 
i^«t, or iiifftrly at roBl, at a difitiLnco iLinndt^r e({wal io ivrk^i ihu 44irth*4 
dintniwxi fnxa tbo huh, Tliciy will full togulbor and oollido in oxAotlj 
bfclfiiyoftr- Tbo collision will livst for »boat Wf an bom-, in ibo 
ai>urf(o of wbicli tbcy will bu itJitibf^iniEuU iiibj n uiulmitly agitAt4vl 
iiii^utnlBBceul fluiil ifia^s flying tiuti^iLnl from tho lino of llio muiioti 
b4)f<»ro tha polUnioiiT ui^ eu><lliug lo n Imlk Beveral tiinoB j^rudU'r thim 
tb« amn of tho ori^jitHil bwlba of iht, two Rli^bot*.* How ftr tlic fluij 
mu^ will Hy uut nil ivnnd fiom tlio liuij uf uulljaiui) it ia iiujiutfitblo 
111 luty. Tim nuitioji ia too cua^dicuted to Iu fully invesiigiit^d by 
fcny Imowu matbumnlioul niutbod ; bat witb Bufticietit |iutjuin.*o o 
nmtlicmatimati mi^bt Iw aUu to ciiloulutu it witb aomo fmr ibpi^roiiina- 
tiou tg tit tiutb. TLc dlfituuijo rcuohcd by |b« eitioiau (^uxjolnir 


iiitnvliKvd witbin thr tost siilj yoiiTB ' Hv ecipntiiU aptakinp aa anw, MfJi lib 
tfwa nmuulaf) b^ liR^iiy tW impitrtnnnp nf th4 flpucinl cubjirt ri'finrml lo ia 
t«''h Aun* Thr oipTOHiInn nu^cnt of mnmimmiD U highij lAliinhlu Mid oou- 
riiiiif-uL in c|yriitfDL»] jwIdtiou, uhI it LtiuBmuttd* ouriucu |i]kllv[nj[iiii\| mohuiaftut 
Df icIoiiUllr UjbIiii}, 

* Such bi0Jd<jjila »«iu to bdppOD ooouionatlj in tbo uiLiverro. lAinljioii a** 
»mn«>lu* *^h»rr ■od'iiiiily npiHwrod, and IhvH 4brFuti[i&ari>d, aHir Uji^ieili nboQfl 
timuvMnl mnntb* wiJfi ll]« mnnl lirilHiint ■plonEliiUT. SrH^ii wag iLu hiup nhnitrv«d 
hr Tyt'lio l^rfiltr* jii tb** jm' 1AT2. in iJio riiiiiti-'llAtirin iL'^iwIf-iH^iit. ft) ii iilicrt 
tfjim il ■ijjpifcjju'il ilio iiii'Bl biJIIiADl fltorr, fljid i'Vlq JuifiUr llmf. JU litfljt then 
ir.iiinl ittt>iyH»."d|iniil|F'<li«ftp|>c»r<^«itconQi<jiitLHi*fUi|-ilfl JiMnfory. lUocJoar 
Uf^ilirvt^nt »:r.nd i^htu^K'-* ; iL mu at Ant of a LiriLftuut wlult.', tlK>[i of ikrcUdbJi 
llotr, ami MinLlly of n ]<<fHl-^olQiiN^ wliltf^. Ilip tit ISufuni/' lUhrio'j tmndlalba 
l,Aj*lao<^'i ' ftT>i.'i>i <-f Ibi' Wrjrlil," DuIjUh, IhSO i 



CH ike Sun** BaiL 



frtttg« of ^d flaiti nUM vouM prol^bly bo idocL loss iti^n ili» 
loo Ui«ai bjr <«ch ^lofco bnfora llio ct:ltJaioQ, tMNBuae the tiaii^ 
lAtjoiud iDOtiota of tlic molcculcA conMitutinK tbo hfiftt ibIo vhicli tbo 
wliolo onWKT <i^ ^^ origi&d fiiU of tte gl^bcw bocoooo tncriforinc^ in 
,1he flm vmutou, lApniliHbljr flbunl tlif^tyflfllui of thd wbult* nmiiunt 
of that «D«igJ. Tao tinn nf flying ont wo»M prv^baliljr b« Jv«fl 
tfatin liftlf ft 74^ vhodi the fluid maa maKl bogin to fjUl in »ji^\n to- 
«t4rdft tlie ub. la vomothiiiLjf L>m than & ^t-iLr after tio firvt 
fiolliidikij Ujc AuM *iU Hguiu Iw iti ft Btulu of uiuxiiuuiu cruivttiiia 
nimd thecv»tt4't ftn<1 t!ti\h tinia ytri~ttmh1y ori^n m<iri< vir^Uitlly ft;j;llikt4 
tluLii it waji imni-^difttcly ofiAt thct dnt c<JLifliuiij ; mid it vill ttgaia 
Hj oulVftrJ. bul xbia titno oiially tovrnrdfl tbi^ }>Iacofi whdHi^o xho tvo 
glohw folk It will n^uiii U\\ ianiLnla. utid ikfUir ■ tspitll^r aubaiJing 
wriM of i^UJokfr uli4 i|titr-k<.>r nh^MlbLUitiH il 41]] HilljKiito, priUnbly 
io tbe <)Cim» of two i^r ihriHi y^n. inta n glabalar HtAr of a^hiut Iho 
Mmo dii3ntyii«4i«, h««l. aiul brjf'htcuwM oi our proMc: euq, but dUfcri&g 
from Lag in tbi^ that it will IUto no i«tfttit>iu 

Wq lUp^KitmL iLu i-hv nloboB lo liBfe buvu Ml reel wLt'ii tiiey wtSTO 

lot fall fhjtn ft nintnnl ititainfn nqanl in ihn t^\ttnie^X£\r of tli^ nihnh'a 

orbit. SnpiWBO, novv, ibal ituh^nd of bnvtng been at rmi tbcy h^d 

bocu mi^Wkg in oppwito dirvotmiui with a velocity of two (mora 

esKttj l't4!J) mr^irua ]tir mxvjikI. Tbc Eu^juinut of tuuuictiliim o{ 

Ibtfle molit^Ti* ronul au aiim ibrout^li tlio coutre of i^mvtty ^if i\ii-i two 

glob«* pfiT|>rtid Ocular t> t^itir Vmvtt at motion is jimt t^aul ta tho 

mofdcnt tjf motnG&tiiia «f tlic ttun'a rotation round Iua luts. It ie ul 

I'lJuujeQtArT KUil uuil; ]irovud Uw of df uomicb Lbkt uu mtituAl ftotiott 

Wlrt'wii |]iiHflof » i^roiii' vf txiliuo. Of ef « aiu^lff LkjiIj^, ri^id^ Qc^EMa, 

HT Haid, MU1 «1u:r thti moniifiit of mnmeaitmn of tfin wbolc Tho 

tfUMiveno Tidovity in tiio oawo w€ u« botv rappoNto^ in bj ccuill 

DAOO of the miiifL fcVklurM of tho collision liiid of the wild 

foUovrtiJi; il. vliicb vo hM*o bocu c<}uaiiJuHu};> or of tho 

Io, hoott actil brL>*binMa of tlio rMDltiug AUr, will ^mt Mriuibljr 

bnt novTf ihHlcod of bviiig rutationb?iA» it 'tDl bv rovolvisf) 

ookooruiiud in twouty-tivo dA/^ft&d w> in uU rt«pcoU hka to our flun> 

If )fii4akl of bouig •( roit inittully, or moving witli tbc nnaU 
Iniwrccot nlooltioi wo haTo been i:>jaHidcrukg, ciu;h g!i>bu hftil o 
tnaoPonM Tnlooitjr of thratM^tiKfterK (or iknythiu^ metre tlntTi '71) of 
a kiloowtn Mr oooond, th«j wunld jiut cociLpo pt^Lluion, uid would 
roTolvu in oUipooa roonl lh« owtr'i or iiiCTlin in ft pirivsl of inw yooi^ 
Juol |j:m3tiDt ««cb otber'o nrfioo orory tiuv they c^euo to tho iiouoal 
poibih iif Ujiiir iirblU. 

If the initial tnu«por*o Tolodly of «och g^obo bo Iom tbctn, bat 
ttoi maok Ion UMm* 'Tl of o kilonotro p«r ioooiid, Ibcrv niU b« a 
Tioleat icnslog oolLialoa, ami two bnuhl aona, oulid icli>ho« baiLud in 

Ciiilf will oocuv iiito cxliiIi^[ie:<; tu bho connto of ih fiM ln^itra, 
nnmaoco revfilvtng rcnnd tjietr L-ommoiL ctiutrn <if inortift in 
.icT orhiU in ■ ptTJod of a liltltf luM than > year. I'ldol 
, Urtwtjcu tlioin will UiiJiiuJ«h tho ucocutrioitioa of thoif 



5lV WiViaiA T^oa^m 

( T«l. 21, 

(ho mm hivvo hit prc«i«fit «iow roUiioni when ^hnuik to Lis pn«cot 
dinitiiBiCfiui. Thin <ju««dtiiglj <i2act ttii&ing vf the oiw Khly At llid 
i>tlMir, no U> ftjHiiiJc, m» nil tliw ilrj llimr^ nf j»r"biiUililj", paw^nlingly 
imiiriiltciblct On tlm cthrv haiii^, tlirro i> onrlAinty llmt ibo tiA-o budiotf 
A atjfl B at Tvt ill Kjiiwo if ]«fc to C1]ditlbc|pi» uadi^larl-ml br uthor 
bo'liH &ti(l oqIj ii)flii«?ncy.>d brthoir uiutUBl gruviUtioD. oholJ ix4]ici<i ttith 
dirwl tiJipnct, iiiul llii'-nT^'lO witli JiO QoLuai cf Iboir cL^utn* nf int^rtu, 
EU]i1 no T<tlAti(>nKl n^uDinntzun of tha nrnnpniind \in\y nfUir the (ulli«ioiCL 
Tbnu v/o Btc tLnt tbv dry jsrubaljililf of «>]1iflioTi botwt^m two iioigli- 
btnim ii'f a V4«t iiuiubuf <i£ iDUttuilj attmolin^ bodi<ii \\i4liJT ACQt- 
IciW tLr^iiicli -jiooo )« xauch ffrvaUir if tbu budJcA ^ all i^tTEn * 
rnil, Ibhn if tiK^y bi» given iDimu|[ In any iiuiiTiuii iliri.-<-Li<iii« iiml with 
nny vnWttioK iHrnjinDTmlilo tiL coinjoitiHtii] vith Ihi^ T4.ibi(i]li*« vrbich 
tkiy would aoi[uiru ill fklhfig from r«Kt iuto cuiliiiion. lu thU oou- 
Quctoti tt ij4 iu<i«t iiitoTMtiiw ^ Imow f>t}Di Bt<i)Iibr ndtrirnoniy, uiLf4 
»(i «jrWi)diil]y M it boa TcctnUy Soon by tUu ^iKX^'iruBL-uiJu, that tJio 
n^Utivn njutioan of tbu fiubli? ftliuii [iiul uiir mm are gtmi^TAlly very 
tmall Eu cviiiipiLri>4itn ytiUt tho vihuMy (lUS IcilumeEotH por o^oo&d) 
wfafcb « boily wnxld aequird in fulliug iiitci tbo fiiarj, iknd am ooiuimt^ 
ftbitt witlj tUc [tt(j<loiutu little Tctooity (2D'^ kili^uiclna pot miccFiiu) of 
Uio QMrtli iu bur urLit luuiil tli<i suu- 

Tti fii lb4< iilntH, tbink of tm- i.^>ii1 Kitliil globes, t^aoh of tho aam^ 
iat«ii ikji«tEy ftfi Uiik «Arlb, niifl of bjtlf tb& huei'k duuudtar ; i^toii At 
rc«lt vr nearly at roiit, ct a diBtiutoo oflnudL^r viinul to tvricc tbo ctkrth'a 
i)i«taiicc from the HUit. They irill foil togntbur adJ uollidtt tu oxaotlyr 
b«lfifcy*«J. Tlio coUisiuu will last foi" itbout bttUiinboiir, in ib« 
Oouno of vbiHi ihoy will bo ImnHfonuuil lutfi n violuntly agitAUril 
iMudoi'^nt fiiiid lauu dying untward fnjm Ibu linu of tbo motion 
before the oolljjdoUt and evrolling to a bulk Mlcrul tijEic^ uranUir tliAU 
Uio «m4 t)f tUo uruduiU balkn ctf ibu t«o glubi^,* Hiit* fiir tbti Ituid 
ninra will Hy imt h11 rouud fiiim Uio lino nf rolliarun it tfi inij^^MiUo 
to fiav. Tb(j ntutiGii is too complicated to Us fully invusti^utod Ly 
kny uiiowQ mntlimnutiool xnctbtKt; bat with aciQicioiit piitioikco 4 
DUktljciUAticuau nii^bt Wablo to CAlflulute it iritL aoiao fuiriippruiiui»* 
Item iu iLc UutL. TL(j dititidiru rcuclied Ijr (ho uilTninn Hronlftr 

hitrodunsd ttllllci tbe lutt dUl> yr>nni :by icIcnliiU AfKHkliiH mm miw. nrh bli 
wa irrtifcculur) to ripklrj- tht iniftorlimw <i( Ihu nfjiiliL] i>ubjri:( rtfriroJ Wi in 

*«ni(^at tb dyiiunlclU vMbOi^ Aud tt cc(utitiit«j a ourluuii jilitli^ln^K^I mouqmaal 

* ffucb lncLdi.i|ttM H-iiiii U> lLii|'pi!ci iH:ci4iI<»ii«]1y ill iliv u^ibtirm, IhAhIiWh mj« 
Kino BloJi *'bATii? AudHfinly n[p|Kiiiv4, luiJ tbrn ibMippiMiicdt nfUr bn^Jiiu Bhaaa 
f(««?Taml uuwtbi Vrith tlui mrMt lirilliaut tfpbnrlmir. huoli wui Uir utor qlbAerfftl 
by 'i^cho Br&ho iu tht ytvr LSTif^ In Hit* i^nnaii^llnlinn LiawirpDiAH lia a ^Mcl 
tfiM iHaiFpmoil tbo inrHl brtlltnut <Inn. nnd c-Vin JnplUT itM^f, IU Iifht thti^ 
vnA«d »«iiy. ft&d flmUly dtfuiriKnr'-^l phIlvel oiujjtlu uHlf LLji dlh»>iriTy lu fit^nr 
imdunrvllt •"■v-tM dimip*i tt vhMU rtfttofu LriUijiut wbiU', tboEJ <if ii iidtb>ih 
yt|]«ir« an.] [iiuhElv <>£* lc*d-«olMir«d vhlU. iiku U ^lunj," 4 IJarlv'd linfuUtuin 
of L*pWr<'a ' ^jtl«iu ol IIm World.' Uublin^ IH»0 j 




tut iMe d\in'« H^titt. 


igo of tbe Sotd muM would jkrobftUl^ \>^ nmoh looa thao the 
ifttihooe fiillcn by mch Kli>ba boforo the oiollin<tn, boOAUic Uio buod- 
Dootioiii uf the ipoIr^Li]« coDstiliitit]^ the boat into irhicli ibo 
imergr ottba urigiiul tuli vS lliu (i;]iilH.-h twuaiiw ImitluffmeJ in 
■tooJluUm, Uim^tukhljr ibhniii thriu^riltliH of tbo wliole amount 
Hint (luorgy. Tnc liino of flviDg out woulil pn^lialily b« Jma 
Uiau lulf a jcAT, nhob tbc fluid uuuu mast hegiti tii £iilL iii t> 
mnrd* lilt? DiuL lu BuiucUuu^ IcMi iL&u u ycivr aflbT tiio drab 

ranil tLOQo&ti^ and thifi Vma proboblj «faD taoro vioU-nlly A>;iUI<i<l 
iftEi it WM inuDcHiotoly aStot tliti fitnt colLiuun; and it vrill ftK<^io 

^Bfly oulwarii. bai ibii liniv nxiBltir toirnrda tlio ]-tacc< irbonco tbo (iffo 
^BgJolMA fell. Tl will H^Miu foil mvunld, xiid HtVir u nipi'My KulKJdiiig 
^HRirlaa of qiiiclinr nad qnJck«t oRcillntioiJfl it ivill «uh«JLl<\ iirobublj 
^'in tho iMMmc of two or tLivo ft^ni. iuto a glabiiUr #tur of aliout tbo 
Mtmo dinoiiBiuiui, bf«t. *(id brj|;litiioAB na onr firoioQt uliu, bul differing 
liim la diib, lL»l it nil! Liiiu no niLtiliuii. 
Vftaappowil thn two RlnbflH bi hnVA ht^n at riwl wh«n tb«ty vaiw 
ftll mm ft tontQELl dittuioo uqtml to itc diAoicior of tl^o cartira 
*b4t> Happotto^ now, that uubjivi ot hnvta^ bc^oa 4t roi^ thof bod 
lU DiOTUL^ ill opiHxilto dirMtiviLs iril}i a icloctly of tHt> (murv 
1*89) l&vtrM por niMoiiiL ThiT inumvat of inoiiR'nlniu i>f 
motion* round an uri« ihr^u^li tho oontto at grftTity nf Ibc tcro 
)bc# porpftBdioaUr to tLutr hiKt of aotiQix vi just oquul to tbo 
it of iDOiunutaiD of Lhd aun't rolttioa rouiul ma aiits. It ia on 
ilary huJ naily liTOTod Iftw of d^uajulo* tbitt ui> uiulujil aoLIuq 
parlA iif tk tTfniip «f Ihhlidi, OF «f A Bingla WI7, rigid, Acxj^Ia, 
hud, flui lUcor tho inumMit of n^.^muiituci] cf tlie wholo. Thn 
Tolocity lit Ibo oaMf wo aru uo^ Bnppo«i&^ itf ao oaiidl 
Uraio of Ibo iDftin foatarM of Ibu cullisiou uuO 4jf ihu wild 
illalioi^M CdlowiTitf it, wliioh v/n batfo U.h;ii I'Liikftu^urJEi^, t>r ijf tbtv 
lilildc. hcbt, arid brightiiMH cif tho rcsnltiiig star-, viU br »onftib|y 
AlWrod ( b«l uoir, infttMil of beina rolatiuutoi^ it will Us rorulriuf^ 
otioo ronni in l««itj-fitc dftjft uiiTao io all roit|HMl£i Like lu i>Qr aiiit. 
If iDstdftd of boiag at ro»l iniliallj, or iiiovJu)^ with Uiv eiiiuU 
limnxTcnD velcwiticM no baio Umiu cutijiidcrrmg, i?ibcb gli^Uf )ind & 
InaftTortfo Mlooitj of |bno-^ucLrt<<rfl (<>r ^uytLiug mL>ro lluui 'TI) of 
» kUomotrt per soeoad, tluj wunld JimI oHoiipu colliaion, uji would 
TO iu o1£p«o> ronnd tbo oontrc of iii«tiiA in ft poriul ufuiio jour* 
gflkiing eub otbet's aur&oo every tiuio tbcj cuuo to tbe tifuuid 
tacf ibcir urbiU. 

If tbo initial trauTtnft voiooity of oaub glole bo loa* than, bul 
noeb loM iban, '71 of m Liloi&oUo pet iM<v4id, tliure mil bo « 
Ttole&t gimxing culLidoD, and twii brigbt »uu»i Aulid ]^vln« LuUuxl in 
flftmutt dnid, will uouu itLlu iTXLiiien«c ia tbn coimo <jf a fiw lioiu«^ 
i&il erllt ooiDooftooo rovolting tvnnd tboir common o<mtio of ioorliu in 
~ tog oLlipti« orlita in n period of a httlo Iobs tbau a you. Tidal 
l«i«dioa bolnccD tbcm frill ^ILuuniftb Uio uiAHUiUitiiticij uf tlu4r 


Sir Wiiii^m Tfti'iason 


the Buu Ldtc hiA proturt aloir rotation wlicn ximiiik lo liie prEwut 
itiuit?iiiiioiib. TliiA euxHyliitgly ouct uiiuin^ uf tbo rnie TkhIj at Ibo 
cihi^T, uy to sptRkT ifl, <in iho dry ih«jrj of ptviUiljiliiy, cxcoodingly 
improbable. Oo ttio other ti&nd, thoto iaottrtftUit; tbmt liio tw^ bodice 
A Aikd B nt rat tn nfiocc if Jofi to thcm«o]vc« imdiMurtmd by <'Lhcr 
WliiBAuduuly uifl»4'iJ0(<l by iLvir muLual grmritalioii. ^lul] oolliiLo witb 
ilmrL-l iiiijbuil, Hiid Ihi'ndursi wUli titt iLittiuii nf 1)ii.<jr rvntrc of tuc^tift, 
util no rotfltiomftl moaiaiitiuii of the oomf^c-und body &fu>r tbi^ ^ulliuon, 
TLiutf n« oee thai tho <[r/ probnbitity of o^Hedlcu hctw^n ivm iioij^L- 
bonrv of o Tivat number ut inutiuilLy kitruoting bodif^t vhiJoly *o»l* 
lerod tl»r<)Lit£li t-jmuir i* [uiicli mu-nXoe if tli^i lii^liro U: ull gitvn n 
mat, tb^utf Iho} ha ^tdd moviuFf in nay nniiom ^ir^M^tumv «iul nilfa 
mi; vc'locitic* ooitdd«T«blu in ivjjDp«riifiuu ^ntb tbu Toli>aaiu« which 
tbcy noold iux|mro in f»lliii[j frum rust iuto ooliiuoii. Ji^ tijU uou- 
ticctioii it U mont int<ira*Linjc U) kiio^v fn>in sklJnr natruiLumj-, Aidod 
•Q «pbndidl; lu it hu mt-tilly >>ceti by tho eiior^tri-i^Aoiid, that 
li^AtiVO mutiiMTK of Ibv Timbl4} btiLrn uid our gtlei M'4i gaiiiirally v 
ftmnll iij oompuivou ^ith tlii> vi^J^H^ity {*ii'2 kiUHmotciii per mco* 
which n body would acijairo in fidliug iTjto tbo nuu, aud are ouiiij«i^ 
Abb) niLh Ibt luoJoriLtu lilllc «thx:tty f 23 5 kil^iiutirvu jwr Bcound) of 
tbofAitb in bor cirtul miimil Um ktiu. 

To fiK thu i44uut, lliink of tw«i <'<>o1 fkf)id glr>bea, oodi of Ujo eftmd 
liUftU dujjBity Ati tlio oorth, uii of tiulf tho fiun'n diatiitt4?r ^ giToo At 
iiMt, ur )K«ily at nMt, at o di«iaac« uuudcr ni|Lirt] lo twit-v Ibt eorUi'fi 
din Unco fh>iu tim huuh TLcy uill fuJI iugiithiir uifl coUida in cucUy 
livlf a ytfir. Tli<> PoniAinri will lAHt fur nbuiit bolf at; boor, iu tho 
oouno of nbich tliuy will Ua tntniifonucNi iuto a viuJontly nifitelcHl 
tucftudno&nt fluid miuH fiyin^ oul^vd frum tljo liuo of tbc motiou 
boforo tbc uoUiiijua. [itid swii^Uiug t^ a bulk Auviirul tiititvi |jrv&tCT< th&n 
tbo fum of ibu uri}!iiiMl bidk» of titv (wi.i gliJkCH.* H<lw Air t^ie fltjid 
Ciata v^ll fly ont nil ri>und ffom tliu lino uf c!<d1i«iou it id iin|>o>MibU 
to My. Tbo tnotioii in too oijia{jlicatoLi to hv fully mvcBbigfrted bj 
aiiy ki]i>wu ntatlioQutioal muthod - but with eul^iiiviil juitleiLce « 
nulbcMiuticiiiU uiit'Lt Imubk* Lo ml^^uluti.^ il v^ith uinio fair appritiiin^ 
tioD t'> tbe truth. Thti didtniLOft r«ttc)ii!il by i\t& extreme omnilftr 

tntfnrluHid TJlhm thr< lut ilUy yi^m ^Tiy vrlrutintH ijmililn^ il« ri^w, «ai>h bl> 
tnwii wibcuIm) U> *\ipiUj thv IjirpurUurc of tlir mvi(»| iijtijri-i rcftTml to in 

nn^cnt in dymtruuiAl K?k»», »ad Ll ooobtLtuloi u curluiui piiihilneiul cooEiuiocnl 

tntne sl*n " buvn nudElfHity ii|i|HUfi.^ uui tbuu «llH|i|i(«r\-<d. nfti^r hAVinjf jdioaa 
tt'i H. vi^rd iiiorttbii rnih ihv. tiiiAb iTilJioat qslandooT, Bunb vud lIiu tUr i^ttfcrved 
hy Tvchg iLrohv ii (}i" jinr M>T2, in Lh« contleUAtion Cu'dmiNNn- In ■> tboii 
i^ it lUTponod tlL« mmtt linJImut ritun, uiiil ftin Jnfit' r t < M. I:* \lzht tbi^ 
tnuiMl KtfHy»iuMl llfiihllj dLBii[iiiK>iri'<l 'UtH^ti moml^t iifT»'i ii-^rv luo'-lour 
iinrti-rttiTiit ■iiii^ri^L i.']iiLiii-ifl : it imv» wl (Irit vf k LfiUljiut ^^lilf, ilii<ri nf b n-i^di^ii 
yrlJoiT. mill iiiiJilE^ I'f A |LDil-i'i>Uiu]i'd Hlijtc. Uka l-i l?filiLni," I'LJurlu'i triLlmlaliim 
uf Lo|itAkc'« ' Bfiivm vl the WviIeI-' UulUn, ItiSD,, 

«« the Sv.n'* Heat. 

of tiio fluid muei wonli) pTi>babl^ ba inaoh l<iflfl that) th« 
fWll-:Mi bx OAcK ^lobo bcifiiro tho cuUuifln, bocaQBC the truiH 

UJutlvJk uf the cioloculcd cxinBtitntiug iko beat iuto irluch the 

OolLikioiJ, M rifnUAbty iihncit t1iN>^Hflbii of Ih^ \v1tfJ« uiiKtnnt 
of tliol utiOFiicy. The time of tiyin^ cut voithl probt^bl/ Ito Ioaa 
tb^n h&If A T<*r, when tbo ^uid ioAM laaat bcgm t*> fiill in cL^in to- 
wnnk tbo axik. la flUnwIhing lC9 tb»u u jtur &fl<ir tliu firvt 
Oi>lUat(kii tbe fluid ^11 ai^n bft in k HtAt<^ of uLAiiinnm cnitvdtnjt 
»QUil Ibvowitra, and tbi« tiiDo nrvbftbly oron raor^i Ti<Jc-nLlv asiittatcd 
it imu iimni^iiitoly oftor tijo fifct cnlliaon ; ftud it will o.§paii 
OUtirnrd. bm t^tiH tbia Bii^lljr townrls tbo pIm^ v!ieUIOt) tba two 
LoltSi full. It will Atpiiu ^l iiiWhnK MOil Wirt n mi'Mly MulwuHiig 
of quicluv and ^inioluir tiAuUitticiiE it wiU AiibHiiln, jrrebablj 
in tha conno of t«o or tbroo jc^r*, into a ifloboleir ntur of aboDt tbo 
«une dinccaii-^cia, Wt. Kud bngbtncA u our pnMrmt auu, but dLflormg 
^H ftom liim iu iLib. iLat it it'iW Luvu riu nvtalion. 

^H W>- hinpprjrini th«i tvo ^1^'1>''^ tA h«T'^ hrriin ai nuit uhnn Ibi^j nare 
^biftfrU tn^in a laalaa] dit^bLiicw ucjtiaI to the ilUmctor of tJio cnrtb'i 
^HnWC }>iippuo« now, that iti«t-7«d uf JinriQ^ boou at tost tbo/ fiod 

^^iMB aumuc iuoppwlo diractiuub witb li wWJty uf (i*u (more 

•XMQjr I'wp) ButtM p(*F Mcoud. TJio miKutmt of mcnnoutaiQ of 

'i«M Eaotraoi ivmbd an a£i« ibri^iigh thu t^vntm i>f ^ravit/ of the tin> 

»b«i porponilkitljLT to Ibuir Imo« of molion is juitt t^juul to tho 

touout of momoatnm of tbo cuji'v rotalioa roatiil Lis mi'*. It la uu 

ilMf uid vuiljr |iroT«iJ btr of jyuMuic* tbtiL uo luuLuuI ib:LJou 

iliHHai|iartiinf ft gronf of biidirji. or nf 4 »i[n<;1o bml;, ri^id, floiUilop 

fiuid, cou Utcr (be luomvat of mr.iDcntiiin of tho wholo^ Tha 

T«Jooit5 LO tho oaAo wo uv wt'x fcippuxiue is au anoU 

nnoo of Ibo nmu fo*turo« of tlju colli^iuu iLrid uf tlio wild 

atUtiocn folloTiiLg it. whi^h we bavn Imvu cmisiibrriTt)^. i^r itt the 

litndo, lutatyVld Lrigbrni^Ma of tbv n^nUritg vtiir, nil] br H^nnhlj 

[^Itorod; bat novr, itIe.^.*MI H>f b«iu^ rvtot i oiili*», il will Ur mvolvitii; 

tvoad in tweuly-fiw iloyn and *o in ilU rvapocia Itku tu uur huh. 

If inrtwi of boiuK at ri'ftt iiiiiiall;, nr [ju-vitjic ^viib tbo mmtll 

tnamna vdiidtini vie Imvu lier^n eooHdrTLiig. miih gliUi bnd & 

tV«i«T«vao volooit^ of thr«0-'|(iai'k'ra (<kr u-uytbiug mi>ro thaii '71) of 

» bitomottv ^ wooad, tboy wi^oll juA <t»ULpo oullifliou, aud would 

rorolro la olhptOH roand tbo ocnln of ti^ottia m a iwrjixl of uue ycar^ 

^—JuKt |[nuing eacb odicr'i nurfacu ovciry tiuiu ibcj oaiuo to tbo utia>ra«t 

^KboiotM of Iboir ortillit. 

^F H ibo izutial tmm«tw3 felodity of ofteb globo bo loia tban, bnt 
^nW)l moob toM tliAB, '71 of m knocD«lro por M^imd, tboro wil) be » 
^* violoDl Knulofi oflliiuoiit nitd two brinlit «iiiia, aolid ^lob«« butliui in 
frniUig fluid, vriH miiin into caiKtotim m liio ouUfBA of iL f^w bonm, 
Kkd will o«>iuu}<Ji;co rovo1viti|Z rouiid tJjuir vomuKiu cvutro of iuortio in 
lottg oUijitic oMU iu • ]KJn«>l of * l^ttlo kaa tbau a juar. Tidal 
taknclMiB bUAouu tbcu will djfuinivb Uto cocoul^i^sitJoo of tliuir 

Ibe sou hfiTc }uB pruwnt «1ftw roUtion wh^m nhnutk t<^ tii« pmNHit 

oUiDr, BO to (pctfjf, in. cm tho dry thi'or/ of prnhubilitv, vi<*E>odiiigly 
improbabU- On iho othur luiDrl. tburo in ccrtomtj llmt Ujo two Lcxliod 
A ftn<l B at rwt lu oi^icv if left to UiomnulTo* D^nUAturUiil 1>r filiii^r 
rllrnr^t imptv^lt Artt) thctrfnm with no notion of lhn\r ctiutro of mrrtu, 
and >io rothliotiu] laumc^utiuu vt tbo (.vimpouud body atU9 thftCLillittiou. 
Tbuit wc suo tLut Ibu ilry probability of mlliJiiuD botwcotj twi> iiuti^b- 
b<*ure (-f a tll^I iiiimbor uf iduIuaU/ uttntctiu^ bodi^ii vidcly kaI* 
UiTfid thruiij^b ^pauo IJI [Qiicb nn^ater if iJi^t injilirH Iv^ ull glvun « 
i¥«Lf thauif tbc^y bc! giviMi tiiuving tti any miifloiii diri«'ti<t]i« tind with 
liny voln?iltcs CijiisidvruMu in viTripariiioii uitli tliu Ti>lucItio*i wlu<ib 
tbey vrotild aMCiiuim in fjiHing fiHiiu T««t luto crltioiou. In tijiA oou- 
ueciivu it j# luont iiit«rQp^a^ to kiioM' fnjiii ^U'lTiu- nsLn/nou^y, aidrd 
ACiAplcQdJdly nk it huA n.-L-uutJy bvcu by tbii tj»ioir<tA(^ipn, tliat tho 
rcdattvo motiOHa of the Ti^ihl*) txurA »iiil ciiir viii] ^rv pe^iiArttlly wry 
nnftil in ccmpanson with tbo ndontty (fjiU kibjiU4,>tcji por ms>oii'I) 
irbicb a bi'tly would Bici^iiiro ia fnlliniE into tho ituQ, ikuJ ikiQ comTiu- 
a\i}i> Avith tlic! niudonto litUi? ¥vIuoity (2L> >i kilujuotiijfi pvr beL-ouff) of 
thcHLtth in lior nrbit ruuiid the huu. 

To lix thu i<1od«, Oiink <>f two cool Holtd gloW. oacb of iho mudo 
motn douaily m tl^o onrth, nud <<f lialf tbo eiin'H dibiQuter ; giron at 
roflti or iie&fly at itst, at a diatAiioe luundor cqital to twicu Lbu isLrtb's 
diHtftncH^ frum tbc Bua. They will fall togetlitr ind iioHidn in *^tttOtly 
balfayur. ThQ cr^llidim vill loat fitr nVout Lidf aa liour, tn llio 
OontM of wbiob Uioj u^ill be trau^omidd iuto a \ioltiiitlj imitated 
inoo&dOflCOOi fluid maafi llyJng (itit^nrd fr^>n] tl^o lino uf iha mijliou 
Imf iiv tkr uLiUiaiou, uiid awtlliug to a bulk ncTcrol tiuinii jjrtAtor Iban 
thu i»uni of ilii> itri|/iu;tl {mlkn nf tbu twn f^l^ti^M.* How for th« fluid 
TDOM vill lly oat nil lonnd from thu liiLn nf (\illii4ioii it ia impoteiblo 
to CAV. Tbe inotiiiu is too cojcpli^uiod to be fnJIy luvoetigafcod by 
oay knoHQ mtitLviiiihtionl mtthud ; bat ^rilb aaO^DJciit [iKliaimQ tt 
mallieiuatLciiiii JiiL(^ht iKfublu Ur ctJculatu JtuiLb ttnuii? fbir npproifmM 
t&on to thti irutb. Tho difltaucis reiicho*! by tbv oxtrumo ciroulor 


lnlMi1n«d vltbiu th^ lut uliiy ywn (by sninitUiji iinrftking u n^w, »D«xb bii 
itmi YBinaciilftr) Wj sitniry tbo imprtrlm^irff oT the *prtm Mubjiirt ff r-rrpj to In 
Hull cw«. TUd ckpraeiou ninmrnt cf (nAcnpntniu ie blul^lr taIuuMi.* nnd a>n- 
v«ni<-i]l ill J^tiuuE^aI DcioQOo, iknd it ooaatitut«a a ouriuu* |»bilbl<i|tical utuiLUjiwiit 

•omt' HloJH "liuvi? »mlOEiiil7 n|i|««Jvil, Mid Uimi »lj«|>|niiinl, artier ha \!nj/ Hhnnp 
fiiT Hjwrnl uimitht wtrL llm uiiibI Willicuit h^JaiidouT, bnuh nai Uii! Alar oWrrrd 
hv ■l'>'tho Drohr' in tlii" vflir i&TH, in t]nJ einnl'diiti'm Cawiyi^ia, lu « nhort 
liiiftu it iDTfikMcd LliA isful tTilh«a HtnTH-imil "Vi n Jii[>itor ktfcir. l(« Jijfbt then 
WLiTH-l imiiy^tiDrl finally iLia|inMrH] cJitHTii utnntht ufior u* i1t>i^im<Ty Ittpoliiiif 
uTiilT^nhi XL iifiLl dioup*; ft nuat flnl ofn triiltjiiut wMLii, Ihi^i <iF n rcJldiiili 
ji]l4iw. iiimI Giudlj (if ft Knd^icJiDDicd vliit^ Id&e tu r^nluni" tUutlL-'t tnuiiktfoii 

tm she HatCs Ilral. 



frifiM d tiie flotd CUM VQuM prolably bo inuoh lote th&a tho 

4kfaiKc fdlLoa 1>r f^ioli globtt boEoro tba ouUbioii, booftaM th« tna^- 

mutioa *4 t)io invloouliM KMiabitntinjE Uio he«t mto whidi lL4> 

'^UUftff oif tlio original Ul of Uio ^KhIim booomo Uftii*A>iMiij>l in 

eoSbdcoj, u probAbljr about thnr-liftlu uf tho wIkiIii iLciiomit 

tbnl Mwrgj- lias time of dying oDt would probably bo Iom 

t&Q hftU ft 740J-, ffL4& tbo fluid BUM mofit b«^o to M\ £& Bjfua tO' 

^Hftnlo lli4 Aikju Id wnnctbinif Icmi tban n jt-Ar Aftui' iho flr»b 

ifioHiidoTi tiko Anu] will tgiuti bo in b e^UUi uf trioxiniiun vnimUnft 

roam) thixvritn^. tnd t.hS« tmio pmb^ty «vi«q ini^ru Tifitfntlj iL;;itiitc<d 

thjui tt VAX iionjHlint^iIy <Jt4»r |h« fii«t ccillision ; &u(i ii vfiti ^jff^u 

ifLitviml, but thin tiioo oiiaUy tommLi tbo pWo* wbonco ibo two 

li>bti« full. It will tti^lii ta}\ iutnudo, and afkr k ropjillj iiabiidifig 

uf qmalctfT uul iinioJit-r iiHtiilbilioim it will kitIibMls prubaUj 

tlu» <H>iiru uf tiVD <^r uutui yniiTty into a ^lobiiUr fit^r uf fthoat tbi 

dinonBl<^H, boat, and hr ^btuuiu oa our prcAciat mtti, but dLlTorJE^ 

bun in tbi«« tbnt it nil! huYv no roUtiiia, 

Wii Kijipunid UiQ iwu ^l[*lwb tjj Lavu bwti ui r(.'t<i mUcti tlitij wt»ro 

ritt fall from t mntriAl dl>itiuii>^ miriftl u> l)ii> iiaEtiff/ir df flifi itftrlh'a 

-btt. bupfiott^, now, that inst^ft'I t>f having baan ut rotut itnty bad 

bora moTiDS in i>ppcwilo dim-tiontt witU a Telocity of t^vo (moro 

MBClly I'SS) metrua pur ho-juJ. Tbc tuuiuiMii of ttKimuutiuu uf 

^M^HlDOUoiis h^uiid An aiU tbniijj^b th*K^tiiIrr:i <^f gravity uf lbi.< lv<i 

^^^^^fa pOrpuDiiiniilir ti^ tbcir lirntH t>f motiim is juiit j^iiaI tu ibo 

^^^^EdA of momoutam of the nun'u tDtntian rotmi hia nrifflH It ia au 

^^^^ftaituy uid conlf prurcid ]avf of djoomii^fl tbat ur> fDQtual i^^tion 

^^pntwivii partH ufn |;ruuy of b-Kliw, or of a siuglif htjdy. nxiil. QuxiMu, 

ur llnid, i*Ai\ aluir iW tnrnncikt fjf itioiiutntLim of tJin wlinin, Thii 

MiWfwM Tdocity in the ouu vo k» uok KnppoEiDS ii to unnlt 

thftt nono of the maia fouturc« of the colliaiun uud of the wild 

oooillAUcaiB JbUviriiXK il< wtiicb nu Laro bi-ra cvusidtrtu^, i>i of tbo 

Itvde, boalsftUdlirl^Liiow of Um tv^ulLn^ ^titr, viill ln^ fu^iihibl/ 

but now, iniitoad of bomg r&tatioaleEB, it will bo ro^rolviEi^ 

~ m tvcntjr-bvv dojo «ld to in kU roBpofjU iitv to our siui. 

If iciBtcad of buing ftl It4t initiallji or moving nith tbo »uuli 

'tcwwTcno tv]ix'Uit« no bftTO boon cutiAiJcrui^. iMLvb |{li>Uf )inil » 

tittWfOtVO valcMsitj of ^tTK-qnirterv (of uiijlhiiig mitny ibnii '71) of 

ft Ulomotro mr ooiwad) tli^t/ wuuld juiit iMWj^pv <;oIliaLon, oad would 

fomlvo IK ollipood roii&>l tlio oniLn: of iiivrtit in a poriud of one joaft 

jiut gmaing ««dh oibtx'a ftmr£ftc« nscry iiian tlio/ comu hi tLu ucorwt 

pijErildtjf tlmir urbilji. 

If tiio initiiJ trtvD^r^jnu vtdooily cf codi globe bo loa« tbni), but 
not muob Um tbAU, '71 uf u kilatnotru pur onMnd^ thor« wiil bo 4 

ITioleul KTmsLog ouUwoDi uid Iwo biiglit Auzut, •'>lid globon batbod in 
fliiiLj-tii^ dald» wUl como iiiito csioteuiHT \u IIid columi tf ji ('■-« bouri», 
■juI will commenco nrolving roand tbdr common ocntra of JnotliA in 
long olliptic orbit4 in a ponod of % tittle Una tbau a ymt. Udol 
isUnwtiou boitt4)oa tliou will diiuiuidb iho ouootiiridtii:H of tlicir 


Sir William Tfumtrnt 


orlritpi, luiil if oo&ticuod Iodr oagugb wU) catuo the two to rv^olrc in 
circuUr orbiU roLiud tlioir c«ntni of iuortui with a diabitioo betwoea 
tlwir iiirfjiOM vi{jtik\ to 0' 44 (lUuivlera uf («c1i. 

t>apj><>ee nr^w, ntill aliooilfig n tmrticukr ciuw to 111 tlio iclrins, that 
twenty -nino iaillio& cold aalid i^lDbcs* each of obont tliQ Bftine mw iw 
the otoan, and omauDting m nil to m totul moas ix^uiil to tlio Bun''^ ore 
tfuuttunxl u uiiifurLii]j ms puHaiLJ'i od b gpLcricml tiurfMue of radiua 
<4qit»1 t> OTii^ taiblred times the rndiiLfl of the cnrth's orhiC. umi timt 
thcj ore kft ftbsolntoly at r«Bt in t!ut podticn. Tboy utill all oom- 
moQCG falling towuitk tliu ooutnj of tbo sphuro, unil wilt tncwt thnro 
ia tAv bouJtvd aud fifty joonw ^ud every o»« of tlio tvruuty-uiuo 
milliuu ^Utbes will tbi-Hi, lu U;u coiitmi (»f Imlf ihii b^iLr, Im jartllcul, 
acd raigfciJ to a Uiiojiemtn^s of a few banilred tboiianuJ or a million 
degrees Ceati^mde. Tlio Guid mofls tbuu funnod will, by tLii pro- 
digiDUF* beat, bo Mplodcd (:<1lt^r^^1l» m V[tT>C'ur or f^ ull r^uiid. Ila 
lx>uiidury will riiucb tu u dlbluiou i-vinHitlvnilrly K^ml lIuuj <juti buudrud 
tlrat« the miiiiis nf tlie mrth'fi urbit on tlrnt flying oni in its ('ilrtimo 
limits A dimlniELmg st^riee of out nnd iti uet^illutLons i^iU fellow, 
ukI tLc iiia^duficc&t glubo tUiiB ot'itructuiiij; nud vxpiiitdiDi; ulttmntolyi 
in Lbo <4>nr»o it la^j bn of tbroo <?r fonr liundrod yt:*!-*, "ill wttlc to 
n mdiim lif foity* tiuii?e Lbo indius uf tlie eLLrtb^ urblL The ATunige 
dciifflLyof ttie grweotia nobtiln tlina formed would be (215 X ^^}~\ 
or emu nix bundrtd lutd tljU'ty-eii tbouROud luUlioulb vf th<> fian'tt 
luoftQ dobaity ; or onQ fuur buudrutl jn^d Gfty-fi>ttr tboiiintid millionth 
iif tbt? iktEHilj of nutor; i>r one fiyo Luuilci^l And BOTeitiy iikiHIftiilb uf 
thiU of niJTTiTnoTj »ir lit ati ordiiiiuy tLnrihirnture of 10° 0, Thn dorisiiy 
ia it« codtE-iLl rugioiLHi Btineibty iJtufijnji Ibrongh Buvtrckl niilEion 
kilouiotTMi, IP (uuu note 01^ p- 11} ono twf^nty tbuueund iQilliontb of 
ibat <•( yiitict ; CT oqo tncnty-fivc LuHioiitb of tliikt of air, 
TbiH cicoediugly mnaU dca^ity ie noaily eli timos thd defifilCy 
of tho oij^u and nitrugon U-fi jri Bome of tbo receiron 
iMlicLustud by Bottoudey in bis ^ix^iorimonlii) mQ4«iirotu(JUt£ of Ibo 
uuoitat of Lent cnoitbod by poro rodiaticm from higltly b<]atcd boflios. 
If the MubAtoQcc wore oiygoit, or aitrogQD. cr other goa or ntlxtiiro of 
myvn uiaplu ur (?oni|ioiiui1, of u[H!«ific dL-Dsity er^tial to th<? ■pt^ciAe 
doosity of ouf air, Ibc c^^utrot l^mperatxiro woiUd bo 51,200^ Gent, 
and Ibo avorjkgo trvnolatiounl velocity of tho rooloculoa 6-6S kilo- 
motrea per soo^nd, Ijeing ^^ of lOS, the volocity acquired by ft 
bcAvy U>1y fu^liLig iinreHLtbid from tEie oaiet bouudory (of 40 timr^ 
tlie radiiuof tli^ i?Art1i'a orb^t) to t\i& vfsnlK of the JiobulouH r^As^, 

Tba gkdoouB nvbida thiie confltituted woidd in the oonrsA of a fow 
mitijoii ycATSf by couetautly radiating out bent, idiriiik to tho siEd of 
our preKut sou, wbcD it Tvould bave euLctly tbo sumo boating and 
lighting i^ffieiency. But do motiiin t^f rolMtion. 

* Tlia nbliuB<jf » btfKKli ^EfiljiiU^ uuvt^i^B ikuliulu n( uiy hoiat>KOji«fUit eu ia 
40 pci hlL f'f th^ iTblimi of tbo r(j>]>r<ric4l mirfttOL^ from <vhioh lU iu^^rcfUealfi 
IDUM fall lo thoir uiLul poiitioDD in the aobuJu |<i lure the Mrue kUMUc e 
u tlie nabufn hu. 


M Ar Si*H't H^i. 

Ibe moaoDi of m omon te m of Iho wbolo Kfha irrikm it, aUjut 
cl^lNa toBfls tliAt of tlio na'a roWinn ; Mrr^nteoii-i-igbUt^nEJic bdng 
Ja|dte'ft ftttd onft-«igtit«eiill] llie Snn'w. the oibnr brvdi^fi b«EDg not 
vflstb toUng htlo tecoDol fit tbe n^k^niiig of uoinoat of mooMotuQ. 

KMvwBMad of bdng ^h^oliilolj tt not m tb« b^jiuuiv, lot the 
tillj niBO nailliOD nkooiw be giroo c«c1i with somo mudi tnotiim, 
wibng up ill nil an ftmoauL of niomaiit of inmnrntnin ^ytntil * otttun 
tib, •^ttftl to t1i« ittoai«rnt or mosientum of i\if- koUlt uysUmi whiofa «« 

frc Aei off rw^inf p tfJimn. Thojr wiU fliU toother for two 
hudred kud flltjr fcant uid ^ou^li not montJ^K pnvianlj In iIm 
am in tlii* mt cnppoaeJ cisa of ni> primitive laotintr, t1;»j 
two bvDdicd uhI thy jnn Uom tho b«^iULiiig, be co crondod 
bor IbM tWro will W mjriftdii of ooUJAto&p, ftod nliuoitt ovcrr 
fl«« at tbo twcntj-bicc million ftlobca vrill 1>o moltod ftoil drtTGu 
uda v«pvttr t:7 tnv bi«t uf thaaa oallistoiu. Tbu vapniir or gu 
Au getwrBtod vitl llj oatwudx, lind after Mverd tumireita or 
Ibovutds of r«aT« of ODlwMrd ttni invais) nwilbtorj niution. may 
leltlc talo AD oUato r:>Uliii|; Df^bulft 4iiliitk<Jinic it« eqiiAturial r^ 
dins fkr beyond the nclnt of Neiiiimo, uid witlt moniGnt of momeutiun 
t^vkl U> or csreulin^ tbD mmnent of niotmaitmn of tha suUr 
iplML TliU 11 Jiut the be^cmtog |iostuJKt«d by Laplbcv for 
km MbnW IbeoTf of tho <maticrli of tbo «olar »yahaa; irluch, 
liottdad on tbo luitiinl bittory of tbo ftolloT nuiTorAC m oV 
liy tb« eklcr Qerwbell, &ud oomitlcTtod iij diituilK hy tbj? 
id tlykAfnieBl jiMgniMt and itii*gJtiHtiv« gOTiiuH nrf LnpUi^cH 
ocHmttod by thfrmndynunifii into • ooooflAiLr/ trulb, if vtv 
no ttihtf UBOortftin mamptioa lliui tijat IL^ mak^kJiU al prv»vut 
lUitlBC Ibo d«ad nuttor (>f tbo nctUr flTituu have eiibtoO undur 
Iftvacf dcflH inttt4T for a baudml million jrmn. Thiiti thnm may 
to roMtf bVBcitbiDi- rm^roof SByttl^ry 'ir cif di|fi<:itlly in tbo imtomntio 
p ujp twa of llio Bofar syftom froui c»M iiiAit<:Tr clifTnefil lljroti^h 
f|aM; lo ili proMikt nwoifopl order and bcftiily. liglitoil ami WKmicd 
by iu brtltiuil «ms^ Iban tlif^rc in m tliu wiiiiiing iip of u d<HTlc* and 
loltiBg it |;io till It fttont, I iiiM<fl Aoarcvl^ huj lliat tlji> bcgiimiiig [ind 
Ibft auuoiaoAMo of lifo on tbo carlli i4 &1)»i>luUly mhI intinituty 
ibft nuffV of mD lonnd vpoontotlon in (l^u&mii»l ecieucc. TLo 
aobibotkn of d^imiaJc* tn tboorclb^l biology tfl ikbirolute 
of ftvtoDUitio «>^rriiiii>itoi>n](^i]t (-r nutiimiitio rrtKiTiU^nunty* of 

I flbAll only oay xa vonolniion : — Aaauiaing tbc vun'a raasa to be 
of nuik'riali wbicb were for aniuidcr bcforo it vrua but, the 
avtooeilent bo its ineonduiuwnoo mnil baTu booo i*ilb«r two 
WioMffith det«iU difibriug odIj in propnrlii>fi« utA ilcndt^on from 

* Pvm tn tt^ aaJ lU tlft pmiwHliB of tnMb>f vlih^ti it lur-^lvi-e, tlicn Ij 
MuKh. and iMn Itaa mwncli. "f myrU:rf U^ hue liiuElc*! (inilrntrutJin^' A 


TfiL xn. (Su, fli.) 


Sir W^mn 7%mn«oa 


tlto r*MH V9 fcftTO been now cnnaMen'ng ju (?inmp)oe; or !t miurt 
hava bogn Aom^ nambor tnot-Q tknn two— «ame finite bnmbor— M 
tho mmt llio Duidber ^rf uVmus in tho eitu'« proa^nt ma^ a firut« 
niwiibur (wliicb m»y proliablj ccougli bo e^iiDetiiing Iwlwtwii -1 k 10*" 
ftad 140 X 10") OA DLisily tnii1oretHri>*l ard iinhgin4.v) liH iiiii»b«r 4 at 
140. Tbo immwlmtfi nnlvo^«T)t ^> ihcad il^o«no« may havn b^n tlie 
wbo|« coQBtittii.'iiti4 in thu uilrcmo oi^uditioD of eubdivisioti — thut ie 
to njt ill iljt- voLi^iltDu iif «epainlc ali^ma ; or it aukj bavo \fv<'u 
inj ATinllcr mimh-r of grroupR nf aU^eiiii mnlLiiig iiittiule urjbtblK (ir 
gnrnpfl of €"rj»lfll&— sHowflnkL"* of mwltf^r, lu it, wcrfl : or U muy bivTn 
beon InmpB of mulU>r tiko ft miK^aiLainHiiij^ Ht-no ^ or liico thii 
bWuo * (Fi^, 1)> wbkL ymi laigbl inUtako for a niacodliumujii; 

Fjfi. 1. 

.5 centiiDBtrea, 

stone, A&d wbiob waa ncttullj trarolliug Ibmugb aimm? till It foil oa 
tli« Mrtb ul Poneil. in llie onighlhiutltacHT of G1a«gnw^ tm AfKI A, 
1804; or liko thai* (Fig. 2) wlidi waa foiiod iti the Uowart of 
AtftoaiBo, in Socith Amorion, and i^ IxiliQ^od lo baru fifcUon 
tbere from tto tky — a fragnicut msui& up of irou clqi) etoue, wblcU 

* ThcBO thri>M]i«tenTit.<4 nrv in tbo poaei^BBicin of Llis UuaUriikti Uii^Diq nf 
llie Uiiitf&r«i'j' <"'( f-itimpiw, nnd rhfl wixulruts, Figm, ]. 2» Jifcd ):(, Uaro hwa 
utfnti'd fmm tho iictunJ apecimend kinilly I'^ni r^r iliAt pirTTv^ui liy tTi^ ketpf^r nf 
lilt mnaeuiiL. Pnjri*5si^i Vuuiij!, TUl- opeoimcn repreaefiloi bv Fig. I le fvu taiutiJ 
m tbct HuuUiriui r!u]lCitljoi], Ibat b^ Ft^. 2 in U^n Zv\ rollKtion, bihI lljAt W 
V%g. 3 iu Lbe LiLiiQii'; utttoftioii— Uld bouL" nT ^Hmi^AhiDUg ja ahown fof cuib, It 
mn^ be rciQit'kMl tJmt Krg. 1£ rspredcurii ■ ^oc^Linn of tho rneU^jrile IckboD in tbo 
plans 4»r tlio Irmcf^l rwiangiiluF mnj' tb^ hrl^l^T intrkln^ bfing larirre and 
wH-bnood or><iUitti of i>Uvi[ic> 'srutiodnk^d in u uuitili. i/f Irun. In Fik- 3 
JcpialH the UftutiM WidniauAlBttDu Qiaibtjjg diiuitvttnulio <>f ull nvVcatK 
and to mil nb^vn in tb« woLI-kuoTra I^uftrlo uieieorilo. 


m A* Snm'jt Jlaa. 

■ft if it liac tolUift^d ^lu a mixture oT m?«l ftod m^IUd 
b ■ |)Uc« wfaere tb«rtf *m Tcrj litt1« of ^oATtnow; or Uiia 
~ :/ oijfltelliflid ^iflov of ima (Fig. S), % »kb out oat 

I'll] '1. 

.^ fnilliJii'lft* 



Sir WtUiata Thtrntrm 


of tiio ««U1>r«to1 neroliM nhioh foil aI Lonartf^ In Hungary;* 
or tliia woudcrfulijr-filiftpod ipcciiDOD (of wbtdi two viovfu oro giren 

Kia, «. 

in FijB. 4 and £), a mpdel of tlitf Middleebnrgb moUwnte (kindly 
fpTQQ luc by FrofeflaoF A. & Hersobol), having ootnigi^tioiw sLowinij 

«<• tU 3m^4 Ucat. 


Iw lift iixlled tsuUer liw been aawvred i>fr frou lln) front pu'l of ibi 
•Brte» in Its ftn^ rwdi Uirongli itiA enrtb'b «Uno8|Jioro urh'.'u it wm 
VMD to &U OD lUrclt 14, 1S8I, nl ^3.') P.H. 

For tbo thcoiry of the «Tia it b inijfforont ^kich of tKoKr inrJetioa 
<^ eoftAgBTBtioiia of tD*Utt nuij bare bo-^u the iuimuliJiUr aTiltx^OLkint 
of liis tDOMJoiMEDCO, bnt T a^n norcr think cf tb<;H(- niAUTiA! aiito* 
oidialt without nBomberin^ % qaeitSoD pni l^) Tno tbitiy jrmn Kgij 
\f th» kto Biibop BiriBX, l^^f^xtlp of Ar^tjlJ ATid lb« IsIoa : ■< Di> jou 
ittMgioo tkftipWMof nubUcr to hura bc«Q *« h ih ftomthcba^Inum^ ; 
lo MTtt \nm ovttlid «■ il iv, ur b] liutu tttn j^ U lh ihrcuzgh all tiiTie 
IfUUi^ootkowjtiiT" I baJ told hin lUi E h^Uivm1i),e xmilo bo 
bsUt ap of nwCMrie rtonM, bttt bo vroald not ba BatiHll*>d lili lio ku^^ur 
oroould imAKUie, wbftt kind cf vtiract I coqU aot bcit agrM nith 
luu ift faoUftg it ixDpoMKtblo U> iED^tiao tint any cow uf HU^h iii<>l4X)- 
«« thov DOW beroM jon hu b««n a4 it itt iJiniiigb all linn*, or 
|lbd Btttarkla of Ibo ran w«ffi> Like tbU for aII tivno befcre tliAj 
loffdbor »ikil bceuttft hc4- Sardy tbta »touo biu nn cvcntfot 
7, but I kbAll not tu joor pftlieooo b/ ti^iiig ja»t noir to tmco 
l|j. 1 «fa«U onlj nj Umi wu c^a^iut btiL n^u» witb tlie 
OfiEaloIi whicb Tcginda mftteoritM *« fm^^u^nU biobvn from 
brgvr aUMCw^ «id w« oauiot bo ntJslbrl wtiliont trjing to itaagiae 
wcvo Uio tAtcotdttli of UiC0O naavoa. 

[W. T.] 

I^rofcHOr W. VaUitcin Sptnc^ 

[Jan. 28, 


Fridny. Junuarj 28, 1887. 

Sw J[itt> LuumxJK, Bfti't. M.P- D,CX. LL.D- F,R.8. 
Yioe-FnuidcDl, in tbe Obur, 

Tha Pineai Kye tit L^zarfU. 

TuvnE U prt^Hiiit iu tlio huuiau bi&ui, liuriod Jeepl/ bramtU tUo 
GuHftuu luid biii<<ti vonwiil<>d frora view eitemikllj, a «(d&11 blimt 

Eroce«ft; it dilK*r« in nfttiu« ttt^m tha surroaniiias D^rTOiis matter, 
oiuK hn^rd to lie toiicb. To thip bidel]! prncoae lumnit AUfttonxiets 
gtvo Itc UADifJ of I'lrii^a' rf^oncf, aqJ iU nioauiog hns always leuiUQod 
K |>n»li1i!ni, liiV(.<KligjitJciti <if tLr* brniiiB of otiter lULitunl? allowed tbat 
ill tlioau tbti vtiuuturtj wuh pitHuut' ill fflctil U t^picul c>r tho tfrmiua 
of uJi irtic vurkbruU, vxA iic'l ouly tbia, tbo lowiir wudonotittd in ibs 
■c*Jo <»f TwrlcbruUi hh, l.lio more liiglily dcvcloptd doc* it beoomc ia 
DompariBOTi l<j tlie rumaiuiiig pnrtu of lIiu bmiu. Iu i«uqIl a luamirml 
U ■ rabbit it iBf fur- ouimplo, lATger tbnn td lusu ; hi • bird it i« stilt 
more higbJj duvoJopod ; wbilet wbvu ^ve «otiie d*jwu to ll«bee, tbe 
pmcft] gUuil or ^yiphtfisi*, as it id bolter culled, nssiimce tbo form of 
ft furwordl^' t]ire<^uAl Lullon pi\M3QgH wbose dietol extriMuity ia affoUen 
out into ft vffiid<), tb« prcTimal purt formmg a bullow stalk Tunniiig 
Imu:Ie tQ tbe roof of tlio brain. If tlia btttiu of a lizard, euoh as 
HiUtmo.t bi> ouiDiiuod, tbo opipbyeifl U aoon to bave utideri^tio a vory 
definite oliftuge : it i« diviJeil luure dearly lLau In oLbur auuuftl8 into 
tbe tvu divimoDS abitvo tneutkruod : Hoclioimp liowuvtir, ubow tlint tlie 
litalk tB Holid Aud tbat tbe Tosiole bue become duvolop4^d into ad 
organ of vi»iou - into a yineal e^e. Tbis ia tlie bigbuBt Btage of 
dereelopojcut reached by tlioopipljBis, aud isnowprotiorTed, eo iatm 
in at prtiHeut kituwii, iu IizuOb t^tUy aniunget livia^ uuiuLuLk 

TcTrriing tm Ibo dij^eldpaDiTDt of the brain: it is sf»u in early 
atA|;«G in all vorttjbr&IcB to biLvo the furm of a eimpU tubcrucining 
tho ^rbulc lougtb ot' Ebo liacb cf tlie nmniaJ ; a Lttio Ifttor tbo nalU of 
the anterior division bjkT(! bulged out and givon rise to thiee vesicles 
wbicb itTfi knuATi ut tlje fuii.\ mid, and hind bmitiH ; ilm paj-t of iliu 
ltilM> posKirior t*^ lliwe fumiB thi.' epin*! oord. Ah dtivfjlc^pmecl 
proco^^i, from tlic tViro bruin i.iu uitbor j^dc ie givoc off a bollow 
proccftSt ooch one of ^Idcb fgrms an cplic Toaivle, and at Ibe ooine 
time tborc gruw forward two oot^^wthe of ih^ foro brain which give 
Hmb to tbe c«rchral bemiEpbeiefi ; in ^ildjliiin Ed Hie^iu KlTEiolrirtis, the 
roof of Ibe for« brain giv^a ofi'ti Riugle median oulgrowlb wbiub gronre 
forward witbiii tbe akuU cavity, et^cUing cut digtally into a snail 


09 iAtf /"iHCsi £yr t« Uatr^t 


«M: in thr nkiiTI TsTI itwl^ ui miut M^wr^W tlieM b pmMt ft 

lieilbe m&U Ttviol^ Cliugea^ toko pkoA ID ^ «a]Ib cJ tho optio 
wdu vbicL Uuiiflfunn ttkun iato too maamoij nrt« uf tho |i«im 
■fi^vUlit tko lUuaU imtdn fofi»ix] oat uf thu do»ftl outgrowtli of 
^ taiftt or npiphjiia. bfx»maB farmod iato Uie ttmglo pitutU ^ne. 
llHfrDn Um wulfl ofLho fore bnin uedetidupol in lisAitU tlmw 
a y » ft «ik^(lc TweflOT and two pftirod coKtL. 

Diyuwung fur n luumeal, it id iuiurTeliu^ to iiolinr tlmt Ihli fin bj 
tto Douft th* onlj oianipU cpf a dnglo iD^dlAn ^« wtuoZi i« known ia 
Um iftiBwl ki&gdcMD. Alooat ovovf pooplo hag lis mytb of a modum- 
•jrcd raoo of 0100, vbo mtj. *« in bho Groaiaii Cro1op«i, bo rr^j^naviriUhl 
nb tk» tinglfi Ojc^oi wilL this lu ad-liLlui; Ui tt« fAirod v-yw: tl tM 
Cttrtea alao to itvl UuU BtifUlui mul Rivabrv tvprwunlal «iUi modian 
•ftm t whilai ti> tncb aa oiiait u tfcia tdoa oarriMi, tkal ofon tb« 
NaftMi Kirl fiaintii 00 bier fbrobo^d the obtUnoof annielA modiaaoj?. 

Ijiflrnufi ^« mythiobt we oome to anicub in vbioh Huch u Hlnioturo 
V arjnalljr pnwnit: £u IlkiT cImh Oramtuwa «v utwt with raui^ 
aM|ilf nf ihia : Aral in th« lUilo hftili-wftttfr Cydopt uid m\\ \U 
alfaa, Ikocft ia cmlj tbo one rcliUr; e^ tho prvtcnct.' of irLi^b ha« 
1PM<^ fbr it lift ouno. In other OnmUcca a^in wii find tlint 
Inft ■aiaftl uo lAtiDg iLe e^-^obo ba« a vprj duikiiitdi funu, t^mte 
VftUbfttkftI of Ibo a^liklt^ il U, amimgAt rjth'^r (hiTigi(,aLnuys provide 
wtHk thrMiftftd no mafvarlaa* than thnui jHtita kX nfipniidag^^e b^ 
aMBBi of wkicti ii movofl ftboal; it hoa In Adiitiotj alwitje a siuKlu 
tfftiiko «ja vhieb, ioaanftoli aa tbb animal lu thia Hbi^'t m ra\\^ a 
—piw, ia known aa lJi« uauplEiut i7«v. A14 d4itf.']>j|rmnnt gi>M c&, 
lfc«a ftp|iiaf tftO «fW| onu al otthor slda of tho ori^iuul ouo : m (cmu 
MMi m laUct oiftj duap|>caT, in«1lwtftit may Ui Kliun^^l, thoogli 
lli« liiofsl pwrftd mjtm Jitnjm beoomo Urgicr Uiu Iho xiui^lf] ouc, and 
■boa, tbongB Uur* U no reuGcniteoUau betiroou ihc tM» whiv^vor, wo 
iftd la Cnumon ft tnadfftn ftnd t«f) |HJr^ «ij«h preaont jntl as ia 


TttnJftg to llw InUcr, wo Cad thn opipbJtil^ a« boforo uid, 
voii U^b^ dtrtdofiud thui in ouj ulbcr Uving nnimjiU Thtii dUl^vl 
THhwlar ox^ftunon ia pnaeiit in uiuiiy fontUn bril hnro only ii U 
hurfiirnifid uto an fty« and «oniiaci4^ with tbo bmia bv a agjid 
pinrtt] nUlk doTotopod fk<ca Ibo proiuoal pari cJ Ihu 4s\-i\^j^ and 
Airriag duoUlMA M an oftic ncrrc. 

If tbi« bd«d t^ a iitatd, Hurh as nu hjtinna or C/iial^i. Im ^itviuund, 
ItLMn ia nsik on the iniddio lino d^-rioJlj, mv\ fti>[naurhat buhini tho 
kvoiof UuHiroioTOa, ftp«ciiliarl5m4Hliii.hlE<4Jo; it bvar« aoitcuUr 
^no^ vbiJi mftj m rminod into a d(jmi>-«Jiapc]. or may bo loaroly 
■nmmnilcil bj ft rabtod run, but ia alifnjv uuticeaDo by its wUit«tuT»i, 
Ihb baiotf dilft to an abMBum tjf pi|^iiii<tit in thn nkiu of IbtH par- 
liiuhr apol. Tb» raodiltod tcftU iurlL<;at<>ii thn pfdtiion of tb>> ptccnl 
*f* Wf9 bftMftUi, ftftd tbon of tbo pcLricfbii fonunon cDoltunnK tlie 
ajftl ildCNM iMvi umcawfilf ^ilbjw tbnt no cyo in prfount. bccaiiKJ 


Ftoftm>»r W. BuJcftfiJi Spn^H' 

[Ju, ^, 

Am b tw tpocui oitomd inclic^kLioD, nor, tm tlio ollf^r liauil. iSo^e 
tb niMDOa c/tbo btttcr mdicAto iufiillibly a wtll-Jifviili'^n'tl vyi^ 

ThiiA in Uatteria, Iha N«w Zl'^IilhiI liiRril, iZietw ih tin nTtimnl 
ibdicntioiii of iha vve^ utvo iterhh]ia a aliglit ikbscTiDa of [iigiiiout in tho 
•Itin icitrifKlitklcljr ft1>0f« ttio |HLrkrbd fi>nuiiGii ; liut if longitudinal 
rurtitMil iK>c(i^iifl Ix: cut throngli the lituul, Ibu cjt^ ia fouuJ lyinij 
drnpl/ piubcilclpd in aiTJni^tiTo lisnua within the fommon, Tt hits 
tho farm Aotccwlint of a <!uim>. wLoeo bate ic <liroct«d furvirdi oni 
upwordfL, ^-Liilflt ibo n|>t^x iKjiutN bMkvrurde luid ie iiuitod witb tlio 
Iiinuul ^btlk. Tbo biu^J of (Ita c^no is furinml Irjr tbu lutuiv nLich 
oousIfllH iif 4iI<iii^iLt<i, iiiic1i-4iti:il i^ktllfl. nrrnrij^ui] tui ;lh k> f^rui n lvmju 
wllOM apoi pointH iimrnTxlM iind lim in the lino of iIlo optfc atU; tha 
Ut\a lA diroctlj' wnliantinrt with llmMtina^ aiid Ihua, nnliko thnt of iJio 

KimI cjroSi ia foiiiii^t dirontLy out vi vhni vtm or]^maU;r fort of tho 
uu-vall. Tlie r«lJiiJi lUk^lf U hiiU i1vf i^IoinhI lu llaitfria. huil farum 
aHtmng contfiut tn thut of thir InU^ral nyn, tiinijnMioh u Oiu ri>1fli.<*(n- 
boddcnJ in d&rk-broTii pigmont, fjico invnrila Aod liao tlio cavity of 
Uio Ti»icl«^ Akilst in tliti twirotl vjc, ibo vuoo Alructurcn aro on tbo 
oido of tlio rotiua rctuulu iroin tbo carily of tlio cya iu the adult, 
tUongh ttti^ it miirtt lio rMimmlxinvl, ik iint hniiiokgoiM with Ihu 
4^Tlt>- in the pincckl cjd. F^ErrziiU to tlio roiiti lino llrat a Iftver 
of cphoncal, tiuclcatod ulamcmte, Uioq a moloculor lajar ooiwuiiajt 
of finely puuatatcd cDBtvtial, tLon niiolhcr Urer ccf fplioncAl dcmoaU, 
Jolluwdd by a laynr <»f oi/uu auil »|iiuiUH^kkpud titiuuturuty which 
A^iiJTi \\q i\\n\ft\j npim a thin Inyrr of Tki>rT«'ll1rr(.'4 »pi-***u| 1 ng out 
from th*t piuonl Btnlk, Th'.« rod* lyinj; in Ilio optic ix\n Arc* cauob 
clongaloi ftnd vi^ry pwuiiutiit, « fnatana oomxann (o all cyo* nhich 
&re blilt in coiiUL-ctu/ii ^vitL Ibo optL' Hinlk- Thi* lunj bu taken M 
a di-KCripiidii of ihd ii'tiuii of a ly|>frAl iiEnuitl ^jr, though it in inc<ra 
higlily dovcJopHi in fTatfrria thna in many oilier lizjirU ut tho 
prcficnt i\ay* i'ho r(^tnnilldc^ cif tho cpiphyme nioy bo diTiilwi inli) 
ino yai-b^. & Holid piuonl atulh ncarcet the eyo« And a hollovf put 
ruimio^ bdi^k to tliu ivi-r uf tliu brain und ovcrl^iug^ u it nrars tho 
Iftllor, Iho T*Hcnli\r rnof of ihii IhinI vcnlHcli*. 

In many Usoirdji do^ncnktion Btoms lo linvo eot iu and tlxo oyo 
to hate beoomo moro rudiinoniuT'y than it ie in Itutliria ; m fact, la 
tlic ]ttlli>r. tJio only eign of its rudimtnlury nalufc Is ita pnaition 
GeL^ply \im-M in tho ouniteetivo tiwiiii^ wilhiu thi* pnrictAl fammen, 
A pi>«itLOQ wbi<!U must pte^cEt its functioTiin;^ oa au orgna of TiBiaa 
at tiio protciui time. If wo tuko sucli a HkaFiI aa ffrmnnj &#n^iiFfn«ii, 
BCftioiis tliTough tlio pariptul fi^rnrucn ahon that tlio eye id well 
duvislopud and |iLkCU<l (ii^^t far Wlo^v Lhir futrfuixi iit ihu IlciluI, wbilat 
btftweifn it and tho latter is a ntark^d atuniidf fif the piguent o<dla 
which form aa promiaent u feature in ccctiima of tho akiu i\\\ iiround. 
Further ciAmination howo/or ro*coI» an irapurtinit \>i/htt uf Oiflbronco 
wliCU ooiupattd irltli ll'iUnria—thf fyr hatt lout it* rtma'-rliim t/rilh th« 
jiriKriaal jmri itf ihf fifaphpsiiii, vhxch hiw thu form of a liollun |iroc«»i 


m the Pin€at Bft <■ LiMt^ 



fdffwutk from tbo roof of Ibo brwii wiUiin tJio flknll tUl 
il rsttcbe* tko pori'^tal fctwncti : biLl tlir libiCiil vcmoIo. traii^fi^nn^ 
into ui ejti, W bwviue <xu]i|il»te1f nepanilAil oIT frcim it. Tltiii 
kgftin xDftj b« t»k«Q lui iLii eunnple of « krgu ziqiiiIkt of lisArdc, 
i»d»iimg tWkh forms ■« t^araMt* IfogaUmi*, An^ttit frayiiU, 8rp« 
ildrfJim uul Calotte itpkicmoffa^ In othor fona*. vtill fiirtLoE- ilo* 
raHsntioB Mcaui tu timir» Uken pkm, or, to «|Kia1c mcrn ntmictly, 
m fplpbfili tiipiittnt Ui (Ut«1c^ to % wrt&ln pomt. hut ncvor, at 
A* |it«aMt tfvMs to naoK Iha tue« «1 nliioh U btooian IrAaaformod 
i&to Ml aye If the bfoiik cf Vydpitts gi^jaji bo cKUbiscil, Itio cpiphjirida 
vIjck cat iu acclkoi bM taoralj Ibu form <if a hoillow ilrmnl pnjcnm 
mtmiitg forvinl ftom. ite lintu lilL it rrachui tho jmrirtiU furmmos ; 
wiUktD ihi« it oKpudi b> foiin * vMkl% boC ft^ipftmitl^ <I«valo(>inoDL 
rtoi>« •! Uki«, which WMt MoMtvily bo n ittc^ pusod Ihrons^ in 
lln funnftlkm of crery pineal eye. Tlio pincAl stalk noTor bcoom^n 
•did, nor do ibtt «»1Ia af Ibe TcniiiuUr dtUrgimiout btc^inf? moJilUnl 
mlD Icttt «i.d rt'ttrta, thony;1i thotfr ]» b tligbt difliaFsnoo to tio rmtioLrl 
b«l«9«tt U)4 ftatonor AUti |i<iftftrii>r ^vttliA, indicfttioff pvrbujiA ttio 
Mtlkfl of ttu Mrica of cbuiGtfsi^ vrhorcliy out of tbo brnwr in pro* 
itnrgi UiD 1cm, uhI out of tJbc latter tbo rod* and citGnukl'ljiiig 
^Mwrcitit of tkfl ntioft. 

TbcMtt tfarM onoBiJefl — ffalf^Wa, Fomno^, ^nii Q;rtMfu« — Mill 
•erre to illutnto tbo noro iavportutt «la4;c« of dOTolopiooiit laot inrilU 
ai Um prtottiit tiDoc in die ojn^jiua of lifaonlB. 

Wa maj ftow lam fur % imiiato or two |» the cmLiddrinLtidn «f tliA 
^vectkiOfWlietlwv U u poarible tooofmet^t lliUtiugteiuudinii (<y^with 
uij l iUuotW ft Id lower foriiM, wlioUi<jr ilto bitter, in fwt, |Kie&u80 luij 
ftfgiuk onl of wlticli we mftj nippt>die tbc o|ii|ibjeiji cf biij'bcr i*irm/^ to 
IftTS beoD gr«d[Mll^ cri>LTc«l. Auumg^t Lbo lowt lbnu« i>f V^trb^bEHU 
knon lo iw-vlbo Taiiioftte— we fUul Ibnt at oua Btngo of thHr do- 
Tdf^na nl ttMj ptMMW n dorwl n^rvo-oonl, whoa& Aulniop end 
Ifpwpf^ snollra on4 >iid thun f^mii vbat wc may c»ll a br*iu , in 
faoL ikia boBxilotf; willj the mhio part ia bi^icr farmn is fuitlKir 
iliwglbnnnd tiy it« rrluiiciiwliip Ur Ibu mitiTrior niiJ nf tbo ncitoc^bord 
whnA, mr fling tho wboli3 Un^lb iH^iiciah tUe [Hietoriur |>aftof Iho 
nefTo^cov^ skips jitft bi>for« rcaoltinj^ iIjid lUitoHor i^w<>)1irn cxtEvmJty. 
In lln adnltuf MOrtfonavof Tiuiicatn llic Uttcjr U tlio i^nly imrHEatt^nt 
|Mftina of Ibe wlmlo ncnnnia ^y^U-\a, Mt\ iU duvcdopitjuiit jiIduo 
MmUw m to boBologiM it with tbo bmiTi of i^iirb ilii nniiDuI ilk n 
fivttd, Kow if tJoia lSiiiioat« btwa ha «3Ui(iuiiv<l it i« ruimii u, £.h>44oiu 
a «^o 0T« pUooJ nol quito bol Qcarly in tho uLcdion Ieiht, E^uf t-inn- 
fiiiJ§ vtUtfn Mtf &ntf« <arittf. TIjo Tiin)C4la uv, indi*LdurbUy, KinftU 
flld looymcit, nnd thiia ilio light »[i u ihiwiIj uftwl »tl iiilortml ak 
l/-plMOd <;o. Th^ qiUHfliiju niLicimny ivn^rii, (iiippo«tii^- 
n to hftTtt d«t«JoH<l fri>in Ai'trni aiit^OAtur comrxion V^ thoin 

Ibe bigbcr T«rtebnlJi, 1lA« Uaii nltiifli: ujn daytbini; to do willj 
~ oyof Tba hller cannot bo tjifisutl/ tluTiJu^ul uul ot ibu 


Pro/iyuor W. BMttk ^jkwmv 


funuer, iliat id, tLcre manl Lava bmu b ste^ pwiaol tbmugh in which 
tbo iDtamAl eye <tt the Timiont^like uioeaior wm ncdurgoing 
imgiiuttos, bsd during vhicb period it could D'^t fimotipu tt» on 

torgQD of risiaQ, but it is poaaitlo that ibo interna] ejo of tbc «D&llt 
tniuspuvnt fonii become cliaugej mlo tUa citi^EiittUy'|>lbc<^ upi]jltyiu« 
r<f the Inrgcr And uioni ii^hbiLiti miitJiiil wbiuh ivkb gnvltiutly evolred 
OBt of the Tunicflto-liko ftQ«o«lor. £tv farther &ud Bccond&ry 

idodiJiCAtion the epiphr^ gavo nso to a diaUl vo»itli^ ihuil h pmuioAl 
pineal 8la]k, whllet atUl latex again the former bccnmu iiii^dilitid iiitu 
Ibo i)iiit*iil eye. 

fluBri do Orukf \j> hie memoir on the d^Telcrpmerjl of the t^piphyii^, 
p^^nti<^fi Ji« a aitrious foot iu iu formation in ifi>y'> rtjjt'rtv?. th&t it 
uri^iuftlfA u a thickf^uiug ot the bnua roof utJ th*t tbero iit a Aiuhll 
iQiui cf pigiQbuL prcAiiJ^t for auuie UtUu tiitio at tlio iiiuur eudu of the 
ooIIe forming Oie thi^k^oing ; nrtw thin ifl eiaclly tho d^voloptnenl, 
ocuordiug ti> Kovalovfikyf which in pkSA&d thr^u^ iu ourly sUgiH 
during thi> furmatioo of tho 070 of a larval TiiEitcivtu ; in the l»tt<^^ tbo 
Hyu (jLjiuce flulieitx^QooUy to lie within ih'i bckiii. atill oaure plu^moiib 
being didvf^loped nnd u leu« t'trmnd. whilet in Bufii Lhe pigment di^ 
ftpji^Are, tbe thsokeumg fonuit into ftu evAgiuatiou, and tbo epiphysis, 
t£ pruftuul iu ivll higbor VertobraU, is i^nidnallv fcjruKni- It ie quito 
poBsiblc. hi.>kv«Ttrt that tbia loay prc«oab na tviih adokj of the slops 
pafiSL>l Uir-jii^b in t!ie grndnid de»oh)pH«iiit of tLu epipbynis out of 
tbe intf^mally pl>i<«d «y** of the Tnnicate-like anooators of linng 
Vortt^brntA, We mny p&rhft]>s go even a et^p fiiMhuj- and £ikd iu thoM 
law vurtcbralc fonaa the slrncturos which by a aimiluj- OTaa:iiiatio& 
\iA\Vi given riee to tbo optit tweqIuo out of wUIoh by a laLer luoiliJLsa- 
tion ware dcvelopod the paifHil eyuK In one form of Tantt^ta — the 
golpo — ore found in the brain (that ifl th<i peraiatont tkoterior 6X- 
iromity of iLo larviU nerva-oor^ll not cdo, but tbro^ a/di, of whicU 
ciuo i« uie^Jion and two oto latero) ; wo tony porhapa be here proAUuUMl 
with tJia orgauH wbioh hure giuduaUy gireu rifi«, durlug tbe change 
trom n tninspiii^Ti I t>> an ii|iaqn€ auirruLl. to tbe tliree TeEi(*1efi wMoh 
LD (dl Vertebrate, flftve tlio Tunioata and Amp^toxaa, now form tho 
tfiugle dureal op^pbysie and the pjtirod, lateral, optio f<ifi]cle«. 

At dio pretual time the luuJian pinnl oyo ib foimJ only in lizftnlrt, 
and flveii h&Td it ie bnt Ut a radimunbLry onudition ; tl is aliravA 
iDtiniutely uodociattid with tho preseooe of tU*t pnriotaL f'>raq3en ; if the 
futamcn 00 proA<int tho eyi> ia f:>[m<] in a maru i>r luAa highly devulopod 
sLatVi if the fuiikmeu b(? wantiug tbo eye is ahsont. ll la curionfi bo 
nolo that thci fonkUjeiL irt a inurktiJ chutacteri^tiu of uitiiict forms of 
vertebrate \iSo — of the Labjriuthiidonlfl of Palroozoiu, and the 
Bauriuna o{ Ucaoaoia tinkee ; 60 far oa at^ bo toll it i» oioiply formed 
to allow tbf> dJatAl cxtrciBity of the optpbyala to p(bM4 tbruugh the 
flkull roof, and thus to oi^uble tlio pineal t^ye to be pLtoeJ u^h^u tho 

■mifoco of thn btihd. Wo are prr>}Ntbly rigfil in asfininin^f tbut tixo eyo 
most largely duvuioped iu thuiiO oitiuvt foruni| a>wX Uiue it ia 



1887.] 0» Ud PmmJ Eye in Xuartb. 27 

pecaliftrlj intoTvUiig to note thftt >t the preeertt ilaj it is fomid most 
hi^ilj developed in HatUriat which, Bheltered frran oompetition of 
■mrnmdmg fuTOB in it« iaiftnd home iQ New Zealand, baa retained 
thi^ UDOikgst oth«r uiahBio ieatimiB, pointiiiLg toitsoloeealli&noewith 
the extinct reptilian buna of MeBosoio timea. 

[W. B, B.] 


J^. E. Ft^fiell 

[Fob, 4, 


Fridiy^. Fi^brtiEiry 4, 1887, 

IlKznsT roifLonit, Esq- TreoEUret nud Vicc-Prcddenti in tlio Oluur. 

Cciwiff FnsBiTiiBLD, E^q. LL.D. V.P.8.A. 

&>njtf rnp«6i«Ae<f Bc*ron£*o//J« dttf of Londitn. 

Iff ibo r<^ofilB of tbo 113 parisbo* within tho Oit^ of Lc^udon, and 
tbe 17 odt'ptLriiiltts, tbere lita la&lvriuU ftfr a porucbUl utd bwkl 

Thi>&0 rocorila which, oiumonciag with the 15lh centiiiy, oKtsad to 
Lli4 prt^eout ilmo in a mtiro or looa ctunploto state, ooDsist of biwks of 
rccirr-U, vestry minatefi, mid oooount books nud regi&terf, Tbcs^ 
bofikif ci^iii\iin lIi^Ls of tho [loriali property, Huiitury urdt^ra mode hj 
tll9 varioua pikritbe^, their regiiUtiouM for ^iolf-govGninioiit, nnd 
eridont^t^a of lin> CToat doblniotion of viilnivblfl worta of arl which l^ok 
pla/M in King Edwurd Vl.^e rcigQ, nt the Jtoforniatiou. Tbo particular 
bixiks from which t'XlnwtB liavo bL'eu ealuctr^, ate those t*f 8t, 
Mupg'-irel"'*, LolliliHtj, Sfi. Qt/^pbBn'fl, Coleman Sireetj 8t. iJarthoViTn*** 
by the Ejcuhi^iigcs aud St. Ckrietophor-lc-Stcicka. Tho iLiiniitea uf 
the voatHoB (loecribo ooouratol^ tbo rclatioiia of tlio cltirgj to Ibo 
prbrUbiun^ia duiing the aiitceuth oitd early pait of tho »ctentccntU 
rcatniy, tlio (^anstti wbi4.di \vi\ to tlie C'tmp?«tu brtiflk lietnoen tho 
olt^ri^y utid l&tty whioh toah plncc at ttie coiamenccment of tbe 
Uroat Kobtilliou m ld2- Thoao oUo Hhon tlio workiitp of tLo 
sftmtary unangomcnta durir^g tho nomo poriod. parti culftrly tbooo 
having refureni^ to the vnrloDfi opiJemica of tba plngue. Thtti 
which h iu aome reapaj^ta tbo rontit intertiHting pi^rlion (tf tbeso booki^ 
in tli« htetonr of Ibo Great Rohellion, tbo (.'ommoiiwoAltbT the Pn^ 
tootoratB, idJ tho KcetontioD. In <krdor to illuBtTato tbift, the hiatory 
of Llie ifinth tf St, Bikrthotuniew by the Exubttuge^ an dibplajed io 
tlie parji^li IxHtkH, biiH Iwt^ii N(]]iji1oi»c<Til4<d by eitnLOU fmm the books 
of the adjniuiu|i; parisbos iluring a correspondii^g period. 

At tho oQlbn^ak of the Groat Kubellioii, the rector of St. Bar- 
tlioloaaow's— Dr, Crort — was &u ooBy-going Churohiam, nbo bad 
riitidorad hiuir^lf liable to soquestrutiun fur rofuBiag to Etgti tbu 
** Aolentik l^aguG and coTfiiiaDt/' Tha parisbioDarB, Diunbenng auiong 
thf:tm Sir Uartx>tt]o Grimstouo, Mr, JuaticQ Pet«t Fhaafianl, arjd 
Dr. Zouoh, oamo toon arrangomont with him^ — which b embodied in 
the voaUj uiiiiut^e — wliet^by. iu t^XL^bniige for a jHmuLiu, bo tor- 
rendered iho parHiiiiHg») bipiim^, and thv ri^bt U' i^flcMU? iti the ehurch 
during hia life, ei inferring tbo right of nominating U-lontm U^ftm npno 
tbo pariubioTjorSH Hiie fight thoy otorciBoil from the ynvr I It II tiutil 
Dr. Grimt't deatJi in ]b(j3. During this porivd, the iiving wm bcH 


tjm Umpiltit^Mi Rfftrdi o/ Z^Mibd. 


«Uir, aftcrwM^ bj Mr. (kntoD, uiotiior rrMbyloruu, ulio mw 
%riKnM.'<l f'lr prajinLj f'jT Kk^ Ohsrlw IT. nftfrr tlM «i«catioD of 
Ul WuT, anil ftniLUj n%i\ tA lMt9 Ifao oooatrv in cuDioquoiieo of bia 
MQcMon with Mr. Lor*, iho roMor of 8i Atiii And St ApnuMt, v3ii» 
«• nceated on Toner niU for Mootiattnse «riU; tho SculcU for 
kncbg RiDg Charlfs IL lo BogLuid, Dodiig thr jncnm^H^Ti^j tiT 
Jk.uAjlttnti Mkd Mr. C««1«o, tbe Plf«lijlcriui (.'bun^lt gavemmant 
■i in Ml foroo ui tb« p«Ti(^i, oAd tho dUiuo of ii, Aud tho diefBticfoc- 
taidiich U C^Qtod eo ibc intiaHUnU, i« clou from tbo >uut books. 
Ate lb. OmtIimi'b fliglit b> noHutd, thu jianbliLODen a-ppolnted 
Wlhar Tl*ahy|griMi aam^ Mr Hniy vlio ciontiacfii niHil tha ijoath of 
Dt.OnBt. InlG&3« theliviDgl>)«ii tH-iiig v)if<»ut,uidii] thogiftof tho 
OmuiiimiW of tboOroAl SoaJ, Utny nr^poiut^^l i^no Sidnwh t^unpeoiw 
ivilMEiiotni Indqieudofit. Ilo diod About oifihtccu iuoejIIi^ ftftcr his 
■fpniptiaimfc^ bATicg in tbo huvhUulb l>»ti ftiiHpocdud and iiujirinnnf^ 
Bf 1W PrfttMTbor UHrer, in ootuoqiionoo of hiv hnvfjiy jtroocbod 
tpUMlliis poraonU gotonkmont. Ud Mr. Siilrrwh SttJi|i»i>a'e dc«th, 
■ft Protector •ppcdotod — nitliont coDSullini; tlio C<unjJiiH»ioueirt of 
Ik Or^ SgaI' b^ a ttiUfu^ imiUt bin owii bniiLl, lo Uic liTiDg oae of 
hk cfciplaiBt, Mr. PbilJp tiye. who uBoointod vritli bim another 
Mifimliat miut«l4i &*rucd Mr. Jobn Lodor. Thu in:uut«« from 
lUi tina lo ibo mostibs inuoodiAtclj girccodius tho BoetoruiJon, ^e^^o 
M nlorartiiitf Booount of tlio ^uAmln totwotu Mr. N>c f^nd Mi-^ 
Lolv Mul l£o pnriUiKiiwr^ on tha gnruud tbnt limy rcfiLHid to 
•IniQiiter tilt >ftorftni*iit tiul to cbri«t«& rliildr<?u. ticcpt tbo 
jariihicpOf «tou)il bo ^atd in oommncicrti Vi-ith th^iif C'liurchp tlio 
fwkkknKinolaor«fii«iagU>pojiitboS|ODihoi:n>iitHl llmllhoirolitircL 
mm IbJevi vp Uid theii povm Ulod iritli stnw^'t (Xju^rdgftltoufL Mr, 
LodcT, on bdiaLf of Hr. Kyn, n0«rod the pvijdiiori«rB t^ n,l\ov tb^m 
l><hoo» » minWliTr to ofiiuiAto tti tho ftftornooiiA uf thu Lord's Bay 
n ft mMam wUch wm «<loptod in tho 4<Hoiaiitfl[ iHinsh of tit. 
Ski^QDV CokooftM Slroct. when Mr. Jobn Qodnin, tbc lu^tuj'CQdtfiil, 
liued tliB dicrcK vitb Mr^ John TnjUir, th^ FtvHljyteHaii ri&u; hat 
lUi Ibo jMTuhiuiMjrfl of at B&rlholotDOw'ti rofoecd. 

la JiOttrT 16G0 Uio Loid OoueroJ Houh cnmo to Londiin, ornil oo 
liidHBWid tbowcludod Bieinb«T« wore r<)iimtjbt4x] iti tbo rt^UHcituled 
LoDg Parllimnt, \hca mtting^ ami rroKh CouLuiikfiionerfi of lh« OroiLt 
ImJ wtgft ■ppoan to il. 

Tho puuhinuft took the oirfortunily to |N>tiliuiL Ibo Com- 
ttUooen to dodiro tho liriuf; TKbnl ou Oio Rroimd that tbo Pro- 
Ivto Olircir b^l Uiipini'i.->r]y prowbted to the Ihjiig iiiicb wiu in 
iMffltft Th(i bofika ihow tow Mr. Lfldnr h^ obtikiii«l bora tlio 

Lord OodotaI Mc«ik h Ic4h>r to tho ConiiniKciooors In bLs fftrov, 
■faidi lolt«r tiM Lord Gctiom) *t o Buh^^qnonl roqnoAt of tbo 
fuuMonon nvolEod, and how tb^ OadmiMioTitiri nivmcd to nppoii^t 
■yd t^Indepffiidmt faction avid nltinuitnly apixMutud Dr. UridiNHLk, 
■%* cf tbo donndon o( lAthom Houmo uud n frionrl of tho Sp(nV«r 

80 Mr. E. rVtshfitid on UnpMi^td B^cordt of Lvtidvn. [P«b. 4, 

Ij0nth«II. Tlif^y IlliintniUi Iho tAAte of ftffftin and the Loid 
(j^tutintl's t>wTL ci>iu1itJoQ of mind at thifi p^rticulAr juDoturo, vis. 
in Ute moDtba of MftToU aiLd Aftil IGSQ-GO, In M*rch he L^d not 
j\^ brvkcn with Uic ludejjL'mlinil fnctiuii mid Llirowu id hi* toi with 
th't Royntinta It wLirt pn>l»l]Zy at Uiib timo thtit the first lett^tr in 
f*vy«r of Mr, Lttdr^r ww written. Tbti KuUir r'lvoldTig lie first k'lt« 
«ne no doabL written at tfac tinKi wLon tlio LE>r%l Gcucml liud do^ 
UrnuQod lo thrcm in hia lot witU the lio^olibtiL la a niiaiitc of tlie 
EULQin Tf«try in September IC&D, the rhurubwordun iDciitLona an 
appliculloQ to tli« Gn>ocrs' Oi^mjituy to ioiko the bwlnTic^ of tbe pFirihh 
#tO0k npou InUroet luid IIjo loct tW tho Gri-G<«tH' CL^tnjtHDy voitJd 
Boi pftj Mm moro thftn & per ceDl. inicrcst, tbe raiuut<i coucliLdiijg 
'^tLat ill regard to \he txi^liug gi^ftt hoznid ^lud datigvr of tlte tiic^efl 
by n««4>n of pnbliit i1ilTeren4.-.6fi arLil de<^ny of trade ri g^-n^ml, the 
nioDoy ftforcflud, fix- 150^, wu pud into LZio htunia of tlio Gru<;€i« nt 
G por cvut" 

Tbo lividy ink'Ecet iakcn iu poroc^liijhl uiattcm bj Bi'^nkni^ of tLe 
IToiliin (if Cixiinii^Ei^, MiL'^t^i^ f^f ihu i^1U■^ laTyoin* ni^roliuiitB, ncd 
pcoj]li> boldinff b'gb tioverimieut upimiutmonU, ie appBJ<eat from 
tbuM book« find cdQiparod fjivoiirally uttb tbo pnieoTit aputliy. Tlioj 
>liO illuintto Ibo extrftoriliuiirj prritouk] tiatuic of tbe Trotcclor's 
ffOTSnuiMnt daring ibe PrutecU'iiito* uud i\t& impurt&itt port jiluyHt 
by tbe Cit^ of Lundun Bt tbia Lime, the retisou wby Ibe <'it]x«ii« tbr^^w 
in tboir lut witb tb^ FarJiaiti^nt, vthy thvy aflom'U'dfl juiutxl m tbo 
rwtonttiou of Ibo King luid t!io ClniTcb^wbicb won X9 plnialy trritten 
Bfl if 70U cunld convcxw witb tbo }Fovpk »bo Lml writtou 



0MfHil tftfuUkfy jr«fi»f . 



Omar Pollock, E^q. Trowarer ud Vto»-Prv«iidcbt, iti tbo CLur. 

JuHs FntMofc Ifnrton, t^, 
0. Dpvaa^n, Km. 
ilATTy Son t*|f lift KicW, Ett|. B.A, 
Rrv. AlfniJ WilHsm 5tiimofi<i, D.D. 

John Alonn&tt lUil^lijab. K»i|. 

«v« «A*ctod Membeni u£ tfa# Eoj&L Inxtihttiofi. 

7^ Pfts«K)rT9 racDiTod •tuoc lli« IimI U'H^iug wore UJ on tbo 
kUi^mnd Ui« ihaiAii of the MomhAr» r^rnmnl fi>i Ih'^ utmc^ tIk. ! — 

n* tfffrfM y Ai Jl-Awn'ly— Vanl1<«] ATiuuft^ rnt 1990. gvo, DfM. 
jliM^in (U UMwC AflttiA Xdiw— AtU. eorlc QtunA UtcdiaMitf. V«L It 
rBooMtn-, r^M. a,D, iclil ««a lastL 

ISqwidhwi, VO. XXI- PMt t, lt>P» lS9d. 

ia« M iJiat&<^ J »ga l M iartkljNottcB^VoLXLYn,yfw,t.3, Stc, lAflfl, 
BftOn, fuft-|^«^-Jo«MUToLVU.rkftP; Vol. VUI-IWCI, ftri). 1^«, 
biHilH J f Jiiy^tfMwaw, fl»iiU-Abh4ftdlui^jwi, Boihl XV. AUhnnoDjE ». 

JMitf. i«kN, Cm. FAC^ MtfJ.— The tililiOiJMtirin, EM r K Webb Sm 

rkS^MkdnHMf>f iAlryinirforr, Dr I/>rd l]mt»Qitia 11a. IPM, 
iMMfM^y^XataMlir^iAvy— IffiDwIn. Vol. Uf. Nw. 13, ta iuy 
l>fii»«ibi|p^V<LXXULVitfs. at« l^ti. 

fWrttoi fi^ tMu fciorf Antfy— TniumliUM*. Viil V. Part « *T0. IM4. 



JMovBt^^-ADourio. J«S«< eto. Sm 3, i. 

M£J C'ft* JHtfdPj-JourtiaE of fhi' JUymX 

iW, Ac4MAJMH-'l»ill*tUi,X*6crlA,0)ulini« 

Auij^, 4- T^^JiuHln. An. 

tMh^AmtMiM JopfpaJ, Vol XIX, Wc I, Vfo. ISS?. 

Ali»«Mi fa* Ucowttbo ife Jmiwr 13gT, 41). 
Hi^lmT Niiwi fcf rrtrfff IfffH, iNmniT IftftT llo. 

DmggU Ibf DMiBbr IWS, Jtomu? 1W(T. Hvo. 

"^onmftl fur DvennbR 3MH3, Janiprr l^BT. Sru. 



Ovat^il Mtmthij/ Meotinff. 

[Fcfc. 7, 

VAlTtm fat Drooiabor iKAij. JftrLimry MfH. IIA. 

B0T11U AilLijitLfli^mi Ttrr I^ircuibvr I^A, Jimimrj 1397, 4rn, 

TVlnETBpliUi Juu"inl for DiTr^jJjff 1^(1, Jhniuiry 1S87. ^vn. 

Z-VrpTiilifll fijj- DtKWh>]njr IftBiI, Jftnmvrj Ift37. iU>. 
i'7/>rrn/v« lli'Ju't'f^ .Vai'OHitlf l.>'^lToU^lS<lUn1\nl^, Num. S^SA- SvcL 1fi86> 
frviwH-ii 7K<r*f"^*— JniiriiPiJ. Na* 7S^h 7-1:*. Svn. ISSIJ. 
GfiKtrri; tfr^dWr Cdvid/- Ttiird Lrport i>r SUiUtimkl Oimmiltec. fivn. [!;fi6. 
OT%nfmphit:iil SttfUiy, Itiffi(d^\^fifi>cdias^ New Scriea, VjI- VIII, NiA 12; 

Vol- IX- No. j, e^n lfl8C-7- 
Joh" Jlopkiitu Uniwnity'^iQtiieit ia Hi^lDnotil tud PaUtin! $(<jimc«, PourLb 
!<^■n^1^ Nfin U, 12; Fiflli Seri^^H, New. 1,2. %m, ihab-7. 

UnivPT^iry Ciivnlnr, Niw> 03, ri4. 4|n, lAffrt. 

Aiuciriisa Cb-niJfnJ Joumnt. Vol. VIIL No. 0. Bri. IBSSh 

Jlat Ub«fTvi'wry— Ifeporl, li^SG. B?o, 

KUiit^ ^ybtey T. Ewtf. F.ff.A fi. {the Aulftftt) — IIiinllDg nDV^ig tlio Lfip:daptonl 

rtml Hjmi^iif^ribTn ctf MliUllt-tfii. Ntn, 1>WT^ 
toirfFWT, iiljpfjj, /hV^, M,It-t- (Skt AHOtvr^—Tlw Tro^ruBe uf » QhjIiuj. Ilo, 

Af'inrAi(«/«r J7r>a/^'f?ii/ fi>wiWjr -TniDMwIJMiB, Vol. X|2C^ Part IL Sc^. 199?. 

JftfoAOflMal l^npjtvn' laalitHtvm — Prrvcvclmgn, lV1i*K NfW. :), <. Sv& 

JTmUtoI iMd rAlruFVfNNif S^JpIn. Vfrt^frJ— IVvoidliini. New Sorloj, No. IC Sfa 


guiTliibic^llo 'Von LSqoi^lf- TiiTliu 1-, 1-. fi»o. isflfl. 

nfmuTru o/ i*ii)iJ<d ITorlf*, HHnw— fli*in»itU il*-! finiifi Cirili*, S<*rlfl Qiurlil. 

.WufT"!/^ /'i^H, i'*y, ithe EHi'ior)— M'jrrBy'* Mao'^fiDc, No. 1. 8ro. 1697. 

jVuur»riri]r^f &irV«J^— ilmnif^k atiil Jourinkl. I^HIt* Part S- Kvo. 

<Mioitttiti^>^ol Sw^ifi*/ Of Grtfit firtfoift^'l'f»ii*iwtIoM» VuL XUt. Nft 1. MOff 

flim, IflftS, 
Phanrwinairwd tfooirty of Of^tU Bnlnin—ylaiitani. Uiw. iP^fl* JuU. 1887, ^JC 
PhotOiT^P^if AhTtef^— Joomul, \uw UnrU^B, Vol. X.I. Nne, t£, 9^ Vtc^ IH8>1 
J^HTW. <T. r.M*™*H K»q. {lb* Anthnr^ — Thn (.'timntfl of l.lftkfiolil, ^Qfltol, Dad tU 

Nclclibolirlinwl. IS^y-IB7y, ZtJil ^^Iticti. Bto. I8BG, 
nitlafd^n, R W, MM. F.IC^. (thi J.iai,f>-'l'liLj AwU^i^l. V«L IV. Sc* U 

Sm 1«S7. 
fln-fyo^ So«cf^ o/<iina'/u -Pn"wwftliflg. ami TrnUiftuttnnn, Vnl. Ill- *t>, IBM- 
Boyui S'lrt-ff;^ L>/ /rfflicfr^ii— FHK«M|(fig», Ni*, :J47, !i48, 24!l, Sfo- IS«S. 
Satvttitri/ lnrltftitp'</ limit iSr iln in— Tmntictkiytts. \ii\. VII. $Wy IM0L 
fiwMy cy ^rJ#— JrjurnBl, Dl'C, 188(1, hT^iii, 1837, S™, 

Prr'jf oo th« Stri^-.t Uo-ii]igndj-<nt^ licO'^gtructioD. and BaolUitiDn ot Oantmf 

Loiid«]:i, (WrDtgartb l':«mya.) Evo. li^SG, 
fli, iW*«fto*if j;. Af^Wnnif i/es .S^^Vji'**— Mvmoirua, Tcme XXXIV- No«, S, 6- 4 to 

BuU«lb,T«mrXXXi. N^L^a Hk IBSS. 
^<A«i ArWr< iTulUution, FUs'it—JoumiKl, N<^ 137. Sv* 188a 
VHiM8iatt9 Grol<yjiffidSvTVc!j/—hitllAiiJt, Nua, 27 -IM), 8to, ])<0C, 

Vfrrint ciir Hfy"*r'f<Tiiii]7 /^'^ linf-rh^fftf-t in FretLnrn — A^erhQT>rl]an^li« IS4A? 

HcfUi. 10, lieu 
r/T/QTUL 7H#((7ii(*— Jrnrtinl, No. 70. EhTft, IflSfl, 

Jff- EJtf^fd B. P^Itvu o« GiUM C'JfaryM/ii^, 



Friddj. KcLnmry 11, tSS7, 

@4K WiuJAX Jk*wu\f. JJatl LL.D. F.ltS, Mjun^-^ir Mid 
VM»<Prwd-iiL ixi lb« C'huir. 

IVciHM Vo/i.— Mn T. W, ;rf>CN] in 1STj7 piiUUlioi ibo 
v^tiou tliBl tEftaiu |>upm (PierU &ranie«, P. ^<IJ'«^ it<:.) r4««iii1iT« in 
ri>l*Mir the mufatsa on rtlidi l)ioj ftra fiintKl. Akbougb ihia ww 
dinstod bf M«ae ntturftlifitB, it <mi coiidrm«4 b/ Alr< A. G. UuUvr 
■Dd Pro£ HcUoU. In 1H71 Hul U. H, Barber publmhod 

Papi^to BiVru (Scmlb Afrioft) oiu^niuiLiuii bttiag «f)i!rwnn1fl alftwli 

SluUvr, kommov «h«w« that Va^-ili^ jNtZydaniM is not Btmiitjr« loj 
•amNtndiDji colcwra. Tte Db«crrAticn« ir«t« ct^iUincil I'j aupi 
Iha BOMt ftkin of tbo freaUj Icjinnod pupu (o Ui " |>)juli>gm|»bl( 
MMtt«t«" lulbaoolMir of mimiiniitng ftiirlkcM: but Prof. MoldoJ 
Mlttted out ttifti Ui«t« txn t« &o rtMi anftl<i^ with photugmphj, 
FortbonDOfo, qad; pap« 4M formed at iiij^lil wbou tbo »nirri:>iiuding 
mboM ftTO dvk. Tho pnaoiil inrciitigBtioa irite uuJofbikciL witli 
tbobolicf tbftt Um imfltuaiDQ nroaU bo fcoind lo work upon ihd Iltta 
M it nM vpoft lUM cclonnd RorTiios W^>n> pii^tiou. 

I. jBipnM#wU 9p^4 Vatuma li».—Tidi pupa «p]H>arH in tvio vtaio- 
ll«it ^mj; onmiDOftly dark j^jvod maob morararulyytiU^^wiali^^iy^uu, 
Sfar Wnp pUnid in & gUiM cjlindtr utwon^ witli grcon tiurnit ]m|H.<r, 
piiodoMid HIE gr«6(i pitpM ; <iiii.< of tlimin ininsferrml tr> m bluck Eiirfii«4 
^ilo rtiil mmtt aiu fmb, bocAOg a grotn ptip* prooisUy lika tho 

II. KrjtrrimnU apm I"iiii™*i ifrfjViE.— Tho piipic hiiro lio gTOOTi 
itfw, buA »|*P°*^ ™ manj aliftdi-M of dork groy* tJie lighl^^r onan haviij 
0aldA qkOtt «n lli«^ *rtiiU tho oitrvno fbnni anj ftlmoflt covoi 
Willi tfa* goldoa Apf«oraiico. TbMo Liltor &» Torj mrcly hoctj in 
«al«iVi OBMf I wMii tiifr pupft ia duic«*cd. Over TOO pnym yien 

In ll>o follrnritig ox)wriaitfi(H:-- 
L Jf^mett of CeLmtB.-^Gftfn And vivrn^ viirroainlin^ i^AUSod no 
Ml tbo fvP^ ooloiire: hl\rk mAwKX'd.^H u ruli^ <Inik pnocc; 
■iaflr HodvcM U^il pajn), DiAiiy i^i ibcni bvinn; Lrillinully ^uliba. 
TMo laol tvodlt angffMivd the qm: of j/i7l mrruumlinipi, uljjrli wDr% 
^MUid lo bo mora cffimcBt Uian wtjit.\ nitd produo^^d ptipm with n 
oolttar «bieli ovcfi »0fo fc t o a M**! gold. 

%, MttJMf Prmmii^. — Th« lorr« being lUrk, it wm fcmnd tb«t 
wbvB iBftax*^^''^*" bociuafT pii|MO<jao liiiiikd(tThitoor |*Qt}&rr«i, Uia 


Mr, Edward B. Pinihan 

(Feb. 11, 

pnpiQ were darker than «ben lli«y hiid been moro iAolnted. Tbo 
onJatfra of oach wcrrj in fact uflbotcMl by ihnt \ta.H of Iho turT0cn<1in^ 
mrnAc tip hy llic Irljurk akiiia of Ue uoigltkniiv. 

3. JWumimi/Jon. — PlacV tuirrcinitiltiigH prddtiwHl mlbcr BlrrpngrT 
dTbcts in dukaQu than in light, but the pi:i|>w wore Oofk iti both 


4. TYmo </ Sa$efptibilitp, — The mature Imxns, nftor eeAang to feed, 
wbiijur (ttUgu i-^ tiiitil Ihoj l^od a tiurriu;t< uu wlildi U> ijuputii : tbty 
thnn r&at n]w>Tk it (atngo ii,), And tinalty hikn^ tuiftrl *1nwTiivr(ri1><, 
Haapiiniiod by their Iiut pair of cloapors ^fltage ixr), in nbicli pnuiUun 
pupation lalcc# place, Sta^ i. ia Tariablo in tongtlt* slogc ii. maj bo 
oflitijiiatDd at it LutUH (but it la iJeo vambK-), while nUgc lii. J8 
fHirty DoiiHlwiit, ami IjujIh uhoiib 18 boiira : »bih the wholn pi.Tir>il in 
<ionimc;n1y abinit 3f> lioitrfi in It^nglb. Thd larvnt arfi prultaljly alfar-tMl 
by BUrmnndnig ooloure for about 20 betira, bofoM iKo lost 12 hoartt 
of the «Lole period, and in tliia iitne ihe pojml ooloafs aro 4<^tr^oinod. 
These fiuLa wert^ discovered \ty a very l»i'c;o Diiiuber of ei^tinit^Lit^ 
In whifb liiTVOi wem placed iit anmK)ii<lmg« of nno colour^ and X\\na 
ttfUir a variftblo t'aao wore Irnnflf-.'rrud t<i aijutljer eulonr prodooitg aii 
op|H>eito effect. It nne thus fijuud tbat Fit.i^ ii. is mriro ^nsitlvo 
tliau i^tagu iii-, aUlutigh Ibcro la fiuuio eusL-optlbility during the luttoi 

£, 7^* Part <if tht Larvtm ttUch ij Sentilnv io Cu^iHir. 

(o> Tht ikdlL—Tha mufit obviotis BUflgoBtion wiie tliat the Urval 
eyas (nr ocvllit tiix on ericb aide of tbo hoad) saw (he colours, and^ iriAutiiiteil. traii»ii]ilLeO an iujpalhe tu tbv nurvouE ('-outrce vi\\'\\A\ 
regiilalt the formftt>ciii <rf Ihc pujml rolciurs- Wben, however, thiwi 
organs vere covered with black varuitb, tlie pnpre rvH^nbUd vnr- 
ronading turfiMjcfi to the eamo cxtoutoe nbi^D thoy w«rv prodaoodfrom 
ULiniial Urv^. 

{fi) V'Ai- dim^hji Sniit'-hinj Sffinrji. — It mifiTHi^d pn*,.iil»lii l.lmt ihi>mt 
§.\jMcUirca mi)Cht contnin aomtj orgau ^vliioh wmi inSni^ncod by tho 
oolonr, but after cutting tht^ni o11\ tda larviu rL^maiuod uonuaUj 

fy) 7'Ar flni'Trj^ Surfatxt'f (He Skat- — Tbia waMltmlm] hy it'}tjlirfinij 
lyJour {vjtfrlvimta. It liiul >k^&]i prr^vii^itdy Hhown ttiat til's lorw 
wen aC'iiaitive daring Rta;^ iii\. ami ttn.^ixtforo tLcy ncira eovcrod in 
Ihia 0taj^ with oompartm^iiitod ta(>vH, ao vonatruotud that tho huad 
aud uutarier part of the bitdy bnnt^ in tho lunar cbarabcir of one 
tolfirr, whi!o iho poeU^Hnr pLirLoftbe lnnly wns hi tho npiiurpluimlif^in 
flnothor olear. In aiir>thi>r tn^tbofl, th^ hLrvir worc^biing upOD a vtrCi^al 
Burfifcco, vrhilc tho Load atid front part of thi- body pMKi>d ItifvUgb a 
hole in a «L«]f. tha Fortic-al auriacc above tbo i^Lclf, atkI lI;o iip|ter 
«id« ty( the fibolf itself Ixsiug one oototjr. whili> tbc VLrtit^al v^nrfacc 
bolow tho abelf and tho lowttr bi<1* of tUo sbtdf vt^K- nf tbo rolotir 
tc'cding to j>rodiico the most oppoeite efifeota. Tlta mhuIi of all 
thcBo c'Xpf^riraoDtp wiis to Hhow that Iho cokmr inthioTLCo diio^ act on 
hvtOB elvmuut of llic ]d>rval akin, nnd tbnt the larger the area of ^Uin 


m OMed Chjttdi^. 


apMd to MSkf oiM ool^nr di« moro dooc tbo pcpa follow lU inilc^noe. 

^ ■ ■■3 » Ihft feCtioD of Uio BttTf^iu •jcUui rntliar tlum tottnrdtf tbo 
dliMlMUaaafli^loii orlLrongh lltiiHklii Iu«<If. 

Ho dnk p«p« ift oofttei&od Ln ft ttiti voporficial lavot of tho cutiolo ; 
Mov Ifad* is ft UiUior Iajdt dividisd tftUi ^xeoodii^r dolioito bm^Uio 
irt^wa n wliicli flmid* ore |ircient, nnd tbu latUtr iona tb« iLiu plAlait 
vbic^ hf cuudng interftnuuu »f U^ht, litod^aa tlii^ brilliant nit>tn11ii> 
■msnuwe. Tin tiaaiMr mjfta Uyor b«ir:g dJld^ a«bB u & ■orocn in 
1m tUrk fv|w< IVoeisfrlj Uic Mtao twUltio appoaiMiooa oro cnoBcd 
bf IIh) filfiiA «if sir Wtwooa tho thin pblM of gJus vbtch vo funuu'l 
« lb« wrfte of botU<« Ii>ag oipoKdtocarU; noJ moistiu'i^ &>t]i ItuTn 
iWMflM vpeetTOMeopio cb&nobmt ui^l ibe auno tiftnouittotl colon r« 
(ui«jiliiiiM>iij to tLiJM SAtti bv r^flttotloTi), Th^ briJlUaoy of Iho 
latfm aa b« prasiVTOil in BfuHt fiir AHj ]oa([1^ of tiiiu; it dieftppcAT* on 
^ijiWjbvt cu b« rcncwod *m irettjag^Uiin hod been prcTioruly kno^vn}^ 
nid i£b rviilaiirft uo Mvn iu obingu Joriug thrf jfruotnu of Jr/jiig, nud 
tbo^DtieUii |ir««ft*d,for tbofi1iaBftretho8D)Ad« thinner-. Tho 
boMllalod bjor oxiflbt tn Don-motulUo pupo), and ia q80<1 jm a 
itiaetor for tnn^Mrcbt coloorinjc nutter couiAincd in ib outer 
TbuB the BUudur? WliioU T^udcrad potuiblu tbo UrlUiiLut 
dw to ttiterrenniiy*, probAblj etlctod lon^ Ijeftira thiw> ^^u^oi'iil 
•flctfti iv««<0 obteiDod, and vui nsod for a dJEfarout jturpopio- 

T. jFI* Bi^iofital Valim fi/ iAa GiM<d Apjioiriirii^'y. — It u probfihlo 
Ikd ilM|ildodpi]pBof Viuicand«r««eTalddgbtkmgmiiii>rJvUfiachu4 
ndcafwliicib is vefj nommon in Douijplaow) ; th^^ir rdinpe ih vury^ laiiga- 
litr.HMlti](it Ibtttof mln«rala: coomwIyuiogrejpup^rcMiablogrcy 
Hi vvaiboBMl rocik-varfboc%ftDd tho two ooaditionH of rock would tbom- 
mhm Mt M • atimiliu for tbo prodootion of pupjo of corrcepoTiiltnf; 
caJoar. Tbopawtr wm pruboiUj guluvl ia hijuu dry hut (KJHEitry, 
irhc«» miaenil atrtoM do ttOl vrnalbt^r qnti^kly. Onoo r»fiti<Hl it muy 
b* Mod far otbir ^nrpoMO, otad its aanam Hponim U pn^bihbly u 
vunl&g to ihc cncBiM that tbc iiufoct in iuudibto. It is iniox*siin^ 
to Doto lioi* Ibo Vaataaid*. priutatilj tnlourod au ati to ruMuibk 
■Awn] tnrroitiiilbigi* are moilitic*! for pupatlou on pUuts. 'I'hiia 
Fiiiifi /o ba« ft gPMn torn vh'iah u prodnood ftmoug leaving; 
F* fttaJoafd bift no f^mm fovta^ and iipiii« togothor tfao Ioavoh fgr 
wftOMlnirint bot both tho«« vpociL-a oomuiouly papato frocly oiponod 
•ftBitwrttl aurfiKxn; V^ uriicm bad ut^Ilbur Lbo ;^nwu furui iiur llm 
Wbil, ftiHl it tiMR a Kimng dbdrmlfr^attntt t> piipnto on itii fivhl-pluit^ 
H nuftjT obftorrftlioiiifl oouottrrod in proving, 

HL ££pcrim«fib HpCFi rait«j*a aM/an/a,^Tbia iipcoioB waaaUo 
adi bHUiftDtij ffolilvb or dAib-ooloiircd bj Ibo uso vf appri^jirlulo 
■rrodDdini^ fn Uie t&mil ivirulititpij. 

IT. JSj^n^m AilJ vnoB Papiti^ mdirAdr^n..— Thimipw^tH, likit f*. ^i^'^- 
fipi fPrits ll-illur) na£ no power of boiiigiiitiutfnuiJil by litirruundLUg 
winm, A brown pupa wod vbbuiiod ou tlio C>ijiI-[)UiU, oil<I ukj^uj 


Mr. Edieard B. P<'idt<fn on Cadcd Chry»atid&. [r<^b. LI, 

l^rmD ouos npoQ brown tnifrr, A>cl It lA proliubli] timt Ices lioaltfij 

V. Eif/erivifnig ujKjn Pitrif hmtvieir itnfJ P. rapx. 

J. EffectB it/ CAnttrt — Ulack prtx3(i«id divtic fpuprc, und tbc groHlor 
tho illiiininatian the <Urk<it the pii|itb (T^ ni^jv), ibiM nniilt limngtho 
rcvQrso of thbt obuinod witli Y. iirtinrt j if^lhtto prodoocvl light pnpfO, 
atid Uia gri^ihtur tlio tUuiuiiiiaH>u the lighter thopnpcc {^P*rtm)i dark 
ivJfP-lirrtfla/ca:) T>n>li»oe"J ilnrh pupiip ; ift'^p orinjn, iq both avobictt. 
|>n>JiRxiL] vviry liyLt ]ti)|iie uf a grotii cidour; jxffd p.'T/riu aiid r/oUoviA^ 
green protlitL^'^d rutli^r dLtrker pnpn? thiirt tliu oniugL' ; bJntth^rMKfaO' 
duGcd muah darker pnpie, whil^ liitrk U^*' \tt<tihKMni vliU durkor piipm 

iP. ropoi only), iiciir^' i}iur*» L) it rtmiarluhllit ftiid «ud(ioii fnll, 
i>lK>wi.«| b/ » t^lLTW titid f^ntduol riec^ in the ami^uut ot |>i|^tiiib f^iruied 
w the ligbt frtnii TarHHis |urt« of th« nioctrum fnun r<'d to blim jknv 
doininiittB in the n*flecU«l reyi* whfi.'h full iiTi fho IatvhI BUrfac^- 
if at (Lirir eQubte OD Uk? formation of itii]H-'rScjiiUy pUuwl tinjk pi^mont 
Utt BOUumpiLniud b; cbaugos ABei^ticg the fornifitiftu uf grut^ua and 
yoJIovFH, Ai^j lEL tho dse|iur sulmuticuh^i ti&sueif. IIcudc iLe nmiilCB 
of any giv^n iit!nin!us nre ^Tct^^dingJy!. 

3. Orher ExjtrintertU.— Ii wft* Hht»wc by Uio lodlliod doccHbod 
bboTc tliat tho ucoUi oro iL<.^t aouailivc m thid £|iccloa> UEid bj^ Eiiuilivr 
ii'EhD8fi/r\i(icu I'^jH^riiJiuiiLs it mis jiiutqlI thftb the uifluCLKXi kulb oti thu 
Inrrn und not tm tlm pujiii itH^lf. 

VI. Expfriwcntr upon Ei'hj/ra ftffnitvl/Jrw, — Te tliiBgotini of motlift 
tbo uiposol pnym aro oii<jn ^roon oud bri>wii iu dLtri::Tvtit iudividuAli, 
but those CL*lyura follow the corfwpondiuy tirjts of tLu \tktyre, nuA 
tlicnJiiru vftuuut bo IuQucdgcO imlvtiB iho letter thi'iiiNotviW wtto 
tha^gp-d, ELnd snt^b snBtM^ptibility iti Iho litrval £|Ato hu Bol boen 
jirotcd for thifi g^iiiUB. This u tbtt onlyknuwu iuata&oo of a ccautunt 
relatiou U'twciin ibo Icirvul uDd pU]>al c^Iuars. 

VUi B-J^pcriiuenU vpim Mr C"ivon (/ jS*(nnitti fHrjnrtt — It ffUfl 
fnund that tJict larvm Bpi;! durit corconfi in bkck surroundings^ bot 
vhito once in li'gbtt^r eurrotuidrngG, 

(E. B, P.] 


Mr, W, OmW OB 0a4Wf of At Sf^BHWi, 




FHtbj, rthnmxy 1^, 1887. 

Sim PuunmN Amrt, O^B. Tl.CT/. Fitn. Udna^r «iij 
Vio^•Prc■idcQl, in tii« Ohtir, 

WiLMAH C«oo*i«. Eel. F-l*-^ v.r.c.3* J»f,itj; 

1b Um vvoy vorxU ««Iwidfl to ilanotij fho Biibj^t I fMVO tho lionuar of 
WagiHg bo£jr« yo«, 1 hftT« aJj««^1 a tiuovlion frhiah u«j bo rogjunlcd 
ft* hctrtJ^AL At tho time wliuu our modcnk cADc^ptinn of cLoiuUbrj 
in4 4««Dud c|KTTi tliR wilcEittiflis mlibl. Ibii 4fiTr«;fD cbciTiUt u n lUAtttrr 

etcoenU M ftUululijIj iitnipl«s inoa^mbPo vf tnuitmaUtioit r>r doooni' 
Mvtioii, cad) % Iti&d of bsrrkr boJu^id wUidi wc c^i>ii|il uot jx^notnU^ 
If citiocijr pnsBd lia nid Uut tlicy wore svIfiLiiHtont fruiii all 
Dfa-Riil/, cir thai tliAj hail tiecn in JJTi'Inmtlf crcftt^id jnul u wu iiuw 
And tbtm at IIm pNttMll dftjr* Or he inigLt iir^u« tlmt tito origin of 

Um eknKata lUdl not in no least concora u«, auJ iriia, iadood, * 
qttetttoo Ipng ontaMio lb« tuuniUrio* of tvionoo. 

B«t in tMe nor ttmcp nf mUloat itiqutry vsv. cnfintH hc3|i nkliiiiit 
wfaal 4n theso «]eawiit«, vhcnov flo tfao]r com<v wbfit is tlxir Ki^nifi' 
caiMn ? Wo CiftniMii but f<«l that tiuloM eomo appronoh to uti AtiMwcr 
to IbttM Aanlioooait] bo foitml, oiiv cbomietrx. an^T nil, in H■rl1toL}li]|^ 
fwliMnillj nnalMfactury' TIk^m^ iTli^mniLM |h:rjilci un in itirr 
rfarrrlaT^ ImIHc na in our qiM^iilBtioiiv, ami hntmt lu fn mir xtvy 
4r«Ams. Tlioj slrci^ti hko out anknawii two bufurc il« niocikiug, 
tnjMifjiDg. aiid manaurin^ >ltnu^u rcvcUliijiiH and ixruibilttiuH. 

If IwDbm toa^y Ihat our ixjiuii)i.iii1j rt<vivril vkmuKU vro noi 
■Enpkt nil prtDbonlud, Ibni thny bavr ru-^/ ariHin hj vhmwo t>t luivc 
««f bem fffvated in ft dcaoltoTj vhI mccbiuiit^rkl manimr bal Ijavu buun 
ToW t d frao iinplor matkn — or iwrliape iadcod from oiiu hoIc kiad 
D^ uiallor— >I 3c> hat give ftirnial atUmicc to an iJca wbtoli bju bvoA. 
■u to Hpcak, lor acoiic tWi '*tii Iho air" of^or. (Thcmiati, 

CijwicvtM. pliilD*opJ}o;v of Ihc lUfibcBl merit itccl&rc orplir^iily their 
lief tbotUio aovontv (<;r thcrcabuatn) oicmi>titfiof our U^it- b(>okA tro 
Mil tin) pilUn* of Hcrculca n'bioti w miiAt nciur \\o\mj io |tiuM. 

Did lifuu alluA 1 iiij|i:lil i|uutu ullunmunof Ihitt(.»ii, uf Profcwor 
Fftrada^, of Or. Glft<lhl"P<\ ftf tl*! I>il'> Sir lloi>jiLmiri BrodiL', of 
Vh4^mw Graham, of \}t. MilU, of PEvftoair Sluho». r>f Ur. Kcirifiui 
Lockjrcr. all p^alipfi ilt Ibo «alDc iliroction aij>l all nliowm;! thai iu 
lLeoo«rso of Uwir rvmihrrlicii (bctfo wrviuilacf t'ciciiCff bftvu bv^u kd 
In llink tlial Uivtn vkiiit^ vti;ini*nU ai4i imt t>ir linal uiitoiiraa — tlm bo* 
ftU oofl tlie etirt-all of vlmniittlrj. 



Jtfr. WiOiam Cntfki^ 


Tbo Iftir or ProQt^ tml still more tlio better ulatiUilicd uid Ht* 
rooobiiij;' pi-riodic Un of N^mrLuidA (unoo d«T»|op6d bj- ProffMon 
Meti(lo)c<^, Hi^jer, And C«fii«Iley). bomjli i> pretuppoeo Ujo OKi^lcnco 
iiT A gcuuttc rclAtJOD umoug the clmraenle, 

riiitrifaipli^r^ In tlia preMnt M in the po^t,— mf^ vtho (.ti<rtiitnly 
bftV4} not vorkod in Ebd labontoty, — btTti r^iKliod the samo vt^w from 
uiothur bU\l\ TtTi» Mr- Herhort Sp«no<ir ft^onrin Vm Ofuj^iction ibnt 
" Llio vl)>;t£jicftl jiloEUH ftro iiixhlucird frcna Uio tiuo or ph^nii^l ftt«fiii« 
I17 pniflcsses of cTiiluiiou nnder coiidittoDa wbiQh cheiuwU^ luut not 
yol bfCQ ftblo to pnxlaoo," 

And llio pout liAsfoivaEAllAl the ph ) loeopbcor. Milton ('P^rtuliM 
XfO«l/ Bouk T,) BUkkec hia ^^rubAri|;<il HapIiimI «aj t^* AJiiia, iuatkuet 
with tliG OTiJutidiury idea, lltal thi? Alutighty LoJ crcAtud 

"oat ar*t niftttflf til, 
liLrTitfil nltt] vhrtnna frincii. TKrhiDa iti-^rw* 
Of subttoiH.^-," 

If WO cu> aIjow bow the RO-cnllod chmnioAl olomonte might hnro 
IrofU gmcTfttci^ v« stjall be able to €11 Dp « fornudftblo ^p in our 
knoMlui]^ uf tlic uijiTEinKr, Wo h«Tcr a incpDudcninofi of (Tumululivo 
pvic3<i|tfv' to provu lliut li<itli hMivf^Jilj lu-lira and bring orgUiiEnui 
hur'ji Wvn fgroieil by ^ToliitioD, Wo aj« «&:'kiug uow to eiteud this 
iav Ifj tbo BO'CtiUi."! olcmcnls, to tha ttat pri&oipIcA of ivLic>b sUra 

If wc Biinrey tht ilistrihntion of the c^bnrnicnl clj^mrnbi wo f\nA 
two vGiy ilUt^tivl tioAifR. On the cirt« bft»4 v<.« koc budio« gnonpod 
ia dofinito pr*>iMirtioiiH ^itb ^tbor b<^«lipa from vhich ILcj dificz 
CdcMvli'iglj *i>i] to wbich thcj axo hell bj nlUiiily. moro or Ices 
fttrung. Ti>i>btiLiu oithct of two auuh b<hl[t« io a ^panibi stAtc, Ibut 
(ffltiit^, aa Qvtiry i^tuilfUt <if rhernJHtry knoivE, mufit bo ovcroomo- 
InfltancOAof AUfih dfiGocmtionnre too oouimi>u nnd ul/uiulant to acoi 
nuintion. InBucb cososcnob of tbcbcKlIoa groiipvd toguthor ba» fairly 
iimrVcd propcr^cd. Oneof tbem, morcorer, fui tha muet pftit Ltm uu 
ntoinla weight terj diiTuruiit from that uf tbt> ollirr. 

In the e^oud caso we lioi] bodies ftsa^ulntod with otbor bodjc* 
TtujTo or I(¥3 cloEoIy allied to tbemEclVQs. Thoy JLro not hold tc^utbor 
by any d(?ciiile<l offinity; thoy use hot combined in ilofioito piopar- 
tfiiii8, (Villi their uloiuio uei^bb nm uftau alutoet IilcitticaU Tf wo 
wish to obJ.JLiii otiu 4Jt- ninn) of ihcu*o Imdies in n fiopatnte auto, tbo 
difliculty oiioonntGred Itea not in tbc Htronglli nf tl^o offinitios to bo 
ovorcomo but in tho oircumBtAnoo that wbntaror ron^^nt vre employ 
acUi u\tm one of tbe aubstj^ncM in novly tijc lUutte mjkundr t^tt ii dotm 
upon tliti other. TT^noa. to ohtftin ono tx^iy of tli]« kind enlir«1y 
Boparato ift nn eicofviingly todions and difficult tuk. Nay, wo uo 
■omctin^oB at a Lose to dc-oido wbothor wo huro boforo ua & roallj 
ttimplo body or a miiture of bodice ^vbo«o properties uo olmoBt 


Tbo most fitriking initanoo of snah nssoointton ia found in ILo 


M OmaU pfth9 Siemimti, 

T)i«o bcidif« fjirm Knt « vtry 

nifliag povt&on of tbs dftrUi'n cnvt TbtiT fti« clioflj idoI j^mrtpea 
iDfillar n m ftw tuiaftiftlM, nob 04 F»mu«kito ttOfi pUotinito^ vbioU, 
w far. Wvtt beett £»ind in bal fcv loc^itioa, and onia in tiion uv Ikr 
fri«k ODMDMNi. 71mm» «wtbe form (i grouti to tbcniBiilviji; d3«n£t«]lf, 
tbny «ta ao wnw-li dlko Ui*! tt Imim Utd ntniu*t »kiU of U)o ohacnlAC (0 
«iMt«T«iA(ftitiftlMfiintioii, unltLttU hittorjUao otMoturci thbt wc 
4d &f4 ]Pot know ibo nuilw of tbom. 

It irill iktit Iw neooMMj We li> ezpUin ia ^otnil tti« procwnt of 
dhanMml fra<iitiorticm aJniit^vl fur Him Mjuntijiru i>r th«i nuvr aarihA. 
Am il «MLd InUemtf onlj tho chomic^tt tj^oklmi ; morviwer, it htm 
Xmm fuUf dascfibeil in % pftpor I r<A(l before Ibo OHtiili JLuociiitioti 

Staled in Ubo bnefoii ir»j Ifao o|>«ntloD ooeibibIb id fidng upon , 
wtmm dMB^ral medna i& «hiah thnra ii thn mnflt hh^lihool of a | 
^tttfVttM io tfao bolMvionr of tbo olcommtc lUkdur tTonCnMiit, or«a I 
ttiM^ the dUbmiM b« aiigbt ftud ^flMbg eacb trcabnont ineen- I 
^kWr. » Ibt onlj * ecrtun fmctioo of the totel Uow prewnt I« 
Mpmiait; tlMolt^ect bcinf togot |ttf 1 of th« matodftJ Id &u iuMuliibla 
M the rMtMd&Sof in n aolable BUtif. 

L«t «• «ati<po«o tliftt wo baTU in auIatioD two Mxtha olmoat 
UvDticttl in tMr proMtt;o«, bot -liffitriati vlightlj, alaM4 impnr- 
opptililjt IB bftucily- Wo «4d ki tlio ib^latlou uf Lb^ unrChu, \^hW\\ 
Bum b» vetj dllnUf, «c4ik nniraoiuiL lu viu^b clii uruintit <^iily tbut ib 
pill i|i|Nli^ onc-t^lf <ti tfm bu«> ]>PiM»at. Tbo dilution mxurt Ih) mo 
Ipttl tbnt n oQand«obl« tinui imuil ^Ihipm biiroro Kic liquid liowa fb t 
telndi^, nnJ wfvml boon vrjll lifeTo tc p4M vicr Ufjru iLc action 
of tka uoBonln b oonplflito. The liquid Ia tlicij Albnirl, by which i 
[rniiKi «o h^TV tho mrthft dividoJ iuX*y twu jiurtit, iiii Inng^i' iilotiticul \ 
ID llMir MmpovtioD. W* o«n t«ailj aoe tliAt Ihtr* ii now n Ah|chl 
iliftrakoo tntbalttiuo yaIdo of tho tivo p>>rlinnii of «4rtba; tho povtiuii 
b vJqLob b«i»ff. Ihtrnffh fi^ ib Kara;]? [icrf^ptllrlrT auiuuut, uiorti 
ImIc timn tlint vhifh tbu nininouift liju iPnuijtitui'Til. ThiH mtnuUt 
diAfMiAO U Eaftdo to MommiilAtA Hydl^nLiULriiUy tuilil jt boDonaua 
pcreeptihfe oath«i b^ obocnical or iihysicAl tnate. 

nn nccoapnojinfC diaflrvni {rig- 1)» i]1u«tr^to« tL« Kbem<} <if 
ftnctimntlon- StMling frgm ^ctq nt Ili4- il{xjx Lhojinici^itdktoqftll pAv^ 
la tbt liA nnd Uie flltmlua lo the n^ht. Krv:Ti L^iroTa roprMonUi a 
ittk oonbdntog tbo»olulioiiiuid«rtr«btiafiQt, nnd thtiivfo arruvvii from 
4lck ftnJo shov^ ibc p&th pimniod roapoctivciy by tho prvicijiiUtcr uid 

Sodi i* lh« gCDOnl uutliuu uf tho pnx^iHffH Dul, ah liiui l^v^n 
klfOiilj iiilasknl#d, tti« nuithiMk nf u^tarntioii miitahU r,>r 'Iiffvrviil 
8l»tpB of cnrllM vmry. niicro th« cotwlitiunjU of jttrimti aud 
MBuliun ■!« oooDemod, noUuitg 0oanu» nruiUblv but ntfiughCfifrwHtd 
fadnwintuui r^^inlinued moitUi %iuit luuuih and jrfti nftor y<4r. 

The fnrthor flvtwlion vrhftlbcr «n r^rlh wu b&vo lupunitAi) Ih rettlljr 
Wpjo or ia ntall * wttnre hu ognin to be dtteiilod b^ yd Anothor 


40 Vr. WilUm Creches [Feb. 19, H 

lltU ]iro«rAM it £a rKuMnvnty l» mnkf an fLpjian^nt U>tn1 i1]|rrdiHif>n. ^H 
[ E (wora*, pnrhA|m. rtranpn lo tpo»k ot axbaiiilinp the ftir in boUo* ^^ 
IrulU oiA Uboi qatil tlicTc in left m Ibcm oul; the uac-milLiontij 


< '1 '..-.: 







-■■ ■yrV^ ^¥^ ¥ V W '€> ^' ¥ ^ W l:^ 'i? ?j"r? 

imh I M ■!! !i II 'II II tiir ii 


port of ftD Atmosphere. It in rinlf iti mnrleni timoe that atmodphcrlo ^M 

%\r huh como to be roGftnlwJ lu* mntUr. To fhU d^y a battle or a j*r ^M 
is tta^ id he '' empty " if it coniiins no liqizM or aoliil IxkIj, tlitr nir ^H 
v^itli whicli iL is lilleil Ix^iii^ coj[i|jlolelj ieiioroil. A(i\>idi]i^ Ui iho ^H 
sftmi? ccrmni^tn u1i?a» hoiv empty thou mndt ii voauI (lo whr\Ti thn nir it ^H 
ocintftiDH is ri>flncQj tfi th^^ onc^niiUionth part of its oripnnl quAtititjl ^M 
That eoiiictliiji^ ittiLI rf-iiLninn id, ln^iri^Tcr, proved bf tho foet that 1 ^H 
liriTu mirceuiK^I Jii rcihit'iii .' tLc fronsiiru i1uwu tu uiiii fifty^iuillwuth ^H 
i>f an iilmi«]ihfr"^ ^'hat tliU iinm*nir ruprtth. rilfl n^ll ^lfr lM»tti>r iindrfT- ^H 
pfivt 1 if [ Bnr tlxnt, i^ti^c^f) ^ biromi^tric Hklnmtk on^) tiumlnd tniln> iu ^| 
lii^i^h^ the n^inniiiiupijrciifln™ would be o\na\ only to aWiittho tonth ^M 
Cif fen i«»:li. Eruii this high <ltirrto tif cihcmstion by ii*> m«nnit 
ri^|iniHftntM %\i a\twhtl'^ mrnnrn. T liiivi^ ttj tliUp'TuM^ tufm ]ii<rbn[M ihc 
lien rent a^-pivdi^h to prrfft i^iiipfTtirjw yot, iiplHiHfllly fthUlnM. It* 
ititoraal i-mpnciiy is S pubii? cciitnntlrf.OH ar.ii it jh cshamtted !*> 
th(T c>i}o' dflr'tLi'llTiinlh part of nti ntmoopTicrr, It ntill ctmtaiiiA 

viry Tar, fWim brtln^ nhnnlnu^ly Tikkl of nintlor. ^H 

All G^wmi o/ilie Etevtentw. 

Doat miiUbte for cxporitnotita on thcao Aftrtl^c ii one 

uf ftlutTt tkd unUsonUi of «& aiaiu»pbf<i^ lii m vAcauin of iliia dugrur? 

flnl ntidw iIm «Hloa nf Uie itjclncllnji-fipark r-^rlAin enl^tenwii 

or Mimving rtrj difffrrantl; frani w)iat llidj vrmild if 

ttraiUvl nt a )omr raonnta <^r lU tLc orJiatkrj proaiUTDof tbo 

WlrcD Uia» troftkd, tbo cuktuinalion of Ui« ipoctn nf 

Aftvr ft titnOr cm na-ckininK tho urica of yttn'mn turtlm in tU« 
^^^^Hb a»difinl ID Ihv nUlire inloLUliui cf buiuu *?i thi-h liir **. 

ftl#u oppcftn capable of boinf; j>plil o)) into twu ur purlinpft 

budi'.'A. tt iDUbt b(T oltfttrljr uuJf*nUK>it, are liol ititl>nntlQfl 
linj 1mi rrnKiTihl. jtlriiiTn or Rnmnniim mnAiTiinj; in n piinr 
«A F Uwir tdimittftliim. On tho <xintrary, tlto molociilc w« 
^frftvrlv k]»cir aa jttriiun ham noiJetioaiic ft roritaliio )i|>litliiig up iiit*^ 

Tlivftti oififltitfleuls f Invti nol ftAjot frinnftll^ hapliMifl. Tur 
b^Kn matvnioat n^otuncc and dlflcfciuitJii I haro pri»vUiiAinl1/ 













o, { 



llfH Ik<La1iD1l<1tiii>. 

NVv.'iTiito z«rf n. 

dr ttttiflliLiiulriui. 


«lliE»ittc>l IOIIm rftdi&nT iTifttTiir IeihI. H'lnm rfriiiniii [lunircrkil 

HV im>|-cHj of f»rc"Htm6 tho iiiilHOlivP-n«rk pDK»iD^. »n'l uft 
Mnlfttliig k Qu»><fnniltii;lUke vncuiim. nhtm thoTo \a rcaWy pl'-riy r-f 


Jtflr. mUiam CrooSce$ 

[Feb Ifl, 

liArinif twu HCitfl of |fo1o4 Mnlf>i in it, one sot nt cAch eaJ' Tbo 
WKn ftnd (hMttnm ftpurl i^if tliMut poli^B Mrc cxju-tly tint fl&mo in oaoli 
FsUP^ At one 'tid 4if the tiiTifl 1 fiftve pnt Hciint> thoHain milptirtt^, at 
tlic rjthc^r M}<1 1 \Ktvi> T>iit yttriuzii Hulphato, I'Iiq eximuetion ib nnur 
pT(KVH.'<1iaL: t>y f^ift ^'f tlio 8pn>uf^]l pump. I altiioh thu wires of iha 
iijilt^cltvii <i7il W tho [>L*]ofl ifct Um tljiifiiiJii Tjrjjl, »ijiJp hh /I'll »04^« un 
mrrent will pnwi ; mUjer than pu*: thrungh tlie tnl«!. llie p|«rlt ptcfrin 
to ctriko t^rr^ice tbo ejiaTh^ngo in nfr — a strikiDg disteiityi <if Z7 
tniJ]iiiiotri:B, — tliowin^ nu ♦'WlrKimtivo force <if 31,0|[) volla, N<>'w, 
wjUjOiit iluiiig hTiytliiiig to nOcct tlid dr^r«<i of <31iiluhLii>]1. 1 tnui^i^r 
tfio iiinr4 of the iLtJncliui} coil from tliu tlioriuiu tu llro jttrluui eiul. 
nii<1 the. Rjmrk piifj>ti.-8 nt oiK^e. To h\i\AiiVi* i\\t epark in nyr I rmKt 
f uhL tilt wiivs of lliii gixntjf- togi^t^K^r, Ull lliuy are only 7 niillim<iUv^ 
nj^url, i>pii\T*!ont t<> nn fcloctromtitiv*; foroo [>f f>440 voll^: tJio fnfitof 
wbf'Uii^r tliorin ^~<r ylEriA is undci tLc polcti making a dLfTcrcDoo of 
2T,G00 vitttii in tbe i^iJiduvtivHy of llis tl|lH^ The U|iliiijntJu4 of 
tliiM oi?ctitLtn<? nation of thnHit in not y^t qiiiia tl'iftr. Knii" th/i groHG 
fIiir<Lirci](Xi in iLo p^o^LoroEocnoo of tba two mrtlis, it ih oTidonI tliAt 
t3)C iMHAgoof cloctricity tl^rongL thcsotnbtfi IB uotea cuach dependent 
crii tlo iTl^ijtcc of dliiLUKtiuu «a upuu 1!ld phrepborogct^ic |)ixi£Wtty of 
Uio body opposite the puleH. 

Othor (tirthe hGcome rery phog|]horcec(iut, bud t)i«ir powor of 
Kiaininj; Tcddiukl j>honpborceCDQ[.*o dilfore gi'catlj nmonii: tboinHoWc^ 
This projfciiy wc filinll pr^fictitly »<* Se cno tif eorae iniporlancc- To 
t'laiiiino UiiFi i<i>tii^Ujuc« I'f lumiLuhily 1 have devised ^u iti^tnitnrait 
RJTiiiliir to Eeoi^noTol'H jihospUi>roAcop«, hnt acting oUrlrirally iuMl4«il 
of by mcDoe of dirwt Ji^htv Xt coDfiisU of ui opaque di««, 30 iDC:hi>R 
ID diametof^ piorcod willi eix oponinge totr the c4go. By mounts of ft 
luultrplylu)* vboi'l aud jmlloy tbc disc rau ho aot ixi rapid roUillon. 
At c»c.h revolution n eliLtionnry obji^ct hcLiDd one of tha ftjH'rturfw ib 
Alternately oipoeed and hidden six timoa, A Miniraulftlor tV^nni? |»j4Tt 

tho nxt« <jf the diflc« uid by connecting it with tbo virce from a 
bfttbsTT, rotation of tlio disij prodocoe allcmntc utoltcd uid brcnk^ iu 
tlie r;nrrent- Tbu pTiiukry currtLt it tLuti i^onncrt^^l with tlie induc- 
tion coil, from whicli the (iwondory {^nirpnt pnesafl thn:iiigb tlio 
TiUTUum luU> contuniug tlio wntii under flXOJninatian- Wbc» a 
photfpboroGfTcnt bo<ly fnicb (kB yttrin ib oxoiDinod, if tho wl^c^I ia 
InnLLnl idowly no liyhl Ib soeu whoa Ixfkcd ut from the frutit, u 
tbe current dons ruit begin till thu obscnration of the tuhft ty *tt 
iutGiv.'fipling sf'giDont, iinrl cnde bc^oi'e the earth ooiu«a into view, 
>\ h»?n, ImwC'TVr, t]t(> vjieul ifi c|iit<ib]y turnod, tho roBidnal plioa- 

tboroHxncc iftetfi long eaoiigb to bridge o^ur ibu brief interval 
pilXTCun iLv c(««at!ou of tbt epnik and llie nnU-y fjf ibti ph^taplor- 
«»ifvnt liody into ibo Held of viow, and h ia e«?I] to glow wilb a fiunt 
light wbiob iH^^iJinee brighter ha ilio e|c«d of the wheel inoroasAfi. 

I \ri\l £rel put tbn phofiphotcACcnt earth glucina in tbc pboa> 
|ihort>fcejie. Tliin phoApborrracce of a bi'igbL bla^ coloor, but tb« 




«i» Gimetu efAt EUwAtdt. 


ivilnt |;lo« U ao B^ort that, wiili Iho hiifUD** ejwod of vbiob tho 
iodnuiitf&t It oapaibile, ros mf ho light nluitcTcr. Ic dxilra^l I now 
pot 11 « ooflipcMUiid of til* iHlb ftlroDtu. Thin dm glow wish a H«h 
aba «4o«r, afaoviag In iH* <poecro«oop» k t^ontinnoiu ■i>cH:tnuD nitb 
»p«l ooB«aatTvl*oa of li^t in Uio blco <ui<l rinlol- In th^j phon- 
p^<me«po Um ooloor of tht^ qlair id bright grocn, *howiii,e iu tbo 
ifHMaeopft A oobtiunuufl •]>oclriuQ, wilL iW r«(I«xul bitia utiJji cut (rfT 
Ali Mr^*^ &E1 tbo vwluDt nutl^r tnh^ glow* w(|li a rirli onuuon 
UuL I will pot vatiw ra1)«»-^ csjitAlliiio UnxiGi &lqiLiui— in tho 
|i>ifhpr»lc»pa U«ro (fao pftvutonofl of lumiuoflitj » ao i;rc4tl iiiftt 
Iks nd liifUt i« riiiiik' villi Ui9 «Uwfl«l tliwd. kai iritb » liitfb 
vilodiT ikiA t««it]tnl i;li>w i» wa^Ij m Alnatg u whfa th« nibieit uu 
HI «f ibA iiuiln)R«aiU ShafcM^MUC^ vho ia mpp-woil t^ ban 
■irttttd aJ) fciw«lodg«, bftd be Moa Uiam rubi« c<iuld bv^j 
kv« ilcmgibiiil Ibea ittor« prvvaaolj 1L>& ui ibo linen ^omi 'Julioi 

7b«J M« all Arc, ftcd vnrj ant liu flhiH.** 

A»o(lk«r JiitinotSTo pboncimonaQ b thftt tho «^rilifl of onn grvtnp^ 
jlknMtn and MBfthnm, whMi ubmiiM to tba iudaotJuu ditdlurgo tm 
mim^ yield duooDUvwiiie iptclnL 

Um ^edn ftn exbtmdy eomiJioeted knil cLftu^o in tbuir 
Irtifli la ■ pDXiling nnuwr. Formotij jAta% I bavo pnriiint^ntllj 
pD f i*J on in elnoel bopetcM endttvovtt lo get a duo to tiio mcauing 
■kieh I &U ooDTiaoeil wai looked i^i in tb««o ajrstOBia of bikoJit oiid 
Jb^h li wee wfoeiiblo lo dlToM myAolf of ibo cmTJclJuEi cUaI I wda 
hnHng i< e enrinw of mutofitapb ioncriiitioQi from tbc^ mol^icuW wnrM, 
eddcBUj of jtitftkco iDlcmt, but vrtltun in n »tr«ngr3 imd hnAIIng 
llfee. JW • lon^ tiiiio ^ atitsa|jt8 lo il«c]ph«r tig»o tiiyvtcriinw 
iigM weie frnitleei. 

Xb» sieaAis^of tbo •tjpoogtjr^mu-koil i^mbolio Itno* b^ firHl lo 
W aeeeHAlaBd. After oonliitueil elfurtB 1 bud t'> 1h.^ t^ontfoit with 
vmMj UaodfltuigODe gnntpof oobmr«<l Ayin)>nUtt« ^'j^tri\un" lUiJ 
lemergnmpMi^nniariuiii, duraffJir<ling'|luk r«int<irluiGKi,abiuIowB, 
■■d wi&gs mqaeDtlj fomiooD ta bo4b. C«>DAtAEkt imctiov in tbo 
iedflMnueDt bee tkow given mo fuller insight mUi nlmt I niA> caU 
tbe gniAiiMr of thoee lti€rnclyj»1i]<T izwrrtjitifiriH. Kvc^ty lino ami 
ihailoy of ft line, ee^b fi^ict viii^ titeobod lo a Htroiig b&nJ, and uvury 
twietioo in inleftftilj mf Ibo sbodown wid wingH nmong tbuuiHulTM, 
^ oov ft deialle KkCftAing trbicb can be trondjitcd iiilti iLo coiumuu 
^l^boUm of ckmuNlrr. 

'fUfl leads ne lo M%aX I naj «a11 lb« hiHlorr cf ^UHiiru. Tvr4\lTe 
■Mtha e^ ibe nanu) yUrinia o^nvcyc^^ to all ohoiaiAt'i cl porfnotlj 
Usile tPOftuinff- 11 *ki #xi]ipc4od to bo on clomontAry or iiimplo 
kdy. bftTTftg ft flicd alooLO vrttighlf S8 9. aud ita pmuipLl jrnijKirtJcut 
ta diil7 d«rUfrttlaed. IU f4icjH|jhiin'Hni]t h^HU^triini i^vo a 
eralotu of ooloorad banda, mob aa yoa hm la tbo drikning 


Mu WiiUofa €to^€» 


hnforo von {FJg. 2). RrrtfuiJj ajioftkitig. tboro Sk a, iTr'^p red baud, ft 
ftnd A blue band. TLcbc IxtJidH, it iti tiuc, rarioil ali^htly (n mlntito 

.J-Il-L i^ji.Liu.!l-tuL:uiuui.'- 

■Ill mil 

v*'*^ l" t?rna£/ -'V^fntfrLaJS 

1 fcxBiniu«d ; jpt Uie gpnoTitl cbamctep nf tlie upo^' nrmaiTifil 
tin/ilmiig-'cj, iiTk'l r bubittiiUy looked npcrn Una apootriiiu SH cJi(i»c- 
torifitic ot yttrium ; nlJ tbo bauds being vieililo svLnn llio cnrib ww 
frrcei7at iu '^urvntitf. whUal vulj^ tljo Htrungo^t of all^tbo citron 
imiui — wiu* visible wbcn trncrw, fi«rlj as iiiilliuutba. wcrfj prwent, . 
Itut Hint tTi« vflioln tj'ntcni cf bimrlfi s]i£ill«<] yltrfui», ntkl tiothiug btit 
^Urliirn, t trna liimlv ctmvinood. 

The diffi:tv.nccj* iti th^ t|H<'tr& of jllrinm proparoil ftnm diffcrcni 
iKkinfY^H An: ino«t tlUtujctly M-vti un Ukinpariii}^ tTih ii|Ff'('tnfTn of 
yUniini from Kamnr-iliitr wi'-b tSrnt fim (t»du1fn^oJii^Tmil^, "ictimrito, 
fti>G(jtln:^, fioiyv-r:!'. t-incmto, i*i rth\ JirriicoiiU, At, Hlill, in «inE*J rif 
lbo#n flligbl *li|fori>Tir-M. tho *;T>rftl jtlHT«i» am finctifuUj a]] tlio 
nuno tbiiiff, tKD^f «H I hivD HA^d, cvct^ tiTTUg clicctjpt A ,Tcs.r Ago 
ironld biTc RifarclRil Ib^-m to* t^^"ni\r\\. Knl Jjisy linw miupp j/ifldMl 
to purkiicteat rtTrmii-il frArtionitt^ot^^ ami I nowcojl tbvni uld vKrioDL. 

One w^jifTlj'. obovA olL dbviis i* rrii<d on by cHniHi*** hm «u 
jildiHiiuUbln fTtJof I'f Uio itIcDiily of oiij iiuticnlkT i^bvmiciil olomenl. 


M OfMiCl af*lW BUmMU. 


tkc Tttpyir of an ddrntat i» itmkir^ mwiJeMO&t hy tbo 

itf Bpttrk, II10 cJiHfMteffutc Kjndcflo of linus in its<itr(iTn in 

(u mi«k«rftbl«, Bbl in loolttd a^ M ft OWUio proof Umt 

flpcciftl •UtMmt ifl Mndw 9X4iEuntiMi. Uawov«» Diool) obomionJ 

oUacr Wi* fuit t^ «Kov UiQ pro*«ooo of * givoa clemem, Ihtt 

rvBtioEia pif its litioi EiL till! ■pocrtruvoDM Bfo Tugtrdod tm uifikUiblo. 

•■«lyitta la thn nonrt nf SniU nrr'fll, wliOM dMUion no 

iMft but jvl tiMl ilu k&ntiL(wd lo difpnto. 

Hj irar uf iUaftntioai I wUl crojool oa tho rcrvca tito very 

iJ>irrki ap^rk. — * b^hW'Iii, b« ft raiHMNnvrml, yiavjn]^ ciu tirmrii^'lEmi 

vitb (!■• ptcultiu- i>}io«ftiomdKXLnl flp4>clrum jir-Jikul \,y 

Tito oolooKtl duA^MU ^VM im Mcanhto ii rDpnifttmtatt<>& 

_^^tll tfpwtruni cf Tltnnick iw can b« dnva bf Eikiiii Oiaittin^ 

^ttMM joa viU autHe Liito tep atrou^ giuujnL i.if liuuH In Ibu mi 

^^■^AU^, ThoM Unt^ Ittvt hnnn aIwavk tn^^jntc^il na thA rltnroc- 

pHPHoa bf illnau, uid tJidr «Jmcaco proroi ifaf aiUcac«i 

T »»>■ |^r*i;<«.x Uc clr«:Lm< ejark B[i(Xtrim] of QJ wi t>uro ns I hikvu 
bi»0 aliU t*! {npftre iL 1r8 in oni^ ft ihti I>0(li09 wlifru b/ I'lii^ am) 

^^■h^M *Chl tj UiiO fraciL<fai»(;, uid diSotv uol onlj;' fram the );iaront 
^^^^HE fal Ite iibOfl^bornKicLit >i>c<itniai, lint tj virtna of the picKcna 

BqI <tliA t tcJo tlu«i l)i« *f>M<tninn 1*11 ? 1l u<\U ns th^m {« ahwtlntoly 
kD diCm itM butv^MQ Ibii n|i«ctmEn and tliat ^vcn by <iM yttrium. 

I tfjtf fWM 111 ibc other fjid <>f Utc fmcticinntiuii of yttriam. whcro 
A bvlj, tii^ noiK«utriili:« giTiug o toUlly ^tUTtinui ti1iohj>liorcH:cijt 

rUma %ti tb«t given hj UJ. And It tdw dirtm Hnjttiicihtly from 
yttrttnn, and m ft hmk iQM'kc<1 tnnnrif r from iu br<tl(i<ir, i.lS^ nt 
j^ oUiec ntruiiiiiy uf tha fnotionation. Lonlc «t itn nfiorlc ftj>oi-trinut 
ii Mvlvcdy tdcotioftl both witb old ytttijui) ood iritii <J^, and 
I raodtm tbiaa thn» iiwcUtt uj niv Libumluty witb ilH tliu 
for «0irt nuMcramoTDt, tho vbolo iiyauaii of tiniw ^8 still 

Wlttt lofcrtooe c«D bn drawn front ^tmtt Tt».v!hjt? In divcrndit (o 

ihrown «» ^pnctrnm onalyad*^ U tbo »aiiurvlrDctiiro vrbicb bua 

•0 labarionidy Tmi«Ht apou Ita tudiisltoiib bi fnll lo tbu ^Kinnd? 

« Hftw* SpMtniiB auiJycu and it« grand t^e^niTnliHntioftfl nro 

■i firm a fi>a&datJ«9i as oror. I ho9 two rouiUc cxplarmtioikn of 

beia 1 baro bnMlgbt bcfoTo yon. Accnvdiog b> one LypotUr-'iid 

baa aottowbai enlarged Ito&cdd bioii butMLt:ti l]i« iudiiaLioim 

ty otdiaOT tma m <Jwinialrf and tbo smtriTMng bcruiiiiy nf tbo 

driflv* Oar mdiii of > obookioal cl<fauut bavo cij^oitdud^ JJithorUi 

ite nolDcolo lias bm n^ardad aa d& «4iKr«^to of two or motv o>U\mn, 

had on aocnnnt liaa beau lollcD cf tluf arcbikt^tciral dcHi|,-ii uu nliicL 

tbcv (^totaa bavo been joinod, ^Vg mny c<jiifid<ir ihiLi tli^i htriii.Hiin> 

uf m ebouical elouettt m iuoto omfliuatod lliaii liiw bithLtlo b«ea 


Mr. William CrvoJta 

[Feb. 18, 

Enppieod- Botwetn tbo tnoToenle^ wo am occnstaTned to ^doX with in 

chomio&l roocLJotie Uid nllinmto ni^uiB ne firet crL^t'.>Ji tyxnu enudlof 
IDo1kuU« CiT ftggro^vU-« of i>li7i4ical AtuoiB ; tbtjBc 9ub-iiiolvculc« tViitct 
oiiu frum tltu utUur, acoinUii^ to tbo ^HWitiou iLoj <)ct]nj>i(^ in llio 
yttritim erlifloa, 

Pcrhrtpe ibii hypoiliutia cau bo eimpLLfiod if vm imagtno jltrinm 
lo bo n7i>r«»oiit<:d bj n tivO'^hilUng picoo. Bj choiric*! ftnctionBtioti 
I liavu ilivlili^i) it iiiU' lifo flopiir*tv fitliilliugft, atJil titid tliflt th<«o 
nlillliiij** lire uot wmjtarinirtfi. Imt lika tim rjirlmii atouin iii tho bcmol 
ring, Liivs ttc imprcB^ of Ihtir jnwilinn, I, 2, 3, 4, 6, eliiinp<'<l on tfirm, 
I'he&G aro llif> iionlofiii<^9 of oiy (»i, G^, Ao. If I now briiip in a 
mncb latir^ pnw«ifitl miii ^oATcLiu^ n^i^ni — if I Ibr^rw wy t^^ilUnga 
\iti(i the meltijig*pol or dii£«olTci tbcm c1;i:mLcally — iLe qiImI fitamji 
dianpIh^tiTs itnd they nil tnni oat to hv erKer I f^iilkrciEl my jrttriiiiu^ 
or my Ui>, iiSy Ao, lo U\<' lul&nfle litiftl of tW ^K^nrio vpiirk, llii^ little 
ilifTuroTitx^A c;^ moIcciiW ftrrtiugomcrt vruusli, ani\ ilin itt^iiijfl ot which 
tbi> LiKileculoB of Tttrtum. Gix aud ii/?, Ate nliko compound, reroftl 
thoir pri^neiiciT in idmiticiil KpectnL 

All iitlorDiitire tbeiti-y cornmaTili it(«tf Xo cboirtHt^, to tbd eff^l 
thftt tbc uiiko WUoa eliown in tlio libnvQ tablo (TnbJo J-)< aro now 
ohooucol oLfimcnle difioring horn YttHcim and arLmnnum in ba«ic 
poverH nud 84»YeruI litUcir oliciiiicul awX yiiy'bk'ol pmpcrlitfit but uol 
aofficieiilly Ui euiiM** ii« lo efbot any but a *Ji|;hl sepamliun. One of 
Uit>s<] hodiea, GA, giv^s the pbospboreMcnt eiCrou line, ilU'1 aIao Iho 
brilliant olr^otrio apcotrutn I it«ro jimt cxhibitod. Tlio otbcr eight da 
not give electric tpootra wbiob can be recog]jifte<J ia the piceoncc of ■ 
BmAll qiiintitj of Q^, vtliil^t Ihi* vTet^tric ^pootrum of GA Isfo eensi* 
tiTu l^At it sbinca out in iindintQUficil brilliAUi^y even tvhec tliO 
miautity rrcscnt ie oxtrcmoly miuuLe, In the prucv^a at ftikfltionAtiMii 
On, 0/}, n^, A:c., Ar« epraul out and more or h^ scporAtod &om ooio 
oJiutber, yet the ^piLrAtion is iiaperfeot at the beat, luul lit vur ywi 
thore IB ouoi^izb GA U* r&veai itn presrrDco bj the «Miaitive eloolrid 
spark V^bL 'the arguments iu fAVour of each theory ari^ ftmng wd 
ppolty oTonly balAnoeJ, TLo otiinpound molcculo oKplanAtidn 14 a 
good notliuig b^pothesiA, whioh I thiuk iiiAy nt-vuunt for ibo foctj; 
vhilu it drcii) not ]HtHtulrtto tlii^ rtktliur btiruio »llGrnAtiv<* df ciilUng 
into crxiAtcucfi eight or uitio nov c1omi?iite to oiplAiu th^t jjhrxioiiioou, 
OowOTtiTr I fiubmit it only ab nn hyiwthesiB, If fijrlli<>r roAOArch 
shone the ne^T olotn^i^t theory ia muru toueciDalle, I flhidl bo tlic flnt 
porum io Accept it* 




* Tfoithor oTttiew thonrii^fl cign»t vtth that of nij duUn^fahAd fVfrad 
Lv^jOf^ lie llolalmii'lfiir. vhoulm hm vitnkctl i>n iIiph- oATtfisfor aooa tiimi Ha 
r<>tiiJiliirA lljut aIuiI I hu>Q caUt'cl iiTil .vUfii^ui In 4 irun di^uwriU HiBrnj^lirlflnt hy 
thv d^^uk ntN-^^lruiit Alruitdr nlilUtnl, but e]i>1 M*iu|i u iiliiu|>lL4.imcf nt r(]VL'(rum 
i'h rri-3u^ TLu budios j^ivib^ tlie (<Lnhp]ir>rnHE]( at Hpi;iorm hu 4mri«Ldi.'rfi tu bo 
tmnuritii** IEI jflHum. 'Ilii^tfi- ho tuya urn lv<a in niimt>cr, ntid Jic b&B prfv 
vliioanlly rjiiii'vl ititun Za uml Z^. by i& iii^-MhmI nf liu n«i», diHVTlitff l>«a 
nt[U[\ M. dp ttuislnivdrnti ubtuluA Huurt'sn-ul stiHStm ol rUt.ic bodlrf; liiit thflir 

ott 0*9m§ ^tkt EUmm' 


Tnav tnU ioirodiiCM to jmi ft mbnUnnfi wlifrh fins boon to m<» 
«liia«oilelmt«d Bo«olt» ttono niu to t)io tstfirproUu^of Ef^Tpttim 
kMRftkcK. 1 roootTiyl it from M. 6ii Marr^^uus and it wu &t>lbiiifi 

nd hi iHUkod [iroTiidowJl J Yo. 

b (be nuliifctit-nwtLur tube tlu* cftttfa givcfl a bright viwctnim aa 

If ««eont«» lliisspcctrwa villi lli*tu«cri1>od li>**o]il jttriam" 

^Pi^S) vo Bc^c tltAi, ocnltting miLor d^rlAtU, Ta la jLtriutB witli Uio 

iMirtiirifctio citriku b^nil left out and tL<i gm<n and anuign buidA 

^Bf WMtrinn ftddod. Nov Umk ftl th« fi>Jluviiig dmgmu (Pig> 1). 

^^fetA wpg<«BPt»lho gyclrara of ifcraiituro of CI p&Tt«uf jttrtumiLUil 

^Hp pwta of iUBarimL It in almoitl la iM iniunEoat dpoUiU identical 

^P^itt Uia Kpootrwn of Ym, but tbu ciUi>rj ImnU U M jiroutuionl oh auj 

Mbff tmhil. He»M Yd fa oliown to <«ik«iAt i>f AnmariTinn, viih tM^ 

paaojidk bloo of jttnttui nnd pcnno of tbo otlior jttHam biiinlH flfl^d 

iftiL It |ir<o*o«, farther, thftt tbo cdtroa hnnj which J h&d hitherto 

^IMMApd ■• ooo of th« Mvoatiol boaln of the yitrium iipactrara<aub«? 

■H^B^ l«inoTc4, wtiiUt an4>tLiTr ofmnM-toriKti<; yttrhifH ^ruup^ tliG 

H^^^BTgiVMi bwid, ooQ Miniiiii witli htfJ^litf^ndd briLlianry. 

IFdow it <rc» MMiiblo to Mmova w citron bftniMonninji b>Jy 
frotn Ibi* niitiim, 1 dionld Icato Yu bchiod ; 1 eboald, in fcvc^ ha^c 
iKOspovod Ta fhrn ita elvujtuU. I havu uu iIuuIjI ulialiryDr tljnt 
"1 nlllMnlialy bfi (i^nnni|ilUherl, hitt thf> niMUntnary n'orlr nf 
ition Ja tttdioDi b> the huit dojj;roo, aiid for itu oompUtian 
ooaapy a ^moo of timo in oomporiuoa nitli ivhioh tbo hi'o cf 
IS alt tix> hnvu 
tilU I bive not jot chmnliThny removod tho dtmn-funYiSiij^ oon- 
1 /An |iKv«iimlly Aiifirrodt tlio oltran band axal shtivr an 
qMotmn), imilAtiug m the dowurt dogroo the tmtarul jipuoUum 

Bj nwviK of thu ulci^trinl p1tof!)dii>roico[ro I ank ouablt?'! to caluti 

im of &n #ttrlh immrvlijitiily nfUir rt hfut DufTi-Tnd nriWiilnr 

in iho vaomaa- la thiH waj 1 got tli« Kpnt'truin cif tlio 

■mA^baI pbc«|ihon«c<]DQC| anil 1 bavo fouEid that not bit thu <xju- 

■litOtfilB of IboM cvxtha emit rtAuliuJ ijlitiei^LvrvbCOucfi fur tbo eonio 

^ratioa of tine. 

Vlien ft titti* otroutinm is ft^dcd to the yttnnm-AaTnojmm mivliirOr 
IhettfocA 1b Uio piboaplioroeoo|>e U to au[>[iroea the rc«iilaal pL'.ifij^lior- 

I l«nd* »M Tstmnd J boky and UJut, rundcrine iiloniifWElrin -l[lKrnU. 

ibeui Ml AV^ l^'^" ^f^ Ibe ijiTinrfk or my *i& mill O. At rint u^ht \i 

p^tt ttei bt* mil mj ■[I'vim vm dui; to iho Kutic b'ulii^. hLil» 

Iff M' il* thjiituadnutt tUv limnlcal pwvn^ cf iliv cirUi* prodiloliift 

^. vtiUlf diffUud- 11io«c irif^nc phc«pbari»a»ui Unv fi)i mf TiioUuM 

_ ^ t^ vUnnfB fVlnnity cif Ihn fmotfotiatruiD, vhrrti hi* llw^trHCout IfAlida 

ABrr*ly *l»(* vn «t ftll: vbilfC hn Muor«««nt plifiunnnrin hruAr.llintrniailifiain 

^ ll 1^ l«rb4Ba) vb4 r^ th> fru^tiririBlinii. wbiini nu rLtridm I'mi l«i i|i'1i>e<j(|i1 



JTr. WfUiiim CtvAtt 

tFeU la 

iinrrmrR of Vi^ — the Htron Iwn*!— fttid In nnhwirr tbr^ plioiiplTnfrrt/>pftf\> 
of (ijS, tlio clouMo green l**iiJ, luni llie imitotion of tliu V<t Bpcctrom 

I must lien cull iiltculii>D to t1»o oi|)cri]i]ci«t« of Prof, A- B-fl 
Ni^irilfiiiHklotil, iy\ tlio Cfvijifin Itvnthtt at tlio Friitoh AcAilt^mj of 
8(^icncT« f(jr Xn'TctTibcr 2nn^ ISRti, TbiKmnuipntirnvniit ih wnrkinfl in 
HjOMkino dirootion fts mjnlfi witli rvntiu wfatuhrIi>L-i<Lodiy corrobcrnto 
XQj cgmnuoata. Ho dm t&kcu tho i^nuk miitun? irf yttriu^ pTlin, 
jUorbiu, St*^ ju»t a« it £» pft«i)ntatiiiL fruiu tlv iMiuurhls CLXiluiiiLu^ 
thim «w ftftfthsv Thin tDUtnm, for linTvilj^fi imkr, Iip ndU g*lr»* 
liDifi, Aud ho Bndii that tliiu giulolitiia, though ^iilpdUir >k oom^and 
liody, hjiH aiwayn u ouimtiiLtt atomic wmf^kt, uliikti^'rvr tlio mmcnl 
from Mliiiih it liae Wcu '.-iLnictoiI- Or, to u«o Pn^f. N<irdcaD«ki5l<I> 
iiivii^, " Oxi'tr <'/ ijailoUriium. ihottfih if u f^ntlfo! mriih tr/a mjhjjU 
lodii, bnt a TfiMlurtf c/ Mpiv itomt'rjfhcvt orides {even w]i4'ii it ii derived 
from tototlj diOVrciit luiccmlo fDUt}<l m LiHiLitiffl fiir af^iut from mtvh 

lli'iiutlj <rb^ti>t44, '* iTc «if[ III j'it*ntcf of a /ml fif^tJyrfA'T nrvj f» 
rlfwUtrif. For t1»o flrsl timn we nm *?oiifroni*?d with llio fact that 
tLnxi iaon]<<rj>hot)ii AulutAficcv, vt a kind thai cljoiuidtv aro Mtill «>m- 
|)f)1Icd to ri'i^rdnflfilcmputfi, ocvur in uaturo uutunljr alw^Lyn tugvlLcr, 
but in ihu satui: |irujiurtiL>us. It H^iriun tbut <jhoui]#U Li.'i<] find iLeiu- 
«(<1ve9 fiu^n to fikoo wiih a ]>rohlcm (UiJi]ogt~ki]s to thnt prosoDtod to 
ftitroQomoTfi lu tho origin of the mittor pUnotc.^* 

Tbow (acta t^irow a now li^ht ujhjq curtain imi>0Ttant chomicftl 
qncntions. For the <jld ^ttritiia T^mne^xl muster m au clomnut. Jt 
bud H clt^fluitu Httiiuir WghL, it untL-ml Jutu auiuhiumtiuii witb otber 
plciu«Dt«, and canXd he ngnln fiopunLfed fmtn iftctn Ofi a wholo. Bnt 
nov «« flrjd Ibnt cxc^Esivc Mid ^vfitemntia frogtioimtioii hjia iictod tbo 
pari of » olipmioni '*eortiag JJumoa," diBtribating the Atoms of 
yttrjuiu into grodps. nrith c^rtiviuly di^orcut pboEphurcMkCi^til sjieirtrai 
■lid i^i'oanninljly dilTcrei^t Atiitnic tr^igbts^ thoirj^b, fmiu iho ruiun] 
^ibttmical point Cif view, oil thceo groupfi bohnva oliko. Ilere, then, ia 
fr floualled olomout nboec ^pr^utrutu dcc's ii.*A cnuktuttcc^jDikllf from oil 
its atoms; bul mjiuit &t<iniH furnisL bohiu, otln^r aloine uLhufs. cif ths 
lince and biind^ of tbt< ci>rnpi^i]tid fju-f-Lrciin ijf tbit otmiii-Tit. H^iidO 
ilio nUjitie of thiH o]4?TU(!iit diffbr prohnbly in weight, and cortkinly iii 
tbc iiktornal motions thoy nndorgo- 

Tljia ia E^iiliUcly to bu rui [6ulntt>d caB«« Wc may itasiimc that tbo 
priTiciplo iH of jri'iiural uji plication io all tliu uli-iiitintH. Tii n^tnc, 
jKwsibly \n %U I'TtrU'Tiifl, iho nLolo sjn^^tTiim i3fio« not HrinLti;tii? fi-uin 
all tboir uloujfli Uit dtFlcrcQt spocLfal i-itys mny ooioq ft'iiii {ItfTercut 
tikfUiVt, luii] in Ibo f^jieotrum an Vfo ^o it all tljfbo paitiul ^jioolnt aro 
pi'Chuut to^i:Lbur. Thih maybe iuttipiL'tcd tu i^icau thitb tht^ro ara 
definite (Iif1'cr(ii<rt4 in ttii* iritiTiml moiiiiris tif the hovltkI groupit nf 
wbich tLw ntoiuA of n chomical uluiiitifl cotiriHt. Fcif ox^rnplc, wfl 
iuu«l tif.w br |iiqmrciJ fui- etjijo such ovcute a& Uiftl tho noTcii »cn08 
»f bands ill tbu iibcivrirtioii't'jiccEnim of iodine tnuy |in>vu Qut tJl to 


Mi Gvu€tiM o/tlt EJrm^AU. 



il4 fpACa tt*«rj raolconlo, but IbAt >omo of ihece Diul4«iU^it e«uit 
■QBM of UuM Ktitni, oUien oiboTV* md tn tbn jnmblo of oil tbovo 
■Mkontos to nhicb is giTOH Iho iuui« ^ Eulino vaprmr," iLo vrbolcj 
«nvQ aorictt atv cmlriboton, 

A"^**^* Impovtftat inftmncn to b« t\nwn from the facts in tUt 
jViiQBB ftiooi, ttioiMli difloHfJ^. do not didur ooniiauouhly^ Vi;l jkt 
Mffl««> Via Imto eridcmoe of Uiia in the iDct iLot the A|uctro*r;u|itc 
bnds chlMrlwillio of cttcL gruup &n) diiliuct frjui Uiuet nf irthnr 

mac I, ui tko pnNOUl «tAto of toiccicov tb«l thU in probtbl/ Ui4 ciLao 
«ttfa ibo Qithoc aJtf laonU. At;d tibo «tom«of ftobonuoiU cJctaont boinjf 
kKvwB to differ Ui oaa mipccL m»j dilfijc in i>lh«r rupccta* aiid 

RdCnndag, ftfUr tbu diffnraoion, M ikfl iilca <if hnnTy snd llglit 
ahiou, *« toe bow woll tbu liy pctbocda itcoordf witti thu di^v EtbOta 
W« bcuogLl to Ligbt iVooi oTfTjr chomical poiul uf Yiun tbc ^iahla 
aolcesW gruQ|\jlir;iui^ buhATm kB&uelviui-iiL Ti^Kj^lit up yttrium 
nqvlrai not miij PDnrmont dniA iind miitJiHnl. hni thn aiiHt^npA ckf a 
iMl bj ouftAfl of vhiob tba ccastitttoaU of ^ttriimi arci capable of 
reoontiitiofi. Hod vrc tcvta m ilebcato for tbo ojiimtilucttt inolctulor 
^ou^cS <»lo)«iiivUiivolccDtBt»J«o migbl bu iu«olveil iulu HitnpUir 

i|itn0L lib ODO ibingt bofravor, b> line} iint luctirm of Ai^jiioittjirg 

Im wudiwci knoAT lobadlMlncl asd tobnto ooloar or s^tiain 
M to 0Didi> ■• ftt cvor7 stop ; it is quite anothor thiiij; to 
^pM>tBColoBrwM bodtM vibicL m nliumt iJuuticftl botb iu oltf^micAl 
mslMHi nil sloniv ww^lil, topooiftU/ if y^v h.»rv nv «uNpii:iu[i lliut 
dM bod^ w« otaniM It ■ mlitarai. 

Agpitit It MMU M if bodiM vo have buMi Aoonvtomcd to rof^iinl 
•i abMlalelj nmiild and akaii«nt4iT mnj b>> iiplit up in dificront 
fewrtioBi aooarliog to ibffnwttii wvbnu^ iv Uur u()i>rj Lbviu. tJutil 

TMy blrir iwr t'>iUWKikii nod* inniiiion oF ah ulniiKirit Jtn4l''.r UiU 
MBM of didjraumn. WiUi Eomo trovblo it hftd hocn Hporutt^d }^om 
ilfl aeooflbtiMijiiig bodioB Uaihanmti and thorium. Liu propovticA li^d 
been cxuuDCid, B»d co i^n^ dutibti-d ita ilustiuct ntinl ekmcixtnrjr 
It wvi vi^ifL'-l «ou<irtlrii^ Ut oim uf tlit>i^iiiirriiiii «ifirrijitiorj(i 
jiu atomoal. m *~ a louwthinpr to nliir^t iro con ni^l, hut frim w>iiolt 
IbIm mMbing.'* Wbcn, boboldl Dr. Auor von \Vi;UVLLcb, 

t^ tbu asppotfetl aiiuplc bcdr in d uotc) loAunor, n^ccfcdod 

dMonponng it uitu twu s:iii|der buuicB. wLicL bcvjiltr.vl tiu^jdviuium 
tad pi>Min1jia[iiiii . Hid Uliftr mcpftTolKu, fn vbic^i I hav^ bi^i li 
•hua^ allow tbftt crraft DOod|iuiu]i] atid praj»<<d;iumiii utu n<jt tlio 
■wdait bc^oH into whiob didymium am ha AioMcUi^i. 

Bat itznajr ho aaVed, WbU in llw botrinjj; of aH tliiH up^m ibo 
\pm} qMBliuD of tba geu««tis uf tli<^ fik^nu^iitf ^ lUvi- m; ch<riiil#ta 
Mcralj diaeovor»d oeaiu tk*w *- oloucDtf." or fomxl ont tint n bitdf 
Ulbavto b«U to b^naplo u ia rcAhtfccmplctV Wuhkvi-, J iinLtuit, 
dotta aoraiiliiag decidedly different. IF « mobU ^vlmU iJi r<^imil t> 
lata m flicd akauio vtviglil bi diwuvuttl t^^lib % comi'-.^uui! i-r a 


ifr. WUiwm (yooka 


mivt^m, tmr b««l tiwt Tur reoofcnitiag tn ^Icvifml, «i>-Ml1cd, IlU 
matted ftvft^l HJt^eKa it Lh^ Uwn «Dii«i<Ur«d tbjil if tb« 4tiotnL» 
frvlgfat of ft Dictol. lUtcnauiC'l bj- diA««<nl otMerrcr^ Mttirktr oiil l>»ni 
lUAevrat txrmpoiui'iit mui hlvmri foand bi bo connluJ (wLllaii. at 
VOdnTi lh«i liinilsi-f triprimmlal rxmrk thtmiuch inrt*! lurmi ri^litl^ 
l^ke nek aBoog Uw omplfl or i-li<ntrintiin U>ilt«fl. \^'« loAtti from 
KonUniki^ld'a gadotimaiB that tki» ii ncr lonjcor Uic &wc. Aienin, w# 
bftvalitfo vbocU viltio ttbnU* UAdoliaiun u tot ma dcmftiil, bafr 
• ojmpcmtHl. ur nlliur. |«rliiii<i,k luiKUm) uf yitriutii, ciHiiuiil> kihL 
juertitDtHs W^ hiiTA tihovn tnat Tttrinia U ft eomplAi i>f fivi^ iir m^trtt 
botf c<iiLftitiiGnU. And wlxo »ball TDiktim> to KiuDnT lb*t oorh i>f 
the#ft ooiLfftilnontA. if a^Uckod in »>idc diffcMtit ip«ancT, %ad if iLo 
ruulU wtxKi aubaiiiifd Ici ft Iced in<>ro Jcticfttc nuU HcarcUing Uiwi Uw 
n'timil-mallrr l«>ilt niij^hl tjtJt t« htilk fiirtli(^r >liTiHiM«7 \Vb(?n^ 
ilivu, U ttiv kutfiftL ultiinftlA olcriikiiQt f Aa wo ftdrancc it KMod^a hlcft 
th« taclftlifliiiz fQJmtCo Uoot ftnd ip^VM ftoon by tho llrol »iid thinil; 
Uftvcllcr iu the clMott. Are wo ia cnr qitoit for trath to bo lhu> 
ili.-Iuik<d ftiiil biulk>.-ii / TLfl v«i}r ultu uf an ulumvul, hd sunjirlLiug 
fttia>>1nuiljr jirLmary niul itllimfttt^ ■ocmfl tt> b« growing Inu fthd leM 

BeU w>^ liftTC hj bo moAhi dotto with t)iQ tivc c«rtbi and llaoir 
lefuuiLO. ][okv IB il Uiat tliutci b^rtijct i^rr futiuil, eu nt Actuully fjcd 
Uivm. (UitoL-iKi^l in cvrlikiu raro tiihiKniA hiiHi ha HUTixrukili? nml 
gn< loll nit.*, bill it^aiirrmg only m a fikw 1^>calitioAV Thi« fftnt i^ hard 
to »c<^'aiit Utt on the ordinary tbooHoo of tljo cn^UAticn of thO',^ 

I vi^tiltirv pruvmioiinlly to roni.'1uJu llii^t wir N>-calttKl ulwimntc or. 
ftSmpIo KHlitja ftr^ in Tealily, componml tonl^tontAa. T(> form ik 
ci4^u('(r{itirtii <>f tlic^ir gonceia 1 must bo^ you to carry youi IbonghU 
bftok U> iho tiitkd wLon the Tiaiblc unlTcrrw vm '^witbont form nod 
Tuid/* jind to wat^h ibu UotulLvjiiuciut of lunttcr in iLe Etattv kiioim U> 
g£ ffuni ftn aiiUKT^b.Mit RumMbiTig. \Vh«t >>tiBlod ftTil«rifir to our 
olomontc, buf^rfr raftlt<ir ft9 we now bftvo it^ I [trufoM to u&mopror^/e.* 


* V? mgiiini n word. oinklDj^tu t9 TirDtari]A«m. lo osproM Ibo iclmof lift 
BttKlnnJ priniL'i matter L^nvliitg l«.'ffti« th« wcdull'Pn ftf Via Alic-mWI HU4ii«nlK 
.&• wMii I haw s-priUJtT-iJ In BK? Tor ihUpirpwp In i-o«it|H>iiml'*l of rp^ {m/^ur 
thnO nf'*\ l^^r: ' <^'f '*"f "f "A*^^ <Ai>v< ■*" ntfj^A), Tliv^ ntrtil iv Mvnvty a iie« 
otniih4C-'> ^i"! i>i ^hc- Wbiloia 4f B>1d(Aon' (ti.. v> IT) wo r«ivl:— "Tby dinlitkly 
liAbd. thul ciruiituli l]v> wutU^j tfkif^au t\^i — owl of rar-nlnit ituff, tho vnra 
hoio rvTiclnrMd ''atulT" f'wiiift In thoorigifial ti\v'. from wliii?h I b»tv VDutmcd M 
fldo tint •flrrJ '* jihitylu" filx huTu1r<'d ynrvpi l^v Rogrj Jlmxia ifrroia in hSu 
£ie Arif (V^rjiATi "Tliv (jIhuiqiiIb nrv futuW out of t1\f}, ■jiil cVL-ty i^lnucul ih i.iim- 
Vc^tiril into tfip DfitLiTt L>r (lEinlljcr olninriiC Vmftaa-n Huxkjr maibdit m^ tbhl 
}aii. ii^ the tfttnTftl avnho of mutc'rifll 3ul>atj*noiH, wm ftmt u*< d ty AnttolJis m 
ttliCMi virlu it II of vprr frc^uoDl n4.M-Titr«ibi& In foot Ui-^ Titnikin^nlal (tkvtin4>, 
tknr} in Itia Fitploal rbltmnfiliy Is botw^i-n ^At;. i^t mircr^ an^l '^i. or /vn, 
nhirli IjtJit |irFit(j tifflir];^ miMUvtrt to *vliuL wa aliouM colJ Ihi? mm botU of U« 

Jdulhli-p, iHtwrrii, mirj iGEiJLiEiticaofEL bb^Eie— orof fin<--c*utbt»u«of llifac to 
tc a>rt^pnyei^ i-ud rlHCi^bcrD Arialutk JiHtinj^uidUod (1) Vpiiry\ t^ij. "3fjilcrii 



ooi OtfweiM o/M« Eltmtnia. 


But bow oBn ve sappuMj ilc pml^lt^ or fir«-mUl. nanrc^rU^ iiito 
[iho Alonio Aniulltkok f In AmnrphrtiiM ntnlli^r uv^ mcognliw * l^tiftrtioy 
^la MygatioB ikOt to ba idoutiflail wrlh f^ravitatinr, ainc^ tl i# niant- 
fat?>ttuici£ finolj-diviiod xnftltor, woollier ■□flpoiiiUii in a mcNlitnu 
of a ii|acific gmntj noptrnor, tqiui). or itif^jot to iU own, TIjia 
■Qj^loliaftliTo fertii>» 18 familUr U> oWrTurH i^f iuttiir«] j>Uiru)riirTiaaj 
Cl^vd< eoiiCrfti^lmg to ttflt A|i|iacknwoci Imfiwn %■ a inAcktimI Aky ; 
pvtidc* of carboTk flo«tift^ in tbo iiir. voIlootiDj;. and nltiiriAtolj 
fiJliog M " bUckv ** ; <hoiiiical prccipiUtoi, hi fimt fadv nmorphoiuk 
bnl gmlualljr buoumiQ^ lluukj-, ^mjiulnr, ^ttiil crjitttllitiu; vuriux 
^fioqi. 0ttdtl4ltl5 qaftrluwilTtn ant of nntirqilLou*^ ftmnkik;— lUI tTi<w>, nnd 
MA7 iDorvs AUdnt^bfj tbit univcnial iVinaatiic briiicij>]o in nittiiro 
rhi^ I miggoU fint mftdc ibwlf tuaciifctt in the coadcnBatioo of 
Iproljle iaU> rCobio matk*. 

A fVrv «««fct a^ Irt thin t1i<>*lri«, Sir WDUm Thnmson nekfA yiMi 
\%a traTot task wtih him an imAginary rir^ur^ion L»f ftttaiit thirunty 
jnuIEon jc*n. llo fioturod to joo ibo moment immt^liAUk boforo 
birth flf oar pun, wb«n tho Lucrcttui alonm ruaJicd from all pitrU 

% fi>RD(vl in • f»« bntrrn an fnoamlvsoMit fliiiJ 1111144, tbo 
of A iiiJ*r JiTitcra with thirtj miliion yoam of lifo in ir. I 

yvnx to accuo^paa; tnc to a puriod otcd more rciuok, to the 

VEfj beffluiia^B uf limv. U^fi^rv cr«u ilia ubuuiiuiil atuniH Ijud ouu- 
•otidfttna fhtm Iho onginikl ifrm^U. iM iia Imagfnn VJint at tHiH 
prttBftl itego ftll vas in an nllra-gauons fftatt^-A stat» dilforing from 
■njrtbiftjt ve oan nov conociic in tlio vtniblc onmrtc. 

N«w unlea* tbc txprnsiou ''ftv-iDJol*' au<l tlic iiiipE>oFiitii>]] that 
fffteins ■Alter uaH rmciH in ntt ind^riHulj' Ir'iHT.'uI condition * nrt* ^^iiilo 
iirkT— t^ififfiTiil baA*lW| Wit Itnvc !:> filial irilh i\ prorA^ii annl^i^mH to 
oooliB^ Tbt* op««»tio&, probatJy internal, rctduticft Ihc- t^iinfKttutiiro 
of tboeotfUM^roiyle toa poittt al irbKl} Ibc fir«t Jitc^j in sriuuiktion 
liLei plAoe; nuUler aa we kuuw U oouiva iuto uxtii|ajii?<!» ami utcima 
■N IbraMd. As aoft) aa an atom (« formal < int rif pnitfflf i i is n Htoro 
cf tftTgy, kiastJG (from iU intomaL niottouAt, and ]>oUutLul 1 innn its 
bcadoDCj to coaJoioo vriUi otlbor atotna hj (fmritation or rLoniiiLLlly), 
To obtun Uu0 cnievgj tlje nei^LUmnng ytvfj/te muitt U; kid ud<W 
<iWitlllinll<M|, Ue. nuat U- rofrig>«riU>l by ii, itif^rt^by nrv-ltTating Iho 
■nbMqOMt tomMJon t>f oOm atoma. With th« IjJHh of graiiUtiug 

Priva," or BMlbr udUtartnlUlcd Into demantit vitboul Gimi. iu fiuiL and 
fOaMfMaillj a^vwmi, ttakaown aBfi unkit'^WLttlf^atid (fi; 4ffx^riBXtt, 
w ftwW B d iiarit. nch a* «Bttb, Of meUl, uf vaUr, or any olhor la^ cool 
vtt vLiA mam honaiar 

* I as oMuCnfiittd lo mo vnrd* nprebiire of b^ifh umivTntnM: bal J 
Mtmhm I Ml w«U« d<arlj to aworia^e vlth >kW!/^ Ibfi idTo of h^t or told, 
I fi "pw ■^' I'l " rf iii J — I M4 f'^ouMtff Venn laKqu^To Lhv iit-rk-ii? motuia* tliol 
ifilo plaf* la lb* cbmaal atifini: aod tho LikliwlnciiDn ^T b^ntf«« at nnod]i*{ 
ftottdB toirt ffnijlA v««lri tnmlf* IU b*Lr>g u Iv f-iiun^ Intd olifmiral aboni 
fMteblj lit* fini ofMnlkn OMrivif^ analff^u in ihri farmiitJ'm nf PKim liiii 

ft 2 


Mr. Wiiliam Cr^ei 

[FeK 19, 

iTftltor, rndliJn^ anJiLonl/ (a^llior frotn ovtiry paint of afiacc^ v/a thtta 
^t Sir WiUiAiJi TLonutuirii inoAutloAocnt fuMtt vbict ih pi<«4.-r]t1y to 
L-oul itoTiii iiita (I Huljir nyvU^iQ. Wit cnnnot U^^ if ft\ncUic{iy nxt^U^l 
prior to i\io urigiti uf tbr< ftUirnic ocni'ltttDri nf ihAit^r, but with iho 
iurm^XiMi of al<>Diio mntl^r tho otb«r foriuH of cDorgy ivbiefa r«|iiii« 
malturiti ortlor tj ia&TiEf<«t tbonMlrDe, topu t^ict, ftmonfpil others 
tb«t farm nf cnrnify wliicli hM for one iiS il« fnctun tliat nUok wo 

M b hnvci now t(i mwk bi>ff iirotrld wu coDTCiTtcd not into ooo ok^ 
kind of ro*t(«rr Int into m^nj. If w<t rooognjso tbut it coBtAiafri 
within itnclf tljc! ]Kitciiti*]iir <it all Atomic wci^IjIo, Iwu 4iil thev 
]jrjt<.-nttalJl!iTft bctvijui? *ictna1 ? We may Zioria Rkll U) luhid Uiem^ 
gwtkar (if Dr. Fl. J. MiHk, tluit niir «Ioi]:mt;a am Iha rorall fif wi^ 
oeft<iv« j>*Jtiii<]ir]MtL4>ai4 itriHng Um molinv procoM. Wo «Jia11 oUo 
dorivii ianch ju^Airitano^ fnira a Mothi>d of illnntritiD}; tbe ptiTlOtJio bw 
pri>iHMvil by iny friviid TrofuMnr Eoictaw llcyni>]da, uf tbe UuiTDrsitJ 
of DuUlii. 

T muht i-itlt yoTir attou^toTi Ui « drAffrikin i Fig. £^ In vbicli 1 h^T* 
aligbtly iiioclitjo<l tiio nri^ibal design of Prufi;««i>r K«)rno]d«. ] bar* 
r«prci«<Lij(i^] thn poTiJuluni An^ng on gmdTullj doclitilng In Map1it«d« 
«rci>riliiL|;: in h umtl^umnlii^iU lavr. 1 bnro further iattTf^Mid tulwiiiii 
cflHuin biiil l(Ta<) ikiioibir linlf-twing of thu pou^uluiO- Thia n>ad*n 
tbo chiicillntioiirj mciu HTTiimf^ridnl and brings gold, lucTcrury, thoUtnu, 
]<]ai], atui blMoiLtb ht Ihu ^iilo whore tl^cy oro folty in ijirniciiy willi 
UiOUiU>rt of |ir(ivi<nih ^mju*. 

Tbif Hicniit^ikl <l<^mi^i^tji ar» attKUiM ^o oj-dcr a4W>n)ing to tbalr 
hti'iuic WQighU, on tli» tv^ntri< rortivnl Itno irlucb ii dividod Into C^QaI 

FollLivriiis tic curve fnm hydrciji^n dovnitrftriU, **■' »w Ifiol Ibo 
uWiiTitH furi»inj{ ttiu Gighlb gro^i^i nf MeudoWlTf lirnkiii^fn^Dt an 
ntrialo noor tbrr^i? of tlio ti<ii ncWIul potiiU. TL» oif^tb CToDp U 
dindcnd into tbo t}iroi? tri]iliib« — 1^>a, moki^U ami ^xtlmlt; rbodiBU^ 
milicnittiij, and pnLUiliiini ; iriiiinm, onnlum, mh\ iiUtimim. 

TliL'av tu.lif« fttc intorpci'imlic 1jvciiij«v ihtJir atonuo voigbta 
^Tiilndn tUr^ta frcni iha t^Tnnll |K'no<lB into whlob thn olbOT ^QtamU 
folln ami bocaiUQ tbuir obeniioul rtJiLtioim witli hcqao nacmbor* cf llifl 
ncigbbcim-in^ groups nhow tbaE tboy aro probably iotor^oiHodic in 1^ 
mnee of buii^^' in tr*n«^tton intaixcA. 

Notice how ikot'iim-tcly i]io Niric4 of IWa bmlF^ Rlii into tbli 
tcbvnie. BeginniiLg nt tbc trnji, run tbo oyo ilg«D analt^aii po«iUon0 
in eaoU oedlUtioti. loktu^ i^iLhor tho oicclru-poaitivt) or cloclro-ucjpitiTO 
•wingH. (Sco Tabic, p. C4.) 

Notice. &1»i, )iow 4Jtd«rly tl[« mfitalii ili4i»VL<rvfl by HpivtrwH 
analysis fit in thoir floco* — gidlitiin, indton, aod thallimn ; mbtdiioa 
and (Mwani. 

11)0 •ymtocitry of nearly oM tbiti AcriuH f>rootaim at onco tl^at wo 
u^ wurkint; in ibu riyiltl ilitvctuiu. ]^uc1j ilIhi iiuty !» Ii-ariin) fnxn 
ibo anriniHlif^H hm* TiKihlo, A fnir hnrlinfi, tiuib sa rlirlyntiam.crliiain. 






It. lil. 












C B 












Tt »<, 













Kr Vt 





— . 








Ctf U 

. — 









— -— — ^ — — ^Au — llglHTirb 

Tbo more I ponder orer the nmQ^p^inoitil i>f tbiii pi^i^ cnrrOi Uio 
inorH 1 liiA-irtno c*iiiviiirt<l tliut hn whii fully grwijHi itn inuaiiiug hold* 
UiA Vty it-i iitlUx^U M>tiitf of tho <1i<'pt'iit inyilvrtu or cmttion. Ait 
Jlr, Brnwuiikg pitU it iu lii« * J*flHo_v]Hgit"^'*'Ti8 M«i"« to eiploro 
Up hh'I d^>hviL. iuch ty uidf, \fith tlio la|>Dr M« mmor.'* Let Hi Imttor ^ 
ftt tlio divur (if tlio t'ukitowD bikii dti uur utmimt to get a gliippM? of I 
■DUitt f»w of iTtu MHinibt *i> dnrklj liuld^m, ' 

lAtt UB roturu in iiimgiiiutiou Ui [>n>-coologiottl *Lgea« li^fi^re tho 
BOA liioianlf biht Ixic^ at-^^gjUoil from Urn origimd jnvrtylci. \V« j 
iT<]ujro luo vuj-y rciuiuijulilo ijufelulHte&; lot tlitirc bo Brnnt^d ui I 
,«ilDCo(lrmt foriTi <»f enorpy hnvipg ptiHiidio cyuluaof obi lUJil »wuU, 
'nM ftud activity. Let there alfio be grtiuled nti iut«rtiRl QctioD m.^in 
[io CKKilttijf o]ioratiti|: elon-Iy iu lLo prolj-Jc. The &rAt-1xjnj «loiaoDt 
vould, iu it« »tiLi[ilicity» b« most u<MLr]7' »llivd \o pri>tjli\ Tlii* t* 
TtyilrogLiLi, v( oil knowir ImilJui tbo fiiitipleat in stfuduro aiid uf tlm 
]i.iv«Kt ultirnic wcf^btv For i^omc time Iiy^lrfigoii vnuld Iki tbf? uiilj 
exiKtini; form of nmtt«r (in our tt^u^c or tbo tonnt. lfvtvt>OD M 
liydrotrt'ii vjd Iho ui^xt fi>nrc^ ukiuctit tlicro w<ruld bo 5 ii^ikp m f 
lijju^ iijid iu tliu iiilervikl iLu aluiuuul frUuilIiti! Ufit in oi^or of 
nimplidty wrintd gnviiinlly bo »ppraac)mjg it« birtli-poiul. In tbiH 
itxtcrvnl rvo mny Ki]pjk>BG thnt tho evnlationikry prooMM noon to d^ttt* 
miao tLo birtb of a iiotx' ototucct would lix likuiviM lU frlcmio woight, 
Uh ul1iuitiuB« Hud ilp» cLcmioal |K]&iiioii, 

In tli^n ^t!Wit-\>^ of Lli" (ilnnoutH iLii longer tlie tiuui taAunD np in 
tb*i Po<Jiug-<lown process, ctiiring which tho hftpdmiug cf protyI«inti» 
(vtcims tikkva plikoc. thu moro fiharj^'ly dLliniMl would hv lh« rci^iiItiDg 
dloiututnj wb)l«t Ibe moru rapid L\iiJ ibe lij^ro irrrguIoT tbo 00{>IJC|;^ 
tbc mi?r<^ i^lirHtly lliu leBultint; btntii-B wuiJJ fmlc iiit"» cooli oLbur ty 
filmoKt impel ce|itible di^i^aa. Tbitj wa isity rnnmuvu ibut Uio 
iucce^ion ftf oveiitrt whieb ffivo riBo to euch grotipa ha [^Itttmnm, 
oftmiuni, ftQd iridium .^polUaium, rutbouium, wid rbthJiiaaj^rou, 
uickul, huil ci.ibult«^ — iiiigbt buvc piWuood uuly tm& vl^iu^nt in ooolt 
of tbt^iiir tbn.^ f^n.iiiiiB jf tbu pro<:4«B8 iLad bsao gntttXy [lEulunyod. 
And t*oU7orB*ly, bud the r»to of oonliu^ boen mucb mom rnpid, 
cictncnti tnif^ht havo originatod Atill motv neixrly id<.']itii:uL tkftu lu^ 



oti Ot^air */ li< EUmnt^ 


MktU «m1 cobalt _ Tliiu nuy havo ^rMon tho cIo«cZ7 aQioi! olonMute 
</ ljb« crnoio, jriirinm, uLtl limiljur group*. lu bcL wo nuij n^ranl 
Ike mlI<M^fetLcia of Ihn luiui-nltt of tb^ cIhki ctf tiuiniir«V:tA aitil 
gkiloltuitu u ft kii>) of owniicft] IniiiWr-rixiia wharv vl^nittitH iu a 
viMo of ftrrMtod d^rdopiDont— tbo iin<y>DaDot«il miAiiu^ Jiuktt cf 

Anj wilMeiaisd «laQent sjajr ba likeuoil hj A iiLitforiii of iitabili^, 
coaaoffMl "hj Uddera of nnabtl^la l»r>i1lM, Ir thi' Ant ouIrdcytnM cf 
tb* pnmiliTv vtnlT tk*nr wodd b» fotmoi] tho cm&lliMt aU<iiih ; tliow 
wovfd IboD vnite, formitiif kfHcr grouM; tlu> |[ft|Mt botwoon Uio 
miltml itegM mmlil gmJuUl^r be bni^'ol t>v«r «i4 tbu ttablo 
Cilrnwl Appnipf^to to tbai Mi^Tf uoiil^l at>aurK itu lu Hjif^h. tlio 
naMtobto rvD^ of Iba livlJrrr nlno^ I<v1 tjji Ut it. It maj hp qne^ 
tiovod whttUior tboro ie ad abojlitto uuifanuilf ]& tbn moBt rji ovory 
nltiBatc ftkco cTca of oao ftli4 Ihc mmc cbsniical rlcEicnt^ I'rubabljr 
oar ■t'TiTtiT vet^U nt^jr rv^iriHJiil i iu<.'ai] velIuu utimii'l ntjk'li lli« 
aciAttl ttiooifo wei^tt of Ihp tbintH vary wftJiin rirtnin imrn^LT linilUu 
Wb«Bf ibvjvfnrftt V* uf UiAl, 4. fl, tlio Atouic wtiiKbt at calciuta 
k to, ibc 9<iml lict mny ird) be, that vhiiat tic nrnjirntr of tho 
csLciuD Blamn n«Uj batv ibo otumio >ftigbt uf 4o, thiuic Ditv npre- 
■BVtad by 39-11 <ir 40<1. > nrallur uuiiib'T hy %'J H ar 40 'i» hii>l 
•o on. TIm ptnpartlftfl vhloh w« pirooxvo in ivr^y oUiaeot c^re tbiu 
iLo nKan of o nainbor of atomii difTonu^ moonj; themetlvca vory 
digbUj-. b4t atiU tiot idcntiod^* Ja this ILo trao luoaoing Jf 

Tliat ihio npiruiolfrifi, Itfiunlonii *« It mfty iir«>rnH in Jn noma 
napaoU Rpportod ty tbo cxporimotilal recnlta bboio do^ribod vill, 
I tkiak, bo admiltc4^ It rccmn U> mo ibat tbo b/pothoaia I bavo jnet 
fl^gctttctl, if lakbu in c4j[JuiJctzou nitb llic iltagmm, Kij^^ 5, uunblcii ua 
to pruoord a ati^ii i^r Ihij funbi^r hIoiii^ tlm iiuik ttt thti 4<v4.ih;tkiM of 
lb* #l*fD«ntg. Wo laty traco in tha ondnlatiag ourvn thi^ antLon of 
tw0 Ibnaa of cocrgj, tho ono acting vorticiill; iui.4 tho otbcr T;brada(( 
to tutil (to like a [xmciulma. Let tbo vcrlical Ituo rcirttoD&t trnn- 
mkUuv ^mliialljr uiiliu^' |Lfvu|;1i ui uukuowu uuiuU?r of i!c(;rwa 
worn tko diaaiviatifiii -point of the ftrst-foniKiit ^lAint'Dt Jo^A'iixvarda 
lo IW dMaoeiatknuioiMl of Ibo laiat inoinbvr of tbo Hoalo. 

Bit ivbfti fbm of oncri:y la figiuod hy tbo D«!illatiiig liDo ? Wc 
iW il fwiEwiixii li> And £n> lu j>o]ut> cqmdijriiut from a iiotitnkl outilro. 
W» MS tbu dlTnr^onoo fnirk n^iumlity ronftr aftmic-iij^ nf rmri, two, 
Ifcrna, rff fbor do^M« an ih-k diatanci^ froia the f^outro mcrcuLtoi to 
••a, two, tt^no, or four divuica^. Wu ecc tbo opjirc'ikcli Id or tho 
fran tfaia watae tMOlnd li&o docidiitg tbo olo<tru-iioti;atiTo 

* I nuitma 1 1 i^nit th*| Ibc bea*t«r ud Mg^uw hiomt fornid^i tivm tltn 
«ttAW« lath* fnetVfuUoa wbi«h )kA*br*n kir*ulf ^ SrvU i *fti^it 

ba tfWted rhfedjr mbilut ulnnifr-. Enstlrr kev iroiulc-uiiin^- from ih«> 
IfflBAl atalD; t>fll U uaj aku hatn Inn oatHnl "n tluiiDE u"'1<i|t>^L »«■■« >ri tho 

Mr. WUIittm CV**tf J» 


DlentrojNWJtivo Lhiinu'bTr of iimili ijumuiii ; lliuat tax L\w nrti^utitif^ 
If of tLo Awhig bi.^{ri}j pM«iiivo, *nd tUt'^i' on t)n\ Hjhiiroacliitkg tiiilf 
[iHyMivti- In ftb'>rti wo ftr« loci tii> minpoct llmt tLin o&^illihtini; pawcf 
||pi3itt W clofolj coDnooioil with Uic iii^jkundvrAbLo matti^r, eucnoci or 

Li* un Mtivt lY'Litrti t'l tU'j pcriwl jniil pr^tn^tng tVio Ijirth of the 
flr»t aUitiiiKitv Jf(iri>n> tiitit tin»(4 iiUL!&Tr lu il hdw ia imuiifoati^d Jid 
not cxitit. Wo oan ua DkLiro cir^riccivci of mrktlL^r williOTit «iicr]cy tbim 
(jf «iiDrg7 withont nmt^r ; indccil ftaro cue puriot of siow the two ftn 
cuiivcrtiblci tt-niix, Tul lik iihhiiui'? lliiil HiTUiilLutii^punly wiCli lh« 

cm« form of nuittcr irota another, ntart into buiag ciidowod with 

Our ^nndalum IwgluB its ivTng froiD itie cltcttu-poiimT^ iUoj 
litfifiim, hjtit t> hydrogfiii iu tho REniplJrlty <if fiu •UiinEo irnfriil, 
14 navf fomiod, foll<iwcd Lj tfliicianni, lK>rt>n, ilikI c&rbnn. EAch 
oJcmcnt, nt tl^o loumont of birth, lakaa up dfiftnitc qLiantitioa of 
eltft;tncity, nod ou thotia qinuLtiticn ita btoiaiclty dcpoDd^* TIjh* 
Are Ai«d the ty^K^ti uf thu T[M>tmtrfMiiL\ dukt'^mic, trintLiniio^ Aiid 

It Jinn bwii pinnuid ant hy Dr. Ciutivlloy tbnt " thoiKt olomonU 
belonging to the uven eorics of the pcnodio cloeaificUion arc cJw«y4 
iwnitriEL^iictic], ^^IllR'jih Ihe eli?meiilB bt'loufjtiig tu tho odd m^ncis am 
■IffAyfl itiuiii4L^M>'tic/' Nov/ iti oiir curv^^ thi> even ai?iHM Ui tbt? Ii-fl, 
•0 fftT 6,n hue tiuon asccrtfttit^, &n? parankagriDtic, whiltt. nitl^ a fbU^ 
eiceptiona, qU tu tbo riplit njo diamft^ untie. Tho etroQ^ly luagiictio 
gtuup, iroii, iauUgniJtiH.-, ujckol, and cohiilt, Jiu clofic tugi^tlitr on thu 
|iroji«t Hid». But the iutt<riieri<iilir gri^iip, nf whirh |m)U'1inm uml 
'pTAtinttm nn> rAnpnctivoly exnmpTce, ure Biippo^ tn lie f««h1y mfig- 
notio. If this can bo rorrb^d tl^ey fi>rm ccrccptiona which haro yot to 
bo nnlainod- Osygon, which wtight for wdght ia etca moro 
atiuu}^y (im^ui^tlc thati iruu. Jios utiar thti lio^QuicLg of the cititet 
whilnt at thn npmnite end citme tho ponfrful]y diamaguEitif nutalfl, 
bkBinirth and tlifiUium. 

Wo ouma ucvr to the r«tuni or negattvo part uf tbo effing; 
nitruguu ii|)i)t^utB niiil ithuwa titaLrbctiruly how pt-r^itkiu guforrui the 
metui doiniimiil uLiiuiiriry- Nitn^gun t>ci^itjiit« & poMtEim imuiodiaMy 


"Kalute |prcv«niA iib with « eiij^lr diflmk f]unjitily fi etcolficilj, . - >< 
'jjF^ Mdi obwumJ bond whidh is 'tijpturrid nitliin fin doctroljl* a «ivt^i 
aUlj of tJoobioit}' tr*vef«« tba«ih'<ilriily(n, whkh >■ the umo in all v««*.''^ 
i. JonvfiTOitt HTfWtY, " Uo Ihfi rKvfj(*ii| Units nf NnHir^'* — tintitA AtutttAm 
Um tTmUnff, IS74. StCUVn A. rhU. M'y.Vlaj. l»M. 

"Tljc «artio ddlnlto Quujtiiy of i:ither pwillvo nr itL^e^UvQ Ociolridtj idioih 
id^hVH wiLb«flCli UBivihaDt bd. ur wiUi cvtij umt af oDiullf of 4 multivahmt 

*'Kvnr]r nnnnd *t^m hiu ammpinti^d widi U a ri-riuin di'flidto qnanlitynf 
cWtrlnftjr: fvnry dyjul hu l*iin* tHji ijiiHutll^ nvrriiLtnl vrliit U: BViry Irbl 
1ibrM» tltaca ai inucb, at^d no on."— O, Loi>i>e, " Ou Bb'^irtl^ridB " Brituh Amvut* 
Iftm A91DW. IHH^, 

Warn b«n»L % triftbouo «lun«it, kikd, tiicroforo, nitrof^ id liltonina 
But uilruiKU mIm fuJJoiTfl iipi;o <»rl>i>u« a ktntomio Uxly, 
ip&n tlw fifth p cMilicti if ve oiMinl fitmi ih« plmv of r>ngin. 
•wniinjjly oppoMog t«Bdoinci«i uo boATttifnllT l^omonutHl 
tttt MidowmMit cr niinigai) with ft dovbJo ihtDiDicitf ^ ^^ ■^'^(^ bointf 
'fli|iAU4 of tctiog oitiMr 4a 4 tri- or &«a poDtalutoic cloniciit. With 
mj^oi (ill- u>d bwlcmic) uiil Huoriuij (iiiou- thuJ litjiUUuiiio) tlm 
■UM Iftw lki>ld« good, A&d ntiD tudf-oH-ilUtJriEi tit tZin pf^n<iii1iTin !« 
cottptoUd- FiMODg Uio iicntrft] Ihiis t^iii, wc fiod inic«cflpir4»ljr 
fennMl tbo (U«obio-pceilin> tiodiua mnLiim (mutiuituiuia), magncBum 
(dioiomic), alamiiLiQai (triat'>mtc), u>d Mlicon O«^i«tu[u]o), 

H«r« wft nuj unticD a carums coiEicidfinrr-; at tlm ItogLiiuiiig i>f 
tbift put t4 tho Atirro ftCuids tArbun^ the taott vbiqtiitooji oltimcut in 
llt« of|pukie varfttL At lli« odJ, in opponiltuo, «(DtidA tilii>oa, tho 
BOit oovMobly oeevmnn olonctil in tlio iaorgjuii^ vphero, F»tiLcr, 
wo MOW toiiftrd* iLc raodJui liiia, mrlxin ih suwoMJvdy fuUuitvil 
ti^ iritvnfnii, oojrgEn, ftud Ai]i>HtiP, M iintrjing \uU\ nrpnnic rt^m- 
pOtttt^ uid ol) aaMou« in tL* ftvo nUto- U n^o Wdrlc bock from 
diooo wo fm4 nlwaittiua, BU^Miun, uid aucIiuih. all luuoli lo#a 
dio|«a«d l<v Tolatililj, nnJ all Tccf jiruimtticul uwmlrara vf Llio mjuond 

10 inrt eompklo Bring of tbc pcmdnlcm im iu*«'>iDi)Hfilkod Ly tho 
birib of Uio tfcroo otoctr^'-uv^otivo filoinouU, pUoeiplionu, sulphur, and 
thkrin*! oU tlmns ^^^^ ili*> comeponding cJniiout* uu lli'j >.>(ipoBit« 
kMDOwl vwiiig, luring %t UmI « ilkvul^lo atrjuiicitj, i^H^uilmif cm 

liOl oi PVMO «iid txauinn th# iwulu. Wc bAvo dcw fipmuil tbo 
^HBcnto of wmtoTt of 4tr, of uDDouia, of oarbonki it'M'l, of plant and 
niflwl life; nv Imtv ^o«pbunu fi>r tlio WilIu, nit for llic> «>a, day 
iftd nand fnc Umi vJid c*rlli ; Ivra alkiJU*, vi itlk;ilitEO <^artb, nu 
«attli, ftkof wilb tboir coiLuuatoa, boralM. iiitmt», £iii>hJa^ 
lUwidM^ ftpfco t f, pliO^hfttOi, fldid «iLo*lM, kufficioul, it may bo 

mU, far ittiuil oftd ngeteblo Lfc, on<^ for & wcrll n«l eu T«rj 
il fk«ai lliol ui MLich ihj lUo and luorix 
A^in lot DO £d1U»v omr pendaLnm. Afl»r tJic farmattan of 
lliio pcodnlnn Ioop^m tbt* rjiiutral lino, oinl jji in Ihu tumo 
piidliiiB M IB tbo beg bi nipfr Hi4'l wumbini- rciOMncd oci at tinit 
Itw ueU ■IwMQt lo 4p]M0^ wMJi n^ALti bftTO MOD litbitLOi, and llio 
oH^BaI iijelo WQtild UTO boon ctumulty mpofttod, pmdurinFi nKiuir 
■of offtin tbo Muno Utoon pUononU. TLv condltiuas, huwcrcr, am 
BO kaipor tko oaau; tioko hM oUpM^ »n(l tl)« form of ouorgy m- 

> 1^^ ^^ tcriicBl lioQ boo d<vlinod; in oLhor v<}ril», tbo 

mnli, Mill tl)o flntt olonicnt lo coroo intn axUlvuco 
Inm i4arta for iia wcond iwtillatiot] ia not titliuim, 
ikfeit ftllicd to iiiD tboforiua,!. 0. jtotottd^uin, wUii^b may 
bo nf HH otf Ihfl lincttl di.-«con'l4ut <*f lill.iaWf witb Iho wiinA 
bnlibuj tondoBciw, bnl vitJi Iom nicdwulbr lu^blHty and a higher 

I— HiiBliiro hBi 
«i«a tb^poBdiili 

Jft*. WHIiam Ormkf* 

[T^V 18, 

P>M along ^ Clin* Mid Ib ii»irl/ Oferj CAM Hie ftwue law liuM> 
gDOcL ThiM tli« ImA doomt of tbo first coTnplittA TihmtiDn li 
cbloriric. In tho eorruitponditi |* plu^o in tho teeond vibmtion \*d 

bavc turi Oil ciMOi rvpctitioD of ohlorino but thu rcry eimilnr body 
brumiiMs nuil whuu iLi: w^i^m LHiaitii>ii nx^urs ftjr Ibo IbLnl lime we 
iM liHlii]*^ 1 n(»3 nut iiiLthj|i1y fUMmj*''^'^' ^ ■[">y. hnitt-vt.r, {H>int 
out that ixa hattt horo a pbctLOtncucn Trbii^b rcminda lit ot nltDr- 
nattn^ or cyt^lioiil gcnoraliDn iu Ibo orgniii*} world, or vo moy 
porhnpa luiy uf ftUrifiiu, ft rouarrcnco to tincoeitrHl tjp<i^ AoiDUwfa*! 

In iHIm rrTctliitinnary Mf^liomo it ^nnnnt bn npfK^t^cl tbut ihn 
potoDtinl i^loiDciitit idjould all bu cqiiaL lo rcnoli oLhor. Oa tliu ooti- 
trary. many duf;rcu8 cf Hlubtl^ty will bs roprofnaUU. uikI if h« look 
tritli A tKxaLuiaiug cj^u wo Hbull wi' our uld friuud UiR " oiiMiDe 
lEtrk/' course eooogli tn Im detected in tbo groups i^kmi>riiii[ig such 
bodioa as iron, nickeU AJid cubalt; palbLdiitm* rutbuuium. and 
rtmdium; iridium^ □smtuia, iiud jilatiuum ; «hilEt in ft mi'tu imbtilo 
form tbucio misain^ liuka pn^cnt tboinaulruo aa i^itn^cntAiirch of II113 
dtlTi^n.^nr'^H wLicb 1 bave tiLt^gL-dtud tdtwiMin tb« hU)J]t» uf Lbu s&inc 
cbfftLiicttl elomenc. 

On tbe even or panLnuign«tio hnlf of the cwing the cnergj 
appears to haro notu'l in a T«ry irr<<gular munnur, wLilfit ou tbu otR, 
ur dijimugnutio liidf, tlmro iji ci.r]iBiJcmbio reiEularilyi TUii»s ^f^ 
twecTi the citromo orld elomonU, ailic^iQ 1,'J^), gurin(uiium (73), 
tiu (Ut(), * inia«iiLg clcmont (163). and Load (208) thoro is a dtOFbr^ 
once oroiootLy 15 unite:, rond^ring tbis half of the chjto ifmarkAbly 
ejmcuotricft] . On tlm vvcu &ido Ib^ d ilTL'reiiofS Are 30, 4^, Gl. 89 
ftrtd £3 (nfMituiiii^ ikii HbjTiiiii wi<tgbt i^f IMi) Tor a niiuaiiLg ^ih^mcnl 
bcttreiMi w^riiJTii and Ibnrimn). \t !ir*l siyhi them diffcrrono« 
pppwr tu follow DO U% but ttxoj gain iatortet wbon wo «ou tbnt tho 
liiKMi diir^roTi<;i.^ uf iboec Cgaren la 1-1~2 — aloJcjat «iact1y tbo Himu M 

Froru thin UTtifiiniiity of diftoronoo— nctnal on tha onn aldn and 
avoTnuo mil iLci other — uo may fuirly LTjfur t]]at vvliiUt on tbc odd tido 
tbi-iixi liaH bf<.n litiU or no variation iu tbe force tyEDboliBad by tie vcr- 
tiijal Itiifi. niiiiur u-ir^gulaiitLiis hnvo Loeu iXtv r»le 011 tbo cvcu mJo. 
Or, iu ocber wnriUi ibu full iJ tiLtmjHiinlijn^ Iiiia Wrt viiry iinifuria on 
tlin (jJit liidts-^wLeiT?, (iccfirdingly, wp nco llml ovfiry origiTial ohment 
fojptOHMitf a well ninrlidd g[oUT>, stutmni, aia^ncsitiii], uliijninmni, 
•ibcotif phufipborus, nud cliloriiie ; whiUt ou tbo oti-u tidu i\i<y tdu- 
pvmturo lijja fiiLkii >villi L^iTUnidi^rubk tlui'tiiHtioua. tbuti proviujtiu^ 
llir formntion hora of any u'^lUiitnrkcHL gironpe of clomoats, otce|ktinj{ 
tbc8e orvbicb lithium aud gluduum aro the LtMiding typof. 

Haring tliua dutc«tccl irrcgnlatilicH ia the fall of tompcrnturo in 
tlic protyle, wt may iio&t nok iti tbcre Uiy 1] uctuitlioii iu tbc force rv- 
prijftuit^"! by tliti iHiiidnlam-nMivtiraunt? Tliin rimfvnKjril T b*v« 
BMtumod to bo oonnt^otcd with olectrioaL energy. Tbo oarbHt'foitnod 
ciIotaonlE oro thobo in ^bii^h chemical energy is ^b a jnoxiniLim; m 

9mOnfniao/th* Element, 

vs dcttocttd Uio nftlo tlio <ifflmta'oi become fooblor And tbo ahooum^ 
fnrw nxjco uid Etton> ftlngnt]. lu (nui Ihia cJi&iigi} umy Ik duo tn 
in chvuMlMioe tfaat the^AEocoilft mnflnt^il %l m rfiiliuvifll ttrmpem- 
!■» fto loMir BOianin ^rcttl molMaup nu>biUij. Bai it u aIho m- 

Ml tikft ue fin* of Ibe oottnic fmruicir* X liar« atkiatjtctl ti} vfcn* 
Uiw thitt |;mtual faJiug bjr k d>-ureui« ui Iho amplitudo uf 

Th* flgVM FcpwantiBg tbo ncaU of utomlc rroigbta may b« mp- 
lo refinx m it. inTOVNJj, tbo maIo of a ^pintio pjromotor 
fIvBfdd uito K uuldrgia whoro Ibo dcnvnU of auu* aiid itirMa «rti 
tftiar^olag fjjrmilikiiL At tlio bo«i «£nlTA^ tHfr iTl<Liiii;itiU |f«^[iiinitt<il 
iainmn in di^nnity and fttomic wajgbc Qolow tiic fartnattork'potiit 
M """"" t^ tccopcntliuo vrill fircbablj pQtniil uf thu coilior bom 
claaento fbmtss nomLbinatioiui ivmoDf; IIioqimItck, and irc abuU 
wilBM% & g- 1^ uirtb of QHter luid tbu foruiuiLuii of lld'bu Ltiu>vu 
mmpvm^ t^ clincKialiAii of vliich U iicil hojcmd llic jxiwrrs rif itur 
ktiMtnol eaiir«<« at hnt. 

Tanking to tUc upper poftioiTi of tfao diogtam wo &t€ tbiU iLcro Sa 
littlo tvata for cJciatiuU uf ■ lower fttonuo wdglit tluui }ijdro^en< 
BM lot tMpMO ** tltroagU tlie ]i>ukMix-gl>n " util nu>iw t]iL< sum liiiu. 
WhHtiUl woflod Oft tbo otlior c£l«9 Dr. CftniDUt^y ukj for uq 
doaeBft of Mttlm otomu wdglit; and boro in nmtiiu room aihI 
MMo ^mom^ for b tbodow eerice of aiicb QUBubfiUtilruitw* luEkLliiikt, 
DCTMiNi. lb lint " Umnym Vuirvsve" wbkb Imv tiuiaoat pliyuirihiM 
UT> dhmial Rolinliolli tMjn \liitl ^livtrit^itf i* pKiltnTily lu 
rtome 00 nutlor ;* io olMttioit j odo <if tin noRnlivo filcmuntii ? nnd 
IW ImJnifrr?^ ctbcr ^itoibci? Miittcr, u wo nuw klKl^f it, di^cjn 
ael koro nnl; aod Ibo fjitiLA ti ^mcrgj vIilcL aru ft|ip4ruut iii Ojo 
of naUor btv mm jr^t otiI^ Ulariil |ifAHJ1»ilitii«ii. 

A fMuMis of tbo 4demftitji noob aa U bcro flkutchod vnm\<\ mil b« 

bo our liltio fAivr wyttnai. I>iit ngiild protubly follow tbo 

giMtfiol oeqoeoce of ^tcul* lo urory cuubrt of ouor^ ilow viiiiblo 

II moy W Mid Ibtt *» far t havr' pmvn) iirthin((. But I nay 
tbil ot laMt 1 boTO ahomt tbo improbability of tho jiur- 
of tbo nlliniiliri fihiriilmi, and tiic ctornaL «cir-cxihtoiio>>, tlia 
Iwtnitova ocigin. aad ibo aimtiiUaKiuii vnAiiou of lliu cJ^;iiiiijil». 
Tbo oaalon of t)ii«v ol«Tii«itfai wkb ihk^ nr^nnir ndirTf^ nnd ^till 
Mvo wttb^Tiag ornnMou, oonj^lnuiiu wi lo Kutj>«c| that tboy liro 
eattpottnd l»dU«, ■pncigibir from a proooni of eroltitiou, Wa hbvo 
drkwo ounvbonaiic cviidcaco fratn tbo ditrtribntica lUid Iho a^Mxiio- 
liun of tbo lun mrtlii, otidcnue obiuh aaemft to b« oonvorging to bbo 

* *ir««ttcopltb*bnmb«ilt lliat tLc flli^mtar^ «Dt»laiti>rB >fv i>impi)«»d 
«f vlBM^ vif raoBBil aiuid eov^ndiug Ibal rlociflnii,* al«c\ pobUltc m »* II ao 
Mpilvii, I* dt'blf-l inl» dtflnlM ^lontubiry |«rthD«« >ibldi bcluvi> Uko «tAiiia 
«fd>flrMiy' nBUtoot.n,rajHVr Ur(uirv,l*Vl- 

W Mf. W. OocJivt «• l«M«B* oj the £r«su«»l#. [Fob. 18; 

pomt of AAamicg n Jiroct ohivrnotcT. Li^d bj iho groat lav of con- 
IliiujI^ 1 liifcvn vouLiircil t( ' ini^n**^ =* |innj»>» U.v wliu'Ii o^ir filfiiintiU 
tufty h»Tft bofii iiHuiiiaUHl, 1 ikm not mj niuf Imv^^ bflfln tfinginftUiJ, 
fiir no ouo call bo bcEttr avoro tban I flin Low nmoh romaiuii to bo 
ilonu bofiLfTc thia great* Itift fnndnuioiital aucatioo cfui b^ finally 
aiiUtd. 1 tttrucptl; bopo tlint utlicre vlll tikkc up tlm Uok* onU tlml 

If vo comu-lor tho pceition iro occupy with rcferenoe to th« V 
pniDUj anoctifliia <jf ahoDustty, wd might c<fiiij>CkTC rrecardi ki » 
0uao of CQOW, Unii, tLa mtefitignlor. is pUring. net viitli tiataa for 
Efa «"TiU but witli NHtiiro f«ir k(iL>wJ*"U"" "'kI jH»w**r Ewb dement 
ba* ite nllfiUnl mov™ on the pr^at Viart^ i^f the tuLiTonici j aoiuo of 
tham dcixjudoat sotDlT on tlicmeelTrtif nui othora on tba intoTuotioa 
of the njijttciont ckmonte. Some of tmt okmcntfi may Lc eompftrod to 
jKiwna, olliora to knights, bbliopf, or uutluB, Tliu i*iima is fenrfiiHy 
iin4V]itn1. Hirr anUgonist knn'trfl tlio |)0W4tr nml liio limitfttiOTtA nf 
oviTry jiio^T all tlic Utvs of tbc garno, kU poiuiblo mcTee, and ia 
mon»ilo« m oxActiug ptuolty for <^rra^fl. Wo cxpCTiinonldif.ta knoir 
noUiin^ but wlint wu }iat<j learned in countluu lubing gauits. Dut 
our kuiiwliiiilj^n i» im-rfiOMiii^, Nattiro no lorigor giviw its fcinrH 
niat«. The Elri]p:g]c bi^comeii mor^ obbtinatn, inor« exciting, ve come 
upon ucw gapibLlit. now combinatJoiiiCH (Uid tlicjiifch AtilJ cbockmatcd 
at tJic loAt. wc taki) n fow imwaB, ptrkHpA cvcoi 4 picvo or tno. Such 
furtiiLl auc'4.^sBcib ndn. (wLiuTud wLin Luvulbit^^ intiulncuU Urn tuw uf 
Ihi^ 1wIftni?o find doTi^Iopcut tho llionry ^f (UiniVniAtJon ; vtIiihii iHltfin 
pnt forward llio atomic theory; when Davy dccntnpoiwd tLo*JkaliM£ 
when Wuhlcr c6ccti-'d tin? ByntLtsia of uroa; and ^^licn Far^dfty fleit 
liqui'fivil a giia^ On eutL nud many MiuiUr (icca»ou» I cou iiD^giuo 
our »iitHgoiu8l t>.\^>nitiig tbimj^litftil, 

But suppose wo ono Aay vin ttic game; tbnt %r« llnd out vrbftt 
these obetm&to cJomuntfi ronlly aru, tlmt uo Icorn Ikow tlicy corao 
into being, and whcreforu tbuir i]Uin1>or, their pi-opflrtio*, r\nd iboir 
taittnal luliitioDfi uro buuL vj\ no find (L«ni? Wd nJiikll Lhuri know, 
^ pn'fTn^ what wo hnvd now bi fnit out by sprfial i>i]>^HTric<nt ; vr« 
ahall forcBee the rotnlU of ovory concoivabia rcoclK^n, and our 
tbooriofl will lcgitinjfttr> tboinfiuNc« by the power of prodictbn. T<> 
atUin mtli kuortlijflt^e Bj-ms t^ n>e Ihu gnml bek of Uitr tlicmistry 
uf tlie cciTiiLMi^ agn. 

If you think I have gi^'CE too fr«o rein tctIie"flojentilic ima^na- 
tioQ " you wilU I hope, for^ivo mo ob oho who at loaat dooa not 
dcflpnir of tko futnto of our Sviouuc;. 


C^ptam W. uEc W. Ahm^ on SuiUi^hl CcitMn. 



Fridny, Futmor^ 3G, 1837. 

'WoUjui H<Jaoj3ti, E*i. IXaL. LLJO. FJR^ 3^ftg«r uid Vioo- 
IVwidcct, in iha CSialr. 

CArr*i> W- n W- A»t<t, ItR, F.R.S. M.R.I 

ibMtTT U no iatia»to^ worun u^ willi our jilijrsiuat ernojincnt of 
lUa ihmt it ti pnHMpN not iha incvt nntiilorostiitg mihjei^t UiHt can bu 
eboawi for «b>l ii — perlL^M Bomowlut podnnttcallf — tartaod a Friihty 
«*«aaBg "" dboonno." Now, no dii&ff4>anQ ouf^bt to bo poenblc witliout 
s lesl <n w]|j<^ Ui bftng ocio'« nurOe, ftud 1 lliiuk I foiiULl m [luUalIrt 
ovo wb«n walking vith on iutu4 frtiiii<l fnrik 8<iiitli KtiiMrtgti>n 
1CBa«nm dw olbor ib7> Tfaa Bitit ttppcnrcil Hk« a md ilLflk through 
me^tt tiMMfo^ wbiuli tha obbI wind bftd broiisht. ftud I hnpjHiuol 
l» fcint it onl Iv tint, Uo i<^kod, uiil ftaid, " ^Vb^ U it thi^i the iiuti 
I «> rod?** B«iii^ uwr tlie nilMuv bUtk^u^ wLtLber ha wmt 
I had no tinv to finUr itila Ihn inib|i>r!l, bnc raM \t ho w>ii]J 
Ui« Bojal TaitilalioQ this oroiin^ I would oodoavinir lu 
tbo nMtt«r. I MO f;citag lr> rodoom that pnxniacs aail (l> 
»l ill CTOuta « ifiirtiva irf thu itiac allotted to mc la ims^vr rirt^ 
lt<qnaarifi vbj lb« •on ai'i'uni rvl in u fo^. 1 iiiiutt llrpl of all 
■f^nd tn wbatflwry oda wbn freqnQniA thU lljratnk U no aj^iutjuicd 
itt, Tn, UiO ipectmaB; 1 am gobig not to pal it in tho larno Aui 
^3a»did alnpe of tko inoM gor^fic'OA oobium before jou with nbloh 
m nra M vnU aoqnaintcO, bill nijr »|jw:truiu will tako a mun? uiudiwt 
Bonn of foner ooloon aomc tvnir* totdira in Irngth, 

1 wDold Mk jnu to no4i(-o ifbich wlonr in moat luniinouA. I 
tUttk Ikal an one wiU dii4pat« tbat m the Pf^llow t^ baro tbir mu»t 
ladaQM Ittmi&oHtjt anJ ibat it &dM evdoafly in Ibc r«J tiu tbu oiir 
«ib aod In tbo Tk4et on ibo otbar. Thlft tbui) iimv Iw nLlltil il <iiiliIj- 
Mm BMlDMt* of rdfttiv? biigbtrLCiiaiM ; but I wkb now to intrihlfioa 
to JOB wM waa aovol lut yctff « qnantiljUivo taotbod of iuc««iuiug 
A* blUtnctf of as J pari 

Bcmii duiDf iLu I Dioflt «1ii>w you iho diaf;;nin of tlu np|t&nitu0 
wUflfa I iUl anblcy ha tiomo of mjr ot]KitiiDaElii. 

ft» 09 nf«(Tfg. 1> coming iram tho arc lisbt, or, if wo wcro 
viftg MAkliilil, firua a hclioUat. nittl a sojiLt iilikai la fvrnHxl by a buo, 
ftwCtt llwiilt »k of i1;c cuLltnator 0. TItc iituallo] iuj» jiro'luood hj 
l^lmm L, KTO iiartiftlly riifhu^nl and jmriially if-nn<l«id- Tlitif trrner 
ftM tkroigli tM liniBw r^'~- aud arc fciciuhnl to ftiria « K|icAtrani by 


Captain W. de W. Ahney 

[Feb. 26, 

a lona, l,, on i>,a movable gronnd-gl&Ba screen. Tbe »7fl are oollocted 
hj a lens, l^, tilted at an angle aa ^own, to form avHteiiuage of the 
noar sarfoco of the seoond prism on r. 

Passing a card with a narrow slit t^ ont in it in &ont of fha 
epeotram, an; colour which I ma; require can be isolated* Tbe 
coDsequcncc is that, instead of the white patch npon the ecreon, I 

Fro. 1, 

Colour PhotometoT' 

have a coloured patch, the colonr of whicb T can alter to anj hoe 
lying between tbe red and tho violel Thns, then, wo are able te get 
a real pateb of very appropriately homogeneous light to work witfa^ 
and it is witb these patches of ooloor that I shall have to deftU Ii 
there any way of meaanring tbe brightness of these patohee ? was a 
question asked by General Feeting and myself. After trying various 
plans, we hit npon the method I uiall now show yon, and if any one 
works with it be most become fascinated with it on acconnt of ils 
almost childish simplicity — a simplicity, 1 may rfunark, which it took 
QS some months to find out. Placing a rod before the soreenf it casta 
a black shadow anrroondcd w{th a colooxed backgroimd. Now I may 

M 9mUgki CU4«m. 


cmI «w4li«r tlittdm from ft ou^llo or u iiKandcft^aDott Iaiujj. ftinl lli« 
hpv rimliHrv srv UlvntiurfoiL am? liy tho ]i|;!jl erf Oir oolanTod mU^h 
iaJ ib« n4h«r bj the Ug^l ^IrMQ tui incnr^iltiAcvCL^v iunp vbicb 1 am 
BwhC l'^ciE0;LL |8bova.] Nov cno cAnpo U (ividonll/ too dark, tty 
m miTUt^^i^iueEfil wItKh I uTO ci altering tho rouaUnoo julciivatd 
between Ibc batlcfj ami tiiolainp, 1 caa diiouiu^or iucroowsih^li^t 
favtt Ubv lAn>]>. fim ibakinj; th« ttha^ow It (llnininritoi ton light nnd 
tiMtt boo 4Ark oaAi^arwl nilli ILa i^ftlticr Rhndov nhivh U inumnulcii 
b^ tiw co&oorad litfl^i. KTiiooilj tlicrc k Bonio |>oititioa in vvLiidi 
Ibo ■kiflrr^T mo c^««Ilv InmiDDtB. Wlii'ti that pomt ia rtmcho^^ 1 cau 
tvad off the oarroul iili£cb b puptiuff thruu^ti llie Utiip, aziJ luLviiig 
|ira»iiiinilj iUbdanltel it tar ntcli incEnannht of cmTont, I know irhat 
■Monal of liffht io fiivoa oiiL Tbi« vnliw of tb« uuNU^^icooaoo Um|i 
1 oJi «ie ■• &a urdinatc to « curro, tho »ca)o Dtunbor whUb lourk* tbe 
rii B lrTT vi UiQ culuEir in tlii* i[]i«:trLtuL bvtiig Ibe kUkjehl TLis um 
M 4m» fur woh Tttrt <tt tlin np^rtnim, ATifl Hon nomp^rlj^ cnrva t^Aii )ic 
floaitru<t>J wbicb w csU tfao Ulrmuaalion cum *>i tho ff[«ctniEii of 
tte b'ltbt w>ler coiMMcraHoiL 

Hov, nbeo wn m wurlupg in ibe Ubonturjr wiUi a Htcnrljr liglit, 
WB nwjr ttt Ml mi» vilb tMi mi-lbodr Uii vihvn vtr (^miu bi Hdrltin^' 
«idi hjlbt iseb ftN tba niv, tn wbtrU ib^r* in%y ha conAtanl mrialioiL 
oviftf Id fn-mtf, UMtA najW tamally impcrro|>tiblQ, mid, wo «» mut 
vilb a difficoLly; and in order to aroid Lh>B. UcactiU Fctitiug uid 
^ jwi lf BuUtJlulvd ■Aulbcr uutbi^, rtbit.'h I will iijw abuw juu. Wti 
Mu» tba ivitn|«riflnn ligbc rart of thn Iffflit wrt wiryi Tiifuk4Lirin){, 
Ligbt vhicb oaten Xha caliiiatiiing Lodb p^trtly pMun tljriiLi^h 
d» |itiuB« Aftd 14 putbr re£ec(od frou) tbo first Aurfaco of iLo 
|nBi ; tL&t tTD Qtiwe, tbiw gi^^ a arciULd UuhIoa. TJju reflcckd 
rtjm from r, fill 041 ^ h Mlvi>r'C]r-^liu^ niirrvr. Tboy Hrt rfilk>L*t4«d bjr 
ifc bimI tirm « vbitA iTUf^n nf tht^ prism alio at v. The irntlKHl wo 
ttfi adopt of altcoDg tbo iFitcnflitj of ttio compariuin IiRbt ia l>y 
■inaiM nf rafttiag ynt irir, nhicii can bo cp«ii.e-l or cLmiJ i^t wiU^ and 
tf» two abadvaa tbi» inadu tttu&Iljr IuuiLiuub. [S1i4>wti.] liul 
ahlMM^ ihin in an Dimllnni plan kit nnmn piirpoHMr w<> ha^v f^nrul 
it l*Uir to iidofct a difiToront method. Vou uUl rt^collocrl tliat iLo 
bffi^kldii part of tbo opoctnim -» in Ihv jcUow. «nd that it folia off io 
Irifbtaoaa on caick ode, ao^ inakfld of opvuifii; ntid ditnug tbc ■c<:lg«a, 
Ikfff miw Mt at fitad inbernla. and iLv tMi in inovml iii fniut of tlie 
ipvtmB, iMt aakiag tboabadow cttii bj tbo roflo«tcd boam too dark 
m loa li^t, and oaoillatinf; betvrccn Lho two tiU uqaalit; in dia- 
TOffBttd. Tlie KaJo unoLbcr ia tbm noted, aai tbc curro ant* 
ftaobtd ai lefun- It diubI bu rvuiciubi-nHl Ibatt uii duob udu i>f Ibir 
jlOov, oiiBalltr aaa bo nUablifllind. 

Tbia wotbod of *»ecirin(f a comporivoo li^hl it rorj muob bettor 
Ihr MB wavk tban anj otbor. » &iiy varintiaa in tho ti|;Ut vhooo 
«ntm ia to bo nwiirgl afTccte tlko cxi^ptneioii li^lit in Lbo kuiu 
£igrv& Thfia, tOffam 1 trtt^irpMn ai^ artifxi'iril r]ciiLil Jjifiiru tliu nHt 
tf tiU ^|iUlilWP]|m. IftYiDg adjiuitad tbc two ahadovm, it niU Ixt h«d 


Oq/tain W. de W. Abney 


troDi iii the tin O* 

Jtor tho 


that tbe pnASH^o of Btram 

[Til© lectnref theii prorrtxlccj lo |t(4iLt oxit tlie <^ontrti*it I'lilonrK tlinl 
tlio ebfiJow of thfl roil UlnirjinAtad by w|iit« Uglit oteiiiaod/i fl 

I laitst now luako a cIi^chbioUh It niufit not bo ouumo] tliolH 
every uiiie has iLu eomo anieti of colour, olbonviac ihtiv noiiU bu tia 
rfilnuT^b1iDdEe«e, Pnrt of tbo ruscArchriB of (tfcornl Fuming ainl 
inyBislf hiXTe Uwn on the Bubject of colonf-blindHQiis^ ni^d tlifi» I 
jiiufit briefly pdIct to, Wu ti^t nil ^vbo como bj making them tnato}! 
tbe lummuaity of colours vitb wbili? li^bt, el» I bnrc tiuwabown jou; 
Vid S'' 1^ i^ibntr-blincl pcrgnn b^ iinlj two fiiTLibiitiiittal mibtiir |Wi^ 
' eoptionM instead of tbree, biH iTiatehinn cif luminoritiod in evm mora 
ftooarnto timti U tlinl made by tboeo whow cyn arc ttormal ox ucorly 
normal. It U uitriciue to nutci bow muny people an more or load 
ilolioitint En iXi|[>ar-|Kirui.'|'liiiu- Suint: Iihvu rvuiurkuil tbul it >> ^ 
frapoesiljlo tbni tboy wcri^ ci>7Diif'b]iu(l^ ftHi] wGuId Tiol hnlinvn It, H 
otid tiDmetime£ we hivo bf«ii fftngj^^^ft^l at lirfil witb iIiq ivmarkftbtA 
mannor in wbi^b thuy rvfH>giiiBoil «>l<7Ui to svbiob tlioy ultiujatoJy 
jjrovL^l dufiotoat iu porriopltoi^ For tii*ri%ii<;e, uito gctitb umii vliun I 
nxWl bini tbo name cif a ri:il eiibiiir palfb. Hftid it wiu minrtnt i-nlonr; 
Ikt^ IIlom nnmnil gn^ftn nii<1 bliii' cnrt^ntly, hni wUan f rnvortod to the 
riid patcb be cmd f^«u. Oq tc?Biii}g fuftbcr bo prorud totally dc&- 
oicut in tba colour-pi;r'.'(ri>Lii:>Tj <'!' rcl. nn<t ivitb n brilliant rrd p&tcb 
be lEiutcbud uTino»t n llick »lmdi>w. Tbo diai^m bbij^fg yt>u tho 
r*j1ftlivfl porppptirins in ihn Kportrinn of tbia gfintlcm^rr and raywlf, ^ 
TboTc nro otbcn ubo only ccc tbrcisqimrter^, otbi^rs bulf^ liud (^ht^ra fl 
A i|i]artct tlio omouiit trf ro<l Ibol w(i i4(.>t.s nbOat Hi>mo 0ut> Hoiio. Uthora 
Btiu k'BS grdcn nTjd utborn li^i* violtti Imt I bavo nit'L wiOi ijo our tbftt 
I'jiii haf un>Tv tbau iiiyt^lf or Gt^Jkural Fv^lLui;, wLobo cidcmr-[wTCP[)Uaiiii 
ar<i nlmoit idctiltt?aU Him^o v:o havi^onltL^d our cnrvc of illumiruitLon 
tbo *' iiormtil curve. " 

M^Q baro tOBtf'^1 ftovornl rminont Aiii«t4 In tbia thadtict, »ii{l alxful 
oiiL^'liFilf vi tbo iiiimUir bavo \rfn>n prvvf^ to k^ii citity tbn-i^-ijLJiiLtn 
nf thft nmount tf nid wLich wr nmo- It migbt Ui tboiiirbt tbat thiji 
^L<J1l1d vilinto tbuir pl:l^vo^N i<f rnatoliin^ oviour, but it in uol no- Tboj 
j\iujii whnt tfaf^T tKio, iiTiil nltlK'tk^b tliuy mo b^u rv<l in a hitljoct, Iboj 
PUD iba twmu (lofici4'iioy in tbcJr pigiiio«»Ls ; boiicic tli^^y ato corrM. 
If b'tfttly iMHr.tit, thu owe uf coureo nuubl hv diCViii^nt. 

Lot uu fsrry oitr 4.'i|ieriri>i.<nij( il Hl«p fiirtbt-r, and hw ubnt pfltct 
what iH known ae b lurbid mvdinn] biia iijH>n tbu ilLuiniiJiiting valao 
of ditfctrnt jmrt* of tbc i>]ior;lnijn, T liavc hcTv wfltrr wbir-h bM btfltt 
nsndi^tml tiirbbl in n vrrj i^iiiLi^lo Liiinm^^ In it biuA Uxn wry 
WQtJfini^ly dropiK''! un iLte<ili(dic v^diitirm of miu>li<^- Ni^'W tnojitu? is 
firikoticxvlly iniuhiblo in valor, and dirr^ctly ibc alcobolii^ ttolutfon 
ot>ii>o«i in dontaot with tb'> vmtor it w<pjLrnt04 <>ut tu T«ry fjuo j^trticlcfl^ 
wbicb> froui tbi.iir vury Qnf'iiv"^ romaiti »ii«}K)udcd in iho wftttir. X 
jtriiiKihK iio^v ii> rTitik^i iin Lxpiu'Inuril witli tbin turbid vcAtrr, 

1 pl«oo a fflft" coll puhtkining uutbr in frunt uf Ibo t]it. nnd on 



cm Snmiifit (VIoNTfU 


dift Mn^ I Uinm m ntob of bluo li^l I ntm ehuigrt ft for Inrbid 
fai m e<IL niB Uttokuv cn^oh dinu tho bloQ; with % tiai 
V tlliakwtl tb0 blna k«« A[mo«t miis If J mccumro llio 
oC Ui« lifibt ftt c«dk cpcrfttii>D, I MitW GuJ iLat it dijaiuialica 
fMrfiftfl to ft cctt^iA Uw, nhkh U of tho ■uiio nfttar<i a8 tbe luw of 
tfamrplioci. For InritnriT, If occ^ luob dimtcittboa tlio light onn-hftif, 
Oft n^rt will diviAuk it tutf of lli«t «ig&ui, lb« uoit half of ihftt 
vlkiM tbo fovrlh met will coiwi • AiUhl dinvautioQ of lk« 

rf Ike ligU* iko ikaI nil] imlj nllun cme-flutficulli, uid Dm foortb 
lidb vfll ocilv pnnKit l/2:hG part Ui pan. Lol qr, howotcr, toko ft 
ltd patcb of ligbt obd ciuauio it iu t^o maaa w^y. Wo eball G&d 
IhAt, «b«a tbo mater thioknoBa of tho turbid tncdimn wt> D*Ofl 
vbto cxuuiiuvg wo bla» MkJi iff ligLt in E)1iu.-4?J id tvoui cf tto riUt, 
^hIi lw>r« of tUit W^X H Allovri^ to pnm thftn 'i the* btno. Tf vo 
■•MOn tlw ligbt w« shflll tt\d tb&l tlio GAme Uw holds good M 
WovOp bvt lint ibft pn>portioi:i wbiob itoesce ia inTATiAhl^ Rrcfttot 
witli tbe red Qhii Ibo Uae^ Tbe qti«stioQ i)iaa pTtst^ie ibclf : U 
tl>n anjcMwtetkD brtiA<rfi Oi« nirMiTitA of tbti reil uiiil tbv bine 
riiieh peM? Lofd BajrU^igb, Hjrnn Tf«rE n^, mnrlc a, ihooroticft] 
ctf the eubjoot; hnU m fiLr oa I ud avftro ito do^mto 
firaof of Ibo troth of the ih<MTy \na nukdc till it vtat 
bat jTft/ by OcDLiral Ft^ln^ Eiud lujBiir. niF» lnvi wtu that 
Iv WBjjT lAJ* iJ}^! thmn^b tl;c uma thirkiipu. xhc. Iif^ht U-HURmituid 
mM mvmiljift tkofourtb poircr of the unrclciQFttli. Tho vava- 
U^b 6000 lk« in tto r«d, uid tbo wavi> lim^tb 4U00 ic tbe vi/yUL 
Sam 0000 it lo 1000 ee 8 lo !^ and lb« fuorlb ponont of ikeee imv^ 
ha^lhBAreee 81 to 14. or waboui fl ta L If. iTl<^l, tbth r.iur ioohoa 
if e«r tKtUd nedinui ftlLovfil threa-qiurtAtii of tbii; jiartJculAr r«d 
1^ to btt tnunitled, lb«j vonld omlv eQov (j)'^ or r^ibor Jnu thftn 
oiaiMytiLef Ibe bloa nj lo piaft Now this lft«r i^ not Hkc the lav 
of ifanrpUoa for ordluorj ebiorbfag DQodKoucb &a cuKiuihS ^Uuf»r 
tartHkCe, bneuue bcro vo Iwrc ui iscn^iunl Icm of U^bt mnbing 
Inbi tlw led lo tb« bluo, ted it mattvn uot bow tbo lODdiam is mado 
Ivbid, vbetbor by imriLiiib, nwptndod flu)pbiir,or nhat not. It boldii 
bawj oioo, «>toDgee Ibo pMtidce vbicb mako tbo iniflium turbid 
■M raall ■aoagh; K>d ploAao lo roodllool tlmt it mnltirit tuit iu tlio 
bitf vlielkffr Ibe fnedimm vhU^ ie mnddTud turtiid it nlid, liquid, 
w ur. finlpbtr U joUow is miii, ft&d nualio vorriiiJ] ia QCHU-lf 
eUle, whilst lobacoo-aiiolic tihtn oendofiMd is bWdc^imd Tory miaato 
piiliLlci of wmtor &to ooloiulc^i : it tnettoi'M not nljat ibo Oijliiur iSt 
tte IcMK irf light in 4l0«M tbo tBiou. Tho naall ii ■implr dno tn thn 
Mtoril^ of liglit bj flee pMtiolM, snob |ttHiclvH Wing tmaU in 
eeoMfed irith n irftTO of ligbi Now, iu this Irou^ 'ta 
l/lOdO of* oalae inch of mutic Tiui^ish, Acd tbo vrotor in 
tt nMTBB elioDt 100 oabio iccbo, or i« 100,000 tunon more in bitlk 
Iku Ibe v«rtuftb. Under e nucmwoopo of (>i\ljimfj power it ia 
kpoanble to diHinguiali uit pertkht of TnnUflh : it loolu like e 
Vm. XIL (No. 8t) r 


Cap^in W. itt W. Ahvy 


bi>CDOf(pn(>oDfi flqiflf thonRli vd kniMr tba.t nudti? will not dificolro iri 
WitlQr> ^ovr [I vrartT tcEipUi in tbc rc^l it about l/10.t>tt^ of && incb, 
bfi^l n lilllo ciJc(il[kt]uu >rill shdit ibat iLese |kiirtic]r?» uro wi^ll witlim 
tl»i ni'i^iiMii^ liiititiL Priif, TjriiilAll hibri (Iti1t>^}ili^1 niiilic^nKi^ ht-.w 
with fto eipositioti of tiinoiTDctnf iho ictttterinif r»f li^hl try lanim 
nvtiolc* in tho formAtiiui of Mtifiiuid mki«k imd it vraolA bo ni»^ 
fluouA for mo to emtur nior« into ihoL Buffii'i? it fr>BBT thBtwL^ 
mttidouuv titaall uuua^li lo form tliti ftrtificJHl l>1n« mI? iLoyuv 
relly Hin»ll fHoni/h to nhey the nbovn Iftw, and tbnt nven \%Tgn 
purticl^Tt will lufflfe^ Wo tuay Eum up iy A3^nF7 ^'^ rcry fine 
piirticJod (NuttormorD bJun ki|;lit Ih&u r(^il lit^hi aud that raiisr4]no&tJy 
iuor« rod lijzLt tbui btuo lipLt paw<.a throa^ a Inrbid nooiliiim, uid 
thftl thn luyx olioy ttj<! Iaw finiN^nfjL'pil by tbotiry. 1 will eierajJify this 
onoo ntfiTo by aum}! tho vtiold sjwftmm and placing Me oell. wli^r-b 
OontikiuA hrpinialpbito of Hodn in eolation in water, in fmitot iho 
alii hy dropp^ni: in bydrotlilon^ ndd, tlio Bulpbur •opontofl onrt in 
miuntc iFfti'lkW ; ftuit ^i>ii will miv ttiKt* 114 tbij pArttcItsH incTOAiie in 
nutnlx.T. lliQ vicjli^t. hiaci, gnuti. niid yutlfjT disiiipc^ur <mc by ano uh! 
unly rod ia loft, ftod finall/ tho rod -Ijcupixstnt iltHlf. 

How lot mo rovorl to lb« qncAt(>ii wby tho »an i« rod ot muwttt 
Tliofo vrbo too Iovi^r« iif KndJu^jM) ydW bavR ofb^Q fiona on mmo 
briglit •umincr'* Jny tbat tba imwt U^nutiful cOcoU urc ibono it) 
irbtcli tbo dJiliini'o tit nlmnivt of n niatcb lo the vVy. DietftTTt bill* 
rticb whoii vn^woii cloeo to tro grcci; or brown, whun eoon gomo fir© 
or ton mikn Awny npfcar of a dtiHr^vt^^ \i\^ d^^lifsintiA, (vlmn«t of A 
cobalt, blan colour. Novr. wlint in the cauflo <if thit change in oolonr? 
li u niinply tfmt H17 Tmv<^ ■ iky funiif**! 1>utwiir*n mi Aitd tbo ilinUrtt 
rftDge»> J)if> nn'ty* otilhut>'>f wbToh looms ibri^ngh it. The ^hsidonA ap© 
AftfUnvd aci an alaiocit to Ioavo na tmtyc^. i\ni| vro bAvc wbntnrtiiite oAllon 
atmofipioric rffcct. If we g*» into ftTustbfir cltnLnte* inch aa Ei^ypt or 
■mpugst ilie bigh Al^>H. ^f\ uHiLAlly luiio tbiji t^fTncl. Ditilaut ni4>ii]]lujU0 
stAnd <iol criHp ^ilh bhick fibndowA, and tbn wAnt "f Atmonptiefa 
Ia XDOoh foil rrbotfigmpliiJ Eht-^wihg fh^^n (liOir^'iEicee iv<ire ebovn,] 
Lot ua oak tonij&t tbie in dno. In nnch climates ofl Kngland Ihoro tfl 
^rtuya A certaia junoantof inoifitiirc predentin tbo Atmo^pbcrci. And 
thift mcistwTO mny bo preeont ah Tcry mipnU) partiolf* of vnl'ir— W) 
minute indeed UiAt tboy nil! not «Sritr down in nc fttm'~ksyibera of 
ilonnAl donsity— or as vnponr, Whon prcaont Afl VAponr tbo Air ts 
mnoh raoro tnuieparent^ nnd it i« a common eaprcamon to uso, that 
vhen distant hillH lixik '*6n chj^" riun :nay ha ^xjiecled aliuTtly to 
foMow. Hinoo lb« wfttpr is pr«a«nt ia a Rtiito lo j-iwpitAto in lArj^er 

Ctiolefl ; bnt tvben pro&ont ab sciaU pArtiolcfi of wAt«r tbo hilU 
IcTory distADl, nwicg to wbot wc mAycoLl tbc haacbotv^f^^ratiB and 
tbtim. In recent weeks ovurycne bus been able tosao vory muliipliod 
tifeota of Pooh Lnse. T)is ende of long streets, for iniitanoo, nmTO 
boon Hciiraely Tioible though tho Riin m^y hnri) been ehinlng, and at 
night the long TistAs of ^as lAmpa hnyo eio^n light having an io- 
avnaing rednow iw they bcauno more distant. Ercty ono odcaite tbo 




am Hiutigtt Cabmn. 



«if nbl o<i A tto MCMdoD^ afid tbU miot maat bo morely & 

ion of ialMicible nad ^tty oiiDDto puiioles of eoflpODdcd w&lcr. 

ft diMakl lukdMspe wa bftro vimplj the ttHLn or it Hm^llfir <|TiAijtity 

ot MMCi'^Bltfs ncoTtjm'rif^, uifite«d or p^^rhap* 1000 vlf^i, trai timn< 

diifinnft Nr>v I w^atd t4)r, Wlwt aOMt wDaid aoch A uzutbav^ 

It t# ikH id Uio boDadtf erf prctnt prii«iLilily to g^i ontAldcr onr 
AtdWBliWr* m^ mtmamv hy tb« pkn [ iiart' ilnarribtxl Ui ynn tiro 
ilifcrini illuinliWllngTftlncH of il]i> Ll{iT>>ri>iii ny«. bivt ilifi wc am 
^ j^^yimt, wo f*n fcCMPro tbou vUu^ at (lid-jrant nltilQd<<A of tljo 
«g^ lad Uiii nKtat BcaiBmi^ ^ho cfleol cm each ny after pftuiiijz 
IhtiWj^i diSbrast Ihlokn— aw of Uto abnoB^liere, ^itLui at different 
tUMffdrdfty, orkl <ti8Broiii tJiiimi>f l^io yiur^nb^ut ik* i4itrii»-- bour. 
Btouml, by Ukii^g tha inMinmont of tn aimo siicb ilr-vnticn na tb*t 
la nbich Xongky Umk hat boJomcfci- it Unaut Whitnoy, luid na to 
Ww UfeO dtfiieeil pttrl of tli« Atiaoaph<ira below qa* Ni^Wi I hare 
H*'^**^ botb di^«<i pl*n^ Tvt Lbau a jkinx I Luvc tiibvii [ijr.'asuiv- 
MttAB of annligbl in my laXu^mUiiy nl Si:»i]t]k Kt^Dbirgtcn, and T Imvn 
■bo tekM tho Ukttrvnent tip to 6000 foot bif^b iu tbo Alpv. and madD 
■111 uliimg C&rrc, ft&d nitb a rcAolt wbiob in mtiefautory m tbiht 
batb msis vt i>trMrT*t«ooi abow tbat lb# bnr wUoh bold* witli ttrtifi- 
cMlytmWil imidtft iADfedorordinjuycIrcimiBtancMiiibayvfllly ^^tuligbt 
t> MMiM tlnciagli Mir ^ir : whirh ta» yon ivill rum«t[ibvr, that mora 
ol Aft na M tnuMaitt4<d tLon of thu vL«lot^ thu umiiuut o4' otiob do- 
pBdlagoci tbowmTO-J«Dgtb* TboLiitDiiio«ity<jftbcftpootruiQi>tf8orTod 

no, 1. 

Eolfttm Lnirii:iivii1i«^ 

■1 tb« BiU 1 bftTo i»od H oy «l4Qdatd lncaiD<»it^. luia coropiLrM 
m oU«fa wHli it Tbo rwnlt fnr fcnr dnye you oco m iho diB|CT*m- 

r 2 


C^iatn W. de W. Ahfu^ 

[Feb. 25, 

I tjkTO diiigTamzanttcallj flbowb tho (UDonat of different ooloon 
ivKictt |«D«lnitod on tbc mmo dAja, Ukbg the Bi?G{ oa t«n^ It will 
) iBCai tliBl on DtctiinlH*T 1£3 wu htr** mulJy very lilll^ Ttolut tuA lew 

Tlio notl 'Itflj^m Iroforo ycti fiihowa tlic mtnimiiin low of lift^t 
uhict I linvc ctiecTVcd for di^otisnt nir tliicknoeEcSv Oa the Cop «c 

— ^ — 

iT . 


1 ^ _ 


V t**-. ' &«• 1 15/ ' 

Pr«p'«t4onc of Tranflmitl«d CoUon, 

hftTO the dLlouUto*] ttiteeiiuliee of the ilifTcreiLt rajs oalatde our 
nl,iiinp|iLero. Thus wo Imvc that tliroDgh one utiuii»ipTii.>ijv, &111I two. 
lhn>e, mill four ; arii you will ntw wliat «noniioiiE nbporptifin there ia 
in the blno oud Ht four fttmoaplJoniH, I'h^ iir<MLj cf thoeo cvrrce, 
wliich gJTo Ih'! tolftl iainmodily <A thu li|^ht, ftro 7(>1» C6a, S77, 503, 
au'l I'JO ; atid if ohseryoii ns o^trunomcra obaerro the nlffiorption of 
liglit, by men"* of BleUnr uhf^ervaLiona, limy wniild hnvp >mil the valD(?a^ 
791, 664, 576, £04. Aud 439 — ti Tory «loeo hpproxiEiatioQ one to the 

Next notice iQ Iho ^liAgrara that tho top of tho ciirv« ^radtuUy 
Incline^ to go til tli€ rcd ci^d cf the Hj>vctriiia kb yon ^ tliu I'^hl 
Init^siEiiKed throngh mere nn;1 nirro uir, and I should lilea tQ sfaotr 
yoti thul this \% the case in a labomlory oi|i(TniU(<Dt TiLkiug a hIMo 
with a wido auil long slot in it, a portion ia ^uoj>i«d by ^ right- 
AitE^ud pTism, floe of tho iLnglcB of 46' being lovracdR ihu i^iutre of 
the i4lt*t. By sliding this prtAm in frocl of the spwtroin 1 c»n d/ifloct 
oiitivnrda nfiy piirtino of the fqiectrxim I Hkf3, And by ft miirof CAn 
r«iti.iet it tlirough a second lene, formiag d pntehof li^^hl on tht> sorccn 
OTerlnpping the patch of light fpimel by thu nndeflect^l mj^L If Iho 
two piitohoH be trsfliitlj e(|ual. while liglil ifl funntO. Now, hy plating 
a roil 08 before in frdnt \>t the: |MTHt. I hiive two (M>lonr«fl atrijtes in d 
n)iit3 field, and ihongh the hnckgroiind ramairte of the twiie iutuuaity 
of white, the iutensitioe of tb« two ntripcG can ho altorod by moving 


tm SittdiffAi Cabmr^ 


rigkt-Mi|M iiriMD Uirou^i tlie tMotrtmi. I^o two atripM vo 

r ftpmranUj wmUj liuniaoD«, and I bio tbo pdat of o>)anti1> U 

99 Uie edjce of Iho rigbt-^o^cd pruro i« m lira grcQix. I'UcinK i^ 

fur odl fiilbd vitli oiir Imbii tuodiain id froitt or tho dlft, 1 And 

tbutba or|ua]i^ U ilktorbod, mhI I luvo to allov Piorv of ibo jolluw 

ts eoBD tato ib^ patob fonn*l bjr th« blna end of tJu ipootnuii, nnd 

^^■Mnoatlj kw of U in tbo foj ond. J OfEun c«UbIiBh cqualit/, 

^^^^|p a UtickvK oell io {r>iit. cqunlitx i» «£iuq diilufboiK aud 1 Iihtd 

^^^^n lotti jdlavr rtili ui Uio rwl Ltlf, uuil luuro m tho bliin hfJ f, 1 

^^^^BMvm tba OflU, And thit innjmUilj nf liBnfnoeiCj ■• itill mora 

^^P^Bg. t^nA Akowi, thou* UiAt tiio nji of uoiJQinm liuuiMueilT mont 

DmrgJ tcw^rdd thd nd 4S tliv ttuchn<« of tbc turbid iDoiiatu i« 


Hw obMrt^lkuM ftt dOOO foot, hon roeotiI«J. vren* ukon on 
ftiftwnbor 15 si booq, tiiid cf evatut in Utitndo 4G^ tfao sua oouJd xwt 
W OviibMil, b«l bid to Uotcivo wkit tfould bo nbnovt oitbotly 
BfvmloBl %o Ibo •tiDDVphoro U Ma-IotoL II %a mncb ucEUor tho 
nJimJaW iaIouflUj for iw slcaoftpfavvo luberwiuut;, tliuu it in {ah uuu 
ktBKvplicm. Tba oxfiUimtHm of tbti u tmijr. Tlxo air ia ilnntuir ftt 
MtF-lml ibiA ftt 900O foot up, uiJ Ibti lowur Ktrutum id iDoro Iiboly 
to bold hmU vfttor portidot at dcwt in auapounion tbjkn la tb? IiigbuTi 
Fot:, IWOW IIDaU tbo pftittclcs 111*7 ^* ^*^7 "^'^ ^*^ ^ \lvv-KUfr 
fcuAaMy to Mitli in » r&rc ur thiui iu u duiiHnr i>tiL\ luid IraK wittnr 
fueor Ota be be14 jKrr vttbio fLx>t, L<><>1cJi]g, tlicu, frum my 
kbor&tovx ftl Soolb Ko&MDfltQii, we bav^ to U>k through a prap^r- 
iMftColj luigor qnattti^ of nupondcd pjutioW thoo vpo Iuto ul « 
bigfa lUitode wbtn (Iw ur IbickiiMiwi mo Uwntac^; lUil o^UA.c(iuimlly 
tettbaorplioiibprD]K'rlL<mkl<ily ^rroator »t e«!«-loTvl tli&n hI 81)00 TimtI 
U^ lltts toidfl UK to tbfl fipt ilmt tbo r<in] intflnnity of ilbniiinfL- 
ttM«f 0M diflbroAt tBjit ootjiiJu X)i-i almcHiphcTR in f^atcr liiAn it in 
*llwAl1»4 fron obMmtionb iir«ir Kn>Lvul. Ttot Laugl^y. in tbm 
Aniro, (d ft tmulcftblo »qi1 JTiUirvt^tiuj^ luclurv. in wLiic'li Lti di5* 
•oibad bift jnimv^ np Mniint Wlitnnj- ;ii nlioiit 12/M}11 fi^t^ toM rn 
ttai ibo ran WM rotJlf bloc oulKtdu our ftttnoipburv, uid at Anit blivh 
Ibe eimfMnt of onira Uoo wbiob ho dodaood to bo prosuul in it would, 
bo tiM^iJit. Mkibo it bo; bat tb'>Q^b bo »aruiia«d Ibo rveult tum 
ei|i«iUMait« moidn vrilh roleting diik* of ridiiTin<d ]fiipor, bu did mA, 
I tbdak, tfj tbo mAlbed of niing para o^oom, and oaiutoquantl;, 1 
Wtovtti ■lijfbtlj ouggontod tbo blnonooi wbioh would rcoolt. 1 
bMO lebon Frf>L LuigUj*i CAlouU&iove of tbe iooro&io of iatansitj 
br tbtt dUturoLtt roja, wliloli I ouy mt do not iiiutu «4nx>e nitlj Tuim.% 
■«! I bne prupmd « nunk vbi(»i I tan pltco in tbc ii|HX!trmn giviug 
tfiB diflftiMl pinpciffiiiiii rif OBofa nj bb otdonlftlAd hj bim, ond this 
«b«ft pkcod bi franl of lb« opcotram will t4iov;oii thiit iho roal 
iolouf of tqaaligbt outaido tbo ak[kci*phcr«« hji oalcuUud bj Lukgloy, 
ov iCBfOoljr bo ooUod blni^b. AloaipiJdc I ploco a patch uf light 
vhbb fa nry donlj tba ouluiir of mtiilij^bt on n Jii1;r ilu^ JiL riiK>ii 

I b BngkaJ. TUcccflDfADJOi; vill ciuble you to ^cg« the blaootwi, 


attain W. di W. Ahmy 

[Feb, 35,. 

md jod will ftoo that it u not ^ctt hUm^ uiil, in foot, not blnor pa^' 
i Wptibly Ibikik tLiht vrc fanrc at iLo BiffcJ, tljc cijloar of tlio miuHght at 
Wmob pliur* 1 «\»>v \n a riitniUr wiiy. X liavu iil»» |iMri«r^l Mijnt 
NwnVDi to Ethnv yfm tho \alao af KQiilight afU^ pjuning thranglt fi«« 
lad ten Atmoflpb oral. On an ordiiurj obaj day you tiill ^ee wbtt ■ 
joUqwimh thcns Lt in tbo colour. Ift S0OID8 Uiat oTUt & DC^ftaiii 
UDCQiil uf blvi'r uf |rri«mtt iri whiW Ii)c1it thr Arlilituii; vt titvtu untkut 
bill, little ditfercTiccr in ihn tint^ But Uk^h^ [rut (iil^bis kIjuw thni tJiu 
liabt wbich paHoei iLmug}! Ibe iLti]>ofp>jvitv wbtu ii is fovUj cLftrged 
with partii'leti iJ<>»e Qot in4uoo tbo r<Hl of tLo »un m m«ii Ibrougb 
ft ffig. It only reijLiiLiw moro vonpondod p&itictc« ID any thickiUMi 
to iudncQ iL 

In cliKcrvatiaM imHl4; at lliti MifM. and at H,COO fuot, I h^m 
Ibiuid tbnl it ie {>oa8i1>1« tc (i«o fnr inl'.i t1i«> ultm-violvt, fL&fl to At*' 
ltUr^ui«Lti juid ucfLSure lilies in tltc t^iii'i^ liftcutriitu whicb can ordina- 
rily only be *fttn l>y the aid of a floorcettijt cjc-picc* or by mcnm 
nf phutograpby. GircuLuBLuLLtin] 4?vi(li<ui*u tf-uJn to iJio^v tlmt tLo 
btimiijg ot tht^ Mn, ^hic)t a\)\ayE taVsk [Anirtu m OuMt* liijjii AltJtnrliui 
in sTiniigLi, ie iuo to tbo great mpr*nKi in tho nUm-TiciZct rnys. It 
lUihy he rctuarkod thnt th^^ sjluju hind of bumin^ 19 oSb^tcd by tbo 
electric ATO li|^bl) vIiIcIj is kiirii\ii tu \ie vury neb in tbuw rayj<H 

A^ti, t(i UM) u bonicly phnuo, *^¥iiu c»L]ini>t eftt y^mr rukn (uiil 
bbTe it." Tail c-fttiQijt bnii.' Fi liirgv ciunulity tif blue mya prcecd la 
four Jireot Biifilight, uufl bavo a. litmi^oiiH liluo sJcy. Thu Uttcir nitiet 
lUWAyA 1)0 li{/bt seatlorct] irotxi tho f irtiicj'. Novi', m Ibo bi^b Alps 
:toii baT«. oq & cleor dayn ■ de^p blno-blatlt »ky, Triif_v tlifftitut imlood 
from the btnu ^"kj nf Tliily t>r uf Englinii] ; mid hh Jt ie Ui<- nky wbitdi 
!• tbo chiof ag^nt in lif^tiling up ttia Nbulowtt^ iii>| unly in l)ici«e 
re^ODB (lotte have datk Ebuiiows on fl^oounl oif ni> iulnrvoidng -wlint 
I «i\\ atll- miet, but bocaii^c the sky iticlf la t,o liLtlo bimiucpUB. In 
fto urti«tio point iff viow tliiA Is impurtiuit. Thu vtiuuitti of an I]ugUsU 
InnLbfPJiiio m Biioligbl in ^i;o t^i tlifi hfgli«fit iLuliU Iving y.'lUiwifib, 
and to tbfl fibndu»E Iwiug blinshfrom tlto ilcyOtgbt illuminating tJiem. 
fn tbo higb Alpe tbo bigb lights ato ccldvT^ bcin^ bluer, and tbo 
8bih3ow« ore Jorkt and cbtiLflj iriiimiu&tcd by riHctilcd ditcct sanligbt* 
TboBO wbu bavo tm^cUcd a1>roi4d tull kijn^v wIjhI ihu etTi/t^ in. A 
painting in tbo AJp*. nt any bip!i Hovaiirm, la rawnly pI^ftJiiDg, 
Altbiiiigb it niny bo true to fiutui^ It looks oold, o&d Bomowbat 
hoTdb &iid bluu. 

In Lriudiin yrc arc ofton faTonrod witb oMtiTly wTiidn. uid tb«u, 
ntipbiiiAiiEit iti [jUier wuy*, nn? t^im dMtrurlivo of tliat poition of tha 
miTiligUC w^iioli K i\n* Tno«t ebcniS^ally oottvo on living nrgnsiaiDe. 
Tbo eitfihgbt i;iiuip(i»iition of n. Jrily day nioj, by tbo [twaU^noo of an 
ooQttily wind, Lo rcducoil to that ui a Ni>vunibor d»y. aa I hare pruvo<l 
by actual iiit^uturtiu^rnt- lu lliin cilw it ia not tbo wutf^x portJolufl 
ttbicb H(.it M K'nttt^rem, but i\\& iwrbon porlrt-lpB from tbe Hinoko, 

Knowing, then, tbo caiHir of tbe cbavjgo in tbo volour of ennliglil, 
TO con ntako an artificial Baneot, in «bicU ^t linvc on imilAtiuu ligkt 





18870 <» SwUight Coionn. 71 

piiiDfl tbnmgH increuiDg thickneasea of &ir largely chained ^th 
water putiolofl. [The image of a cireular diaphragm placed in front 
of ibe eieotric light irta thfovn on the Bcreen in imitation of the hqii, 
■ad a oell ooQtdiiiiig hTposnlphite of soda placed in the beam. 
HydfoclUoTio acid was then added : ae the fine particlea of aulpbnr 
TOO formed, the disk of light lasnmed a yellov tint, and aa the 
deooopoaitioi] of the hjpoealphite progressedf it aaaomed an orange 
and finally a deep red tinL] With this eiporiment I termlnato my 
lecture^ hoping that in aomo degree I hare answered the qnestion I 
propounded at the outset: why the stin is rod when seen through 

[W. DiW.A.] 

73 Mft. T. Hmlejf on Bnm 8w^^ m 00 Stem Aget. [Uanail, 


Fridfty, M&roL 4, 1887. 

Sn Wn-LUH B<]w»A)f, ISnrt. LL.D. FM.H. KUnftgor and Tteo-' 
Prt?iEJi.iDt, in tbv GLiiir, 

ViCTOB HoEflLKT, Ewi- F,RS. B.S. F.B.CLa 

Srain Suryery in fAe Miotic ^^cn 

Tbv title of this disconTHo fairly oipTv«f«<} »U eccpo. for iha practJca 
bj the peof^k of ibe ueoIitLic jjcriod t>f roBorting lo atugorj for tho 
relief of uupliiof to tLo bnun yvoB fully doUilcxl. 

It eccmcl Bcarcoljr ueceewkry to <\o mure ttan hrioflj refur to tlio 
prAdual AflvAuce uf civiliiuLion Lbnmj^U iiui Hlnj^o^i of ttttiui^. 1itiiij3(>, 
uid iron; but it wna pointwl Mtt thnt wliila tho Grucks at tba time 
■<i£ their viege of Trov Lu<l oul^ bnlf Ibnmt bow to tue iron, tlid 
1iortlii?m natiood of Europo were stiU in tbo etoDu period, Neithtr 
did it nppmr t;cccH6ur/ lo Uu iqoiv tbiwi briuflj lUlude to tLo ^(.^ctvl 
babits of nccilitbin |Hii>p]c>, mv» to druw nttcntiini to the tofX, that 
whatever be its «xf Inniition. tho iiietunc4<s in wbivK trtpbmiiig mw 
proutiiiod m lUo ato&f) tLt;o ocuiir more froqucutly iri tlie coutro of 
Frftace tbftn ocywhere eleo iii Etirupo. The, dclt\'Cmtei noX^irG of 
tLu ojJGEittioQ, iit» exompUfied !□ tbo tdiulU bitbcrlo dii^uoTurvd, wu< 

trovtd by tbfl pcisition of lb« riperiiugH, thoir briing in tht^ TDriji^rity of 
i^tkiieoft beihlod, uid by tbii oilremuly iiit)T«itirig fliscij^ery of th« 
foot tbftt tbo portione of bono cut out woro not ooly prceerrod as 
uaiuhtii, but iJbo put bn^k Again into oucb 6 ticpbinixt bead at tho 
tiJiie cif dentb. From a 4:0111 pur jboii of tb^ modea of troi^biiiing jicr- 
fcinriAit by eitiago r4ud luadimval nntiooa^ it viu provtMl ibal tbc intone 
Ago people opcDud tbo eknU either by drilling, Bcraping, or sawing, 
iQost probobly by Ibo loflt metbod. Similikrly it vaa sbown from a 
fttudy of tb« floht of oper&tiou. tbal in all probability rcouurso lo 
■nrgery nB8 sug^u^ted by tUi i^yinpt^vitH of depr^tttbed fracturu, bud 
>tMj hjf the vyaiptoius of trftuioatie c|>ilopeyH 





Ofwr^ Mmthfy Mining. 


Hondaj, Harch 7, 1887, 
Bmstur r<KUjacx, Eeq. Troaorvx and Vk«-Prt«ulvui> iu iho Cliftir. 

Altnadar Tboniu Qaxay, l£»). 

SufeiiD H. Covlcc. Ijq. 

ftMimitl Fctivkk. 01. I^ 

UwiD Fmili^R hlA^i. LL-B. T.P.&A. 

Kdvkrd KrftflmftiGTi Ila^i. 

Tbciau IltTtor Lcwu, Em, FSA- 

CkpUui Aijdrow Nvblfv, O.B. F.aa 

aiwl«H BL RovmU, Esq. U.A. 

H^jop BittnU Smtdv, 

Hit Uon^ry Hcrvru VaTiuoiir, UttrL 

Mciubcr* (ff tic Uojal Juititqbioii. 

-r it«» TC*d to Hi* Gracti Turn Fitun>VKT from Sm 
FuxiMxicK Abil, OmfiJimg SeonUr^ to Iho Iinperioi indtitnto, 
4lad Febnuy i, 1837, roqoMtiag tbo ci>-oporatiou of Ibe Ito^ol 
^^iluliim in Lh* promotiott of Ute ctUblisluaoDt uf Lbo loiptirltil 

dW ravtfC AaiI', Itma— Alt'. Bcrln QQ*>th* Ili^iiiliiviiiir, 

ij^ ff-vu^-j^iLRMi. Vl>:. lv. Tut I, Nu. s . riitt 2. Xd, x 

toatopi in ttfttcdng lltit co-opcntl^o, and pUtoi] Uii^t SuliecHpliotxH 
Iv ll» tinpcfrial lutitulc wotilil btj rvcaitud at lb« HovkI Juslitatiuu, 
■i ft U*t uf Biu-'U SulMfTriptiiJUA BUh|jcii)il4'4 iit tltt> HuJ, 

mad the UuilIu uf liter Huuibeni ruLurucd Tut tha Huai^ \iB. • — 

VtJ. IL 

1|M,Xa«.«.Sl »ca 
iav>itf|i. Af^ rfloaihiy J3rTinfiA>— Ibdin to ITlv TTniiHictlonji of Ihn 
MWtSdcIm; of BomlBT. Vol. |.-ilL uad to Uui Joiirnnli. VqI. l.-XVH. 

/tt^<lB«f ^--JAim^U V«L VUL Fut tf . feia 18S7. 

h, Gmftfim\ «uf KtifiinJ tlOtarp Svrny ci/— Au»lu3 Rrrixirt, ]A^ 
miblUti*, »fa \d^ 

18ST. V>ul I. AniL 

Wrh«>fc.JEM. f.LJLf- 


Qaiaral JtfWA^ MUciiag. 


J>iiifii(»i And ^cwc, Mifttr*. W^—J. A. B«4y'* UiJtcsmA ElpotriMl JDinutoir. 





StD. 1897. 

AinJyaE f« Fobrnkry, lt»7. «vi», 

Allii-riAiktn l-tf Fiilninfy. ISfH, <U»- 

Ch#mieiil Npx™ frtr Fptliru(*ry. 1«ST. 4ln. 

Gbemiet awl Dm^^Bl it^t Fvbjtxuy, lidT. 3t^ 

iSliffin«r for FflWufcJj, h'^tr?. fnl. 

Agbkooring A?r FfhniDiyi LK^^ fil, 

HnnlAgl«l Journal hr FMmmry. IIEtlT. 

1lkd»ri» for F'ebniBTy. li!(ST, fol, 

Iran for Fobruv>, \StfT. ilo. 

Kftlurb fur Fabnun', 1S8T. IbK 

B«Tiic Solo&tilbiiui ^7 February, ISBT. 

aVIfsntibla Joornal for FobruiLty. JHRT 

SEooplilliiil for TelHVfry, 188T. Ibu. 
Fltfwm £«»U«H Jr<MfE«ato OnfruZi-DakftiKkVuin, ». 
JVaikUViiJbutf'«C«-JouiiMl,No.7d«. Bro. tB9T. 

Bnpplpnxinlary Pnpprt, Vol. II. Ko. 1. *to. ift*7- 
Ototoikul &K-!i^!f—i^aaiUj!]y J<.niiiJiJ, So. lOJ, Svu, IMT, 
jrMtfBaJ Soo^rt^, Evyid—'l'rt^uKXiiUit^ Sc^ Siiritf^ Vol, IJL i^tila 3 juiil 1. 

Mnr IlvpMnt Vm'wrtiiy — HUvWt* ia Hiilorloat and Pclitkal Sciuifv, Fitlb 

Uiilicnhy CIivuWh H". 50. 4tu. IS^. 
JtfmoJbH^cr G^lo-ikid i^tWy— TnLnsiwlioni. Vol. XIS. rojti 3, i. (to. 18^. 
Jbri^ Wtltiatfi £). ^7. C^r JiifW)— LiDLitalioiiA of iLo EiMDiton of Slfttju. 

iflMofvfa^iiuf frriifv — rtlunlhly VrvthiT Ili-prrrt for Julf-Auif. iS9fi. 4ta. 
MManologlntl OluH:rvttLlitLiKitLSlHtluutii>r Uto^LXHiml (hJEir, 1^2. 8ra. 1G87. 
Itjurty ncvllnea, l8Fi», PofI 4 ; Ir^l, TarL £. 'Ito, IHaC-T. 
J/iflt'tfru n/ I't'^IiV Itoritf. ^t^nu — Gir^mnlff licit Gvitii) Qnlv, ^fiu QtlBrliik 

Vuf VL N^»!r. n» Itt Kvo. Aol^ Di*>jyni. fol. Utfil 
Wnrfht)/ ^''"jtAvd Jriwiifulfi of Mtnin/f and MfeTniiiiMl EnQinrFfa^^TruimctUttm. 

Vol XiXVL Pari I. Hm 1&»7, 
A'nniiii'tufiV i^iifletjf — L'l krirnlclo nai Joumnl^ lUtf^i Ptirt 1. ^0. 
Odanhhrgicvl tiaeiflif of {trial IfriUxtH — Tnaaaptjone, VuL XIX. K<X 8. 

tidied, Sro IF^T^?. 
rAc^rnuiMriZirvfl gix^tti/ «f Offnt BntfltH-Jonrnsl. Fftbruary, lSfi7. *To. 

r^^tpyr-jjiftJ^T^j^-jV^u^Jiidniiil, No*T Svfka, Vtl. Xl. Nn. 4^ S*-!*, IW. 
rhifiHffd Sorif^/y ft/ L^'i^fifn— iS^iOoLMitDf^^ Vnl, V1 11, iHiH 3- BtXk 1887' 

liwi)>it Soriiff/ oj yWw !^'irh J*'*>t*—Jr>iiTHi(» nnd I'rtwMrilnnTnl. XVX. 

tfKitii/ t'/ -iriM JviLFUoli Fi-ilif uurVi It^ST. H^o. 

:itt1uli«iS iia'%fljf—J<3\traa\, \ol ItlX, Piirt 4. S90. IMWL 

Si, P^^^ftfymfj;, AMfl^mii *i« ^ilirnfaa - Mi- ruo^Mu, Tomo XXXIV- Ko«- 7-11. 

4tfl. I^i^i. 
FfrFFrid mr i^^ycrriJcrunu cfff 47oKFr^^»u U iVfWMi^^VctLuiJluiijCDii, l9Sfti 

Ui'ft, 1» 4lfl. 
WiUl^ Ih. li. (rAtf J'jrc<^eor)-A[ibalDa dot E'JiyalkiLliKboti Octml Oburr*- 

lorluma, l^iVA. Ho. |«bG. 



1887.} Afdid.rkrriatmSotir^Ut3^rhvik{Jmtvrfafl*rCkri$U 75 



Friik/. Mptfoh It, 1»ST. 

Ilssru: Fquxiok, Bmi^ TrwatLrer &ui] Vjce-FnwdDUt, \a ttio Cluir. 

Arm ft bikf «kokli of the fourth ctiutajj in iU rftn*<l autl »liik- 
ing fllt^f^^ of lifo, uul Uiu great Icwlm of rcligiaiM ihiiuglii whiuu 
it podnoad^ lli» lectww prooa«M to moulicu htaaa cf tU brotJ 

1. Il WM KB 1^ of great cMiUmitiott, in which tatn WitUnd from 
vkT, ^m^leatc, ttamOy uul the incnrtuma of barbariunn. TLe s&ck 
of Room iUbcbsd 1^ ctvaluud «urld liku tbt? ijioi:^ uf un aLrthi]i]nke^ 
TW D«rir« <ir U Ul with 11101111111^ torca en liio ttiiuJk of &l. Jerome, 
» Laa MTO it BriUduoL, uid if Si. Au^tustiao ^ru L^w duoplj 
Botod 1»J it, Hkd loll ohioflj ntncvrcod to pravtt tbftt the ontiMtrojtlif) 
■«• tool ibe ooBiOqO O oco of CUriatiikui ly, tLc tciuHnj wna that Le wm 
chicitlj iii1«n«l^ In thi> (TUy uf Qod^ wliilv ili* Oity cf Evil wiu) 
UA lo it« pnidi3«tin«d mio. 

2. Tb^ kighdtt CO i<m tlw) tfao ]ow«»l oidom of ii>oi«ty woro 
ftHected hj tboe caUimtioa. Tb« mfgp vu full cf *' fttnni£o atorlM 
cf Ihe 4«ftll* ef kiii|pL° TliQro whh itc-Arortj a Hiii^lfl Eiupuror of 

of thm conlnij vhc did not n.^rUb by mnMiir, Nincidi^ oi 
D^ ud A* pri i iPtifnent of JnlJAa troM jmilifiod, irlio, on 

Or, M CbifouB Kodere iL, 

*Piptt wllfcbiipcj|iUtoggr»hnl bpiI Tlolunt tula bli^ ('Jol" 

8. T«l thvBnMron ««f* mmn&ilixl wiili lh«l vlalHmto poi^ip 
■ad cilOlM lMWc wkli iro call BjrxaaliaULi. CuiLMti^iliuu'H ttuoltf, 
u4 Uf IbmImi fof jewel*, mggeatod llic vtiugint; upitfrunt 

Sunt b«o i^xDAJCttt Acd KoroiiuflttT" 

Th« Mnirt vriA iHid vlib panipciUB ceranoiiiw »ad dlnvinh ofnt^fftliuQ. 
I'b* t^ " Tow £t4niit3r " wm juM b«giiuung to t^omo into foobioi^ 
wboa it wwi Bcoflbd oitt uf court by St AtlifttukMiu. Bv wi^ of 
lUnrinUiDiii ■ Jokcrijilioo «*« pv^n gf qdc of tbo «pl«udi J amomor 
cif llw Bvpfror ArotiliD*. Yot tho Eraiuron woro uftvD 
iIto 10 Ibiir own ««usedjB. 

i, Tlds ftffO «f oduuity WW 4bo aa >({« uf boiudlott luxury, <if 


ArdkiMeat FkrMt 


trhioh deUQs wenTclTCQ fruiu Llici HuuiitiM of fit OliryHUBtum. kui] 
tho Qietnry of Ujc Pj^^n mMi^tr AmmitTnifl MdreclIinTm. 

y TLo luxury fiaontcd it»lf li^Ie tnp ptie with tho raoti i^Hikd- 
iog poTcrty. Tho f:c&oiiiL muicry of tho tai-m-aAbod multittidc itna 
illuAirktod bj «t;ocdotoa frvui Pftlladiiw, Su ClirjaovUtni, 61. UtwU* 
uid St. Aiubrotw. 

6. Tho iotaih e&altuj vu tli9 U ago of Btrngglin^ bolicfif in 
which mAAj giiiiled Ui«ir nrofflMio&l cxclvuirclj by ouajuflvntioiu 
of aoDUil KQil ]>i>liti<MkI oxpodiaocy. 

T. Tho comhmftlioa of oiroBOMUiico* tliQA Lllontntod IcxI Ut kx 
Mrer doeponing flnpomlition both unrmg Tagniu luul riiriEt^aiui. 
TboPa^Q spirit of 0U|i«ritilioD vraft illu«trLlt*J ty «toriiX( from th« 
BO|]liiAt EiLti>]>mB, and by tbo vild outbittHt of y^ma o^iu-it tho 
UK of Kiiocry in tha dftjm of VaIouji— a pAnic wltlt^h cIi>j^Ij 
rosoiuhlnl tlw; fmnlio Htntu of auflpioicjii pn^Tulioit in the ilAys uf tb« 
PoiHfch i>K>t Tho tn]j>(irttiiic'«m a^«ril of Chrlmiari* v»« eWtK^i by 
tbo fldtrntioa rudd to very liubirmA riilioH, ttnd by tXi^ ctwlcilona 
ucooptanco of ttc inoBt portontonj mimdcA^ u nbowa in the hbgnt^ 
phko of t^t. Muiiu uf Tour?, St, Grcigury TLauiuaturgusi ftud olhort^ 

tL Yf^t. timid «]1 thew «i^|iijr8t]tiijrm iitkI intSfttKiphM^ tho r|tnet 
evcrydiiy beautiful lifb of humanity wnd g<^in^ on, on vns sbown hy 
poooafut pictures of tho £V«t Chri^tiau homes in wLich mon liko 
St. Gregory irt NnziaoKUB, SIh Lnftil. and Bt. Chryaoatcim ic tho 
E»t| bud St. AaibruBi] iu tbo W(«t» ntre truinud to oauruhjoaa and 

9- Th« lectaror pn>«eed^ to fumUh virion* illattmtion* of tlid 
lifb of tho yoaagk He garo anocdot^s uf tbo boyhixid of 6t- 
AngoaliDo ; of tho pranks pUvvd bj AtmlonlA m tho dftyt of &L 
Gregory of Naiciuiiznu lit ihti Vtdverrt]iy of Athuus ; of the rilu of 
mook initiation Iniown na *■ the Bnth " ; of tho Profawar ProM^redaa 
luid tbo boy-atadbDt Eunivpiue, 

10. Si'tac account wna oUo (a^n of tho v»tii>d otpori^ncM of 
8t Au^LiflliDU M » rrorceaoT of fihotorlu At Curlbftge, Bfilnu, ai^d 
Konm ; of tho torhulunt young uludonth known ne thu Evrrtorn in 
AiT\c^\ and of tho boamifiit KAsidtiJiy ftrid okill with whEoh Augnft^ 
tino trasnod bis j-ouug pupils, LiountiuB uud Trygotiivfi, in his 
rotront at Oaseiciacuni. Tho lectaror gnro oomo ouriotis and 
striking anuf^duLoa of the lifo of a ytiuthfu] law stndoat at Home, 
Hrt illuBtrated ill tho advenlnrea <»r Alypius, il fritimJ of St, Aogua- 
tine, nlio was afterwards baptiaod with hioi. 

11. Dotaila woro tbon fnmiohcd cf tho life of euiinoDt bcatbca 
«i>phiat«, and eminent CluriAtun blaliopa; »nd it vrnfi thoiru fr^EU 
AmmianTLs Marc^illiniiti, us wulT a» from Cbrietinn vnters, thil 
;>oinp liTiil prosperity exeroiA«d A very unfurliinato infloenre on lh« 
ltvo8 and clmracterB of many bifihopa in tbo groat cities. 

12. Tho raging pikrty spirit and riotous alikiidcr Abich prcvallod 
ia tbiH century yi*>t*i ehowa by oircumetaucnH in tbo litcia of tho 
groat FothoTR, ftnd cepfciolly of St. AtbonoeiuR. Tho trcliiroi 


1887.J OR 8oad$ n dU Fmr^ Onha^ ofia ChitL 

ilKBglj cnfrroe3 Ao lowa« butgtit bj tfaem tan«iir(«, of Uus 
Uf ttf ^iTDMS Rnd ktmlacfli La jfoA^atg whkt of Anc»eot oad 

IS. Tbo pMuoa for tbeoUffical dfapalktko wlriok pmnUod 
Uiii ocbtui^ VIA iUoilnled lij Ruurl^ablo panngea fhun Bt 

14. Tbt lniw<f ilMtt prooMd^d to AmI vitii tbe nh|*c* of 

Ajerfeiip itt QxtraoiidiMfx fr^^owUi ab^ •t'Mf» dvr^lopiiMrtiti 
ImAct irilfa tbe dinsfcnma efticto w-hidi it prodaced cm 
■OBdL TliiM pui of 1^ io^^ »u diid]; U[iutna<J b)^ 
toif>d fnn 81. ChiyMdon, Sl J«r<iiiw, v»d 0«Mk&iw ; vbib 
frm fca^odo t Bi of St. JLntoaj (iriiMo Ifao kelvor, bowover, 
rtiptfded m % pvnlj kgoDivr wtrvoa) vul 8L Hftcariv, i% ma, 
iiioMr»i UmA evon tiio tMMit npa bcrmitB vrcr» ■oowtuDOi rvady toi 
a afcBPirtodgi that tli» tfdhMj^ coaiwi of ChH«iiui t1Kq« night bo 
ft BOM ««QttU«ftt «a J tfaMi tboof cxm. 

Ift tto Apilogao to ttie IocIilto il vu poantcd ocl tbal |}]«r« 

ml mm ncauki wen uukIa on Ibo dlutnenfai vfaioh 
ik9 «4viHMlkxi of Um fbnrth contoij fkua I01&I datfrncUon, 
uid wfcicb nftj Jrtill b* fniilfiil in bloeauigi to macldnd. 


J&, Gcoryt Jokn Boaauet 



Ffidij. MftTob IS, I8»7. 

9ra WituAV Bowiiav, Ru-t LL D. F.H.a MAoagot ftail Vic«- 
FrtdJoQt in tiio Ch«ti< 

Oi:nititir Je^ttM "RoKAHt?, Eiu[, M.A. LL,D. P.E.S, Jlf.R.7, 
Arrva qaoltng «an<3rj ri>pro«outbtivif opiuioaa upon tho mbjoot, frona 

appl«T«ll tf) luDl UlO k*llillg fCAtUTEM of |L« lltHtinRtilJU AvboU DlUll 

ftnd women wrte nweitwd » cltuifles cir ^n moMr^ Thn infiirinrritj of 
tb4 fpinide TniDil wii£ dioplayml mwt oouApionoiulj in ft aamparfttivc 
obtffnM 0/ oriifinfUitjf, ovpiMikUy in Iho h^hor Mrolft of iukltwtual 
work, Ta Lor pn^Fft^« of ftr^rptiitition tiit? woin^Ti stood noftrvr to the 
man, ftUliongh itvcd ticre die was bobind LJni; for, u iii>or aa Uto 
fLgft of Liiloldiu^eiiao viLs r^Aoti^, ttit^ru wiui a groiitiar [luwcr of uiuwriu^ 
Imonrle^g^ on tho pari of tb« luilp. Am niLiiiift«l oxoi^uUnUi. liow«T«r, 
And ftlao ba wnt^rfl ijf tirtioti, oqiiitlity ivniM bo f-uHj fk««ortodp 

With n^gikid Ui Jud'jin/^ntt tlio f iiuaIc ruiml w^a upt tu taVo auporfi^ 
rtitl riowii, tn be nndulj biniKKl fmni tlio tUlo cif tho <}cnr>tiniiB, ani] in 
genend to dispbiy uompKntire w«Tikru*>c«, Ou tlio oxhttr hhn^ their 
groutor rdfUidiuonl of L<irvoHR l>^t^t1kilm(ioI1 Unl to tik^i^ d^jlioat) jKiWOri 
of eenatioiks pcrcf^ptfou nuiI MbpIJity uf tliougbt (tn the jJiirt <it vrornei), 

III Ibis i^ouuciiou Mr- H^^ju^nue^ ^nw tlir? rusults of niptirimiiiiU 
which he hibd dH'InoW on nipijlilji^if n-aiViMg, whcT'-hy it wut lihoirn 
tiint. ae n rnic, iv^ioion oonlit T«Aci much fafilftrthiLti me'o. I'lUtting ou 
to tho fm4>f»r>rt«, he rarnnrhod thnt in women thoso ^voro almi^t ftlwAys 
IriM itEidor control of tbo wiU thjLn 10 ntf^n. hoiug usimllj niiiro ToUtita 
nnii dinpliiyoj a gitmlcr (cudeuoj- tci (^hiLtipliums — the putty furtac of 
fttivutEuont which hGlimgt^d U\ n ^ihifny nr n Ar>i>1il, OHprio«, TiLQitv, 
frtuiJiiuAB of display, of ai^ciiil oxoit^moct, ho^ng all moro cbArooDrifltle 
of the ferainiEio thui of tlio iQiuculme tompomTiiotit, 

Ol tlm ulhor Iiaud, ilic meriUiriuun quulitii'H wheroiu the femolo 
mind Ht^ifl jire-emin* rjl rtuw HflM'tion^ Hympithy, dovotiim, tiwtiiGnty. 
lor jg-an florin g, reTcr«iicc. rcliji^oiis feeling, w\d in gonerfkl the 
gcnllor vhtueo as diatiugnifihod from tlio horoK', Thorcforo, whon a 
vroTtiAH poHormed an act of heri^Um, tho ptoiDptiug motives Wore 
ulmciRt Riire to bo of mi misuKish hiin]. Elouixi. aim*, it wiLb rt'oiuea 
wlif> tirtt ducked in nnmbm'sto t)io Ktiimliird of tUo Crifis, anil liocamo 
folloTors of the religithU which, by ohangiiig the whole ideal nf othic 
oeBigning tho bightal pLitoo to tbo gontlor nud domoatio 

* A mil n-porl nf the iliacDuna it nabliubnd In iXia *NlB«tfviilh Cra^rf* 
for Mnj laST. 

^1897.] «m Jfiflilitf Oijff^nuw htfte^tn JTr^ and Wt 


DttUiif iMtlj viUi I 
Ibfl to^ Ibt fan Umi 

ofoMn the oiwwctBr which bcJojiffod hj lutitfo tn wDnub, 

tbe wti', B[r. RonBuca obBorrtfd that thb iroA 

ta vnmaa than in m^a. W* tMnij toimA in 

U«Mitj«f pBrpoMMQilcJotnTttinalioih to overoamo 

Hud; owl when > woiuam mt nngnl to any prulou^l L'xumn? vf 
volitkva, th* pnompdng nftniw wu ^lUinUj ki borftiinct in thn funntli^Tiftl 
tHa of bar MtQiB. Uorvotor, «toii in lh« ]c<»or dispUyn of 
TDbtioiuil Aetintj reqnnd Ur doco roaidlax, vtudiou* thought, Ac?,, 
wvmB worv omll; IcM ftblo to coaociiLntlD Uicir ftttcntruu ; uid 
tlMTsfor* U)»j idJoni «i}i«cUbed tfacLr |iiiT«uiU u\ thv vih^nt nxnu) 
'nMtr ifidaeuioQ of obarxitiiir oiftiia lad to iimiditj ftnd 
im iilopring uij lino of oon^not vhor* ii^rum ai imporfauiov 
o ttPce rnrf , ibiu leaTuig Ih^aa in tba punful conJiticiii, m tbo^ 

Conlnit nvxt (r> th« numru r*f th.utfi riftnul i^ ifTm^Tiiv^R Ixiturwij Ilia 

iMd ffctenvncd Ibc tdmioAl «i]ponoritj of xnalt umriAtit in ^onorftl, 
ftOil villi it ll>o jMjci(>Ioi^c»l qailit(«0 i>f ooiih^l*, »clf-rdiiLnc«, dctor- 
miaaliaA, ft&d; m ibott^all i1)Am> oibqUI di&noh^n which bulou^^ 
loft esftvlovRkCivof bcdiljitmng^ ; whllo, convoTHly* nii<mlwni of 

CM> OT OVrowB vpoeiM loovft principles of •etootioo fnrthor fJiw rated 
irilk ft eoaK^ott* roferoDco to pd^elji^^iil ne mi^ll h« to ph^kicnl cndonr' 
■Mtt, tbm ftoting dirretljr » w^ll hk Indirfri'lly in M^vurlu^ tliti 
fff lihuluglail diOTOtew of wg. 

A^nAa* tho auilemd inatinoU uid tho prolouf-tyl anflooifttion of 
IbvBOllMr with icr eliililrcn in our oiru eitcciu» imj^tulfii to hci a 
of ODodooul life, ^o wtiolo iLudJlj or wlkicih woa dibtmutivuly 
ThvMt in ftowmlBiioe wjUi lh« bw of inberLlnnov im linifbvt 
bjl«(;v«oovldukdonBMid liowtbaM inflQenoo* bMun* in ffiKwoBflivo 
pWiilMiciiaiaUtJto; wHUm Uio fondnMsof littlo girli f^r dolln 
»• al^ nnle ut idt«rating ouonplo in psjchologj of the Uw of 
Uvitoee nl onrlior nrio^ of lifa 

TImi* rooMtnod Ml oat) <ktfa«r «n«ignAbU oauM of thit mental 
dUtiftOM in qiKAlion. Tbi« vaum ^tn8 «dito(»fMX. From tbc con- 
Ata of abjocl •UiT-rj lo whicli wi>inAQ vtm oonniKnod in the lowor 
Innb of hnnui vrotatina to hc^ ptmAilliin at Uh^ jiruwut ttmo.. her 
MiBtel adtaM hail bem wiltflj different from thrU i^f niftn- U wiua 
OdI «atO tlw enUdlo of lUo p«Miit oonlury tbat any AltAnipt vu any-* 
«te« Budo to prorido for tao higher oJvcntioo of w<llLu^n. But novr, 
whalfcay wo liked il or no^ tho wciman'ji raovoincnt w u|>uu ud, and 
aideaf<uirt>> guide thofiuod mtiUiu mmt iM^mfAciid channtiU. 
«)uuuwla ? Awaredlj not tbo«o which ran xlrai^ht 
rtirt all Iho imqUI diflbn&ooa botifoccn nxon and womon. No 
iBMOt of fooaalo odtoation «i>«1d otot mako oqnal thie mitnml 
fawfiHli^. mor waa il dnninlln tbnt it iihoiiM WotDnn wiui tho 

n&timl oomplfimant, not die nitiinl rivtl of nun ; uid the quAlituB 
of mind wherein he exoelfl wore not, m gtmeri», the most ezelted of 
hnmui &caltie& Here itrongth, whether of mind or of hodj, wb4 
not the highest criterion of nobilitj ; the tmeat gnndevr of hnoiMi 
Dfttnre wu rereftlod hy that nAtnie ■■ e whole, and here there oonld 
he no doubt thftt the feminine tjpe wm fnllj eqnAl to the mieonline. 
But while we migbt hope thit sooiml opinion might eror oontinne to 
oppose the womAD'a moToment in its moet extreme forme — or tboie 
forme which timed at aetting np an nnnatnral and therofore impoe* 
eible riralry in the atragglce of praotioal liJo — we mi^t ftleo hope 
thftt Bocial opinion would soon booome nnuumona in ite enoonnge- 
ment of the higher odocadon of women. 

The lecturer prooeeded to enmnerato tiio manj edtnnteges to 
which thie would teed, and to diepoae of argnmenta on fcbe other ndft. 

[a J- E.] 

1MT-] Lord Ba^ei^ m U« CU«i» </ Thm FltUes. 


FridAj, Hucli 35, 1^7. 

in Ihe Cbdr. 
Tho EiosT Hocf. LoftD fUrLiuv, U.A- D-CL. LL.D. F^.S, JAfi-L 

a, «^w« iom to woertftln tbo fwrnpodtlaa of Uio ll^bt 
frncs A pUto of gircu matoji^ nod tbUknoM vJicn tlio 
DBt light itt wbile; but it dooa iit>t« nud cium-ot kll Qfl, except 
verj n«i;UTi *1iaA lb* cvJtMirof llic tiiElttvf mk-L vi.^puiiittt>ii viiW 
bi. Fcff ihM putpOAO wo nuijit oUl to our m.\A thn Iboory of cf ^mpouiul 
^eahwMt >Bd ««cJi iaTettJAtiotu m u^iv moJe by IhxvciU upon tbo 
dtrcvsUc roktiuoa of tEa vpooUun foloont tb«EGieo]To& MaxvcU 
ivtaA iWl OQ Kawko't chromilao dJAiEiwa Iba corvo rvprMentatiTd 
ol iW ifvctnuB tftkrs vppriMtimAbdf tbA nmpln fbnn of two KliInN nf 
ft trim^la, of wbtfli Ibo ^ngnUr DoinU tvprcaonl % definilo roil, & 
MmI« gv««i. a»d tt dafiuito Tlo]«t Tbo Blatcmciit imgiJion Uut 
jA«v i« ft c«oap«'n&d oolmr, m mistutv of rcJ fttul ^rf>o]i. 

b fllMtnitiwn of Uiu Jkct, ftU cxpctiinciil wu ulicrwri in vhicL 
ft Wiftlfl jnllirV WttA proJlu.-eO bj tbiMhrbtiig ngniitji. An iTifn- 
ri« «f LtAWft BtMorbs lb« j«IJov ftnd onngi) nya; * thm byor df 
^cfcf uMfttft of potMh WOPfOi tbo bloo- CaJartboJoiijt opormlbn of 
ftMO eolo«ni mftUcn tbo fMctntm ]> tcdcccd to it^ t\^ tia-] gmn 
dmontasai imr bv pmTtid liy jirlMiiHtcu unaljiiii; Wt, if t1i4» pro- 
|onktti ttn nUftbiT ohcwn, Uio ooUiiir of Uio TDixvl light u joUow 
« 9M^ Wbon iLo tlit «! tho tUKwl iUT«sgamont i« nrptntM^ b^ a 
aaimlwly kffo ctrcabu- ftpcrlvro, tbc pmm throvrH iiixiu tbc sorcea 
to^tttcloft of red ftml grtica liehi» ivlucb pftttiftll/ ovciilnp. Wlioru 
Aft Bgifalft ftra ftepftrfttal. ibe red Mid green ftpixAr ; wboi! tliry aro 
i^£od, tbft tasnluut ooloor in joUov, 

Ob tbo bftu of MftXtf^'ft dfttft U i« pcndblo 1c ooloaUto tbo 
•iImii of Ibiii pUlo« wd b» ^xbibil tbc ronilti in tbo form of ft 
fvn vpott Kcraton'ii Ju^raiiu Tbft etirro ilorto ■! it dTllmla ^\\uU 
«n«H3fti4ing to AH luAnilfttjr caftll ibickiuWH nf thfr pltu^. Thia 
fftta li «N»ftwfaftt mftm tbo blno dde of wbitdL An tbo UiiokcioAt 
ttmMM tbo eono p—ca tovy dooo to vrbUo, ft Uttlo opoa tlio green 
■li^ II tbea ftfvfiraicbw lb» aiilo ^ tbe triftDg)*;, uidicfttiug & full 
•■m; ftftd 00 on. Ift ibia wftj Ibe ccdoiani uf tbo Tarioiib oHur« 
•f ll*vieiQ*» wftlo ftro fttbibitvd ftnd oijilaiitod. Tbct principal dlo- 

T«.XIL (No. Si.) a 

83 Lord Baylagk <m Ike CoUmn of Thh PlUea, [Harc^ 25, 

Qrapuicy between the cnrre and the desoriptioiui of prorioos obserren 
rel»teB to tho precodence of the mda of Die first and second orden. 
The latter has ubiuJI; been considered to be the BapeHor, while the 
diagram fiapporta the claim of the fotmer. The erplanatitai ia to be 
found in the inferior brightneee (as dietingniflhed from pmit;) of 
the red of the £rst order and itd coneoquent greater liability to anfibr 
by contamination with white lighL Soch white light, foreagu to the 
tme pbenemenon^ ia always preeent when the thin plate m a plate of 
air enclosed between gltss lenaee. To make the compariBOu fidrly, 
a Boap £lni moat be aaed^ or reconne may be had to the almcet 
identical aeries of colonrs prosented by moderately thin plates of 
doubly refracting cr^Btak when tATersed by polaiieed light. Under 
these circmnstances the red of the first order is seen to be equd of 
Buperior to that of the second order. 


Pro fia mor Ikw^r «« IA9U Of iM ^Maf^i'c Af^L 



riidAj, Apnl 1, 1S87. 

Sra PMmofi ABB^ C.B. D.CL. K.B.8. U4tap;i' uid V10&- 
Prmii^ml, ii^ thn nhair. 

PwmMOK Dkwak, M.A. F.1L& Jr.R.I 

li^lkl m an Jnttfjjfic Jjfvlif, 

ifUUrf bj mimmiiVEinn tbrongli nr irAfflJfjn from m^lUir; or on ihn 
■UMt httDd, bydiniilaiing ioaIIvt by Ibo ag«ncjrof hc*c ur aloettiezty 

Im fCQtSMi lodvoB I bavu givoa ftb Acccnul of ibo rctnlto of* 
■vicK of oxpoEiBKDbu iBidtftakoa ID cKJDccrt vilL 1D7 ODllaaguo Prof. 
Tihnmp, willi lb* ot^fact of nloeidfttiiig ocvtein obtonre ftpoctruMopifl 
ffcittoaawt uul I |*ofC4« thifl evntia^ lo titoDd Ibo reoord of our 

Not Long sinco DottLclot polilinlicii tho rcntlu of euinii} inTcvtigib- 
iMfitf Uienloof prapa^tkfiLof tlie tij^lnwiou of uilititrLVi of tnygeu 
v^fajdro^MMsd otiwr^uec Hofotmrt tUjiCfn fliniitiintof ^^Tygeo 
ml ^^Migtfl m tiio ffOfaifticmd ic vc-hich tboy ooour in iratvjr, Oio tx- 
|laMnprofn«sfid«]oaAA tsbo^t Uio nto of U^lImoticHiHrnoocnodi 
Ml fiv ton ibo velcNul; ol mowi miuvo foi hyijirop u |jtti-LiclM» cm 
db Jjii— »h Ikmry of gwra, »! 4 tnnporalim d ^mh\ 

Tim k B Totocliy vLicb, tiioo^ ivry fiu ilioH of iho velocity of 
tj^bt, betn * nUiu to it vbtcl oAittOt b« «bUoJ lUAuUA^bJu. It ii m 
M AbMit ttAvi part of >L H«ftM if lb« Mpletdon i»«r« sdftociog 
lowilt iJm e3c^ ibo ir»vo* of lifflt vouM pmootd ftoio s forieo of 
putfdv lit ap iu moocvion M Ihu >mtf- Tliiu n-ciuU bf? t^tavaknt 
l« ft ibortanhig of lb« vrati^lwigth of tho ligbt bvabont lo^'ooa r"'> 
•ftd is iba QMO of lb* jUJon Bodiurn liaie woud jvodooo a HlutI of 
4p liMi lomkrcli tbo cmtd Tofrftniiiblo nd» oT tbo *p«cbuia by « 
IhtoMM of ttbiBl rh ^ t^^ npauD IriiUrccb tbe tnci linL-a. U wiTiiId 
mmIn n toBtranMOit of vury bigfa dfiperBCTo powiit- aud clmrply 
MsmI Ubm to oiftlcv much ft diar&Donittnl ftpprMiftbU. Witii Un';* 
if liajxr WKVO-Ic&gtb than tbo jrcUow fiodiom Iinca, tbo dipplAcomcDl 
*mU bo DnportKUMlalj greater. Fortbor. if a tcoodrng oiplooion 
ttali ki obaufTad ainialluiMiaabr trilh an adw-udug t^ijiludoii, Uia 
itkdvD ftfciA of Ibo Una wcnld bo doablod, ona iinn^\ of tba Um 
i^wtd boiim tiifowB M cancb tonuda tho locu-rcfnui^bb cidA of 
Mi frvfor piMtion «a tho otbor ^du tbrown (uwarJa tbc moro* 
"rfJMigibW wakx Tba tau uungo] uf lLi- rv'l liuo 1^ Ltluutu wuuldiu 


Bn^cnor Dewar 

[April 1. 

ihli vTfty 1x1 flepnrftUd bj n lUiriMioe of ftboni ) of a nnk of AugstrAm'A 
■eaJo; ft ijimQltty {\ttlto ftppfooi&bl^, ibongh mvoh lam tEftQ tlio 
dbtauco bot^ccu ihe oompattanta of fr,* <^^^ o^MMit oqoftl to iho 
dulanoo of tLu outnpuin-iitv uf tlicr Iub rtifmiigibla of tbu jutr of Lms 
E. Wo lltou^^bl Uiuriif<irr tliiit ui^ luigljt. t<.«t Iboory hy eijrcriineat. 

A prdimicAry qncKlioo hmdj howowrr, to bo fttL»wei»J. Wlikt 
lino* ooidd bo noun la tbo flatili of iho oxploding c;iuueV Wc vuro 
prallj Mfftlun tbnt t]io Iijilroi^ciD Uuoo cuuM nut Lo iO0», bai tbil 
prob»bly no iiii|>lib i^cl eufIij;iuHt OaMt of Kuditiiu ouu^pHuii^* flmting 
m Ibo gut to nukc thu Hxltmn lines riHibln. A jirmliiiitnury [ibHurnt* 
tion ttot BUtdo on ibu EUwli of njixud b^droc^a Mid otygtff tn a 
CftT«ii4)fiL'» oudiOEUftter, vhivh Bbi>vtod not only tbo yollov aodiQai 
litjc*, bat ^lO onQgo and gTMm bond* of liiuo actd the indiffo line of 
loiuia M nry briglttly, a» wc4) ns otbur lint:* iu>t iJiniliftvd, Tbv 
flntb i« Tttry innUnbuiwine, bnt n^r^irtbettqa jirtvh)<.vH h Atn»ii^ fm< 
prafl<Uf>D (in tbo oyo; tnd bv fulmitling tbo lif^hi of a flunc into Ibo 
fpootrciKOpo fit tbo mrao timo on Uint of tbc tlusli, the idontity of tbo 
Lnw yraa csUbliahird. That lodiam aboaU make itwlf ac«n wu not 
AuqirUini;, Imt llmt tlii.^ H|H.>r!lriuu ^jf liiue Bhuitld lilnu bv fu brt^ht 
b»d not boon ftntici paled. At firKl wo tboripjbt thai eoma sjimy of thn 
walor over whiob tho (^oeou woro confined mtifit Lavo fotmd ifat wuj 
iuto tbo ondioiuutur; but tuibooqiicnt ubBarrutlciua Jud aa rvtbur to 
9Lip|ic)w tbut tlio litUD wiia durirf.'d £tvLU Llio glun uf llio ■MiLljitiiiijtcr- 
ThA linnVKppplmiij maic ite Bjipcnmnre wh&n (be piidiunititjTr vt^m 

Jtiito clcflu ftnd dry, ojid vrhon tbo giiee« bad boon etanding orer wttot 
rjr A long tinifi, 

Tu obtain tLo btgli didpontiou rc^oieitc, as nlrondf f^ypUinod, vo 
maib? uHn of iino ciT Buwb,nd'fi luiiiruiElueiit gintiugi^, with n ruktl 
stirfHOo of 8| bj ^1 inch^ nnd tbo lines 14^1^>i lo thti iiioh. Utia 
tvloBcofo fitted with n ooUiuiRtirig oye-piv^u Herritd b'jth iLg c^tlliiuAUir 
ftnd obHorviji^-t4doBOL>poi uid by t}^iA uimrm wu vuirn aUo to uso tbo 
ipootia of the liiird ftnd fourth Qrd<^r4 witlj gixni elTcct. 

ObHorvntitiaft wore niudo witb lliiA iiihtvuniciEil ciii ciplusiunA ic uu 
Iron tube ahown in cdclfun m Fig, 1, half an inrb in diAMif^i^^ fir.bil 
ftt Ibe end vvith « tbiok ^^Uait i^bLte fi), held on by a (iCi^ir^sp (<;) nnd 
made tiglit with If^dcn vra^hcra. Small latorol tabce [d, d), nt right 
Knylua tu thd main tubo, nxn; bmcml into it neat tbo two e&dtf* for 
tliu purpiino of cofihut^ting it witb Ibi^ atr-iiiinijit wlujUtiiig ttte camc^ 
ftnd firing Ibcm. ItVit- this laal purpnao a plfltinura v'iig (h) fufloij into 
glass was comcntod into tho ^ntdli tubo, no that on clootric Bpmk 
could be pnfidcd trcm Ujq wiro to tbo aido of the nmall tuU] wb?a tbo 
guws wuro lu bo GiploduJ. 

To bring out tho litbinm lincH, n Emnll qnnntity of lithium 
Mthonato in tino juwdor wu blown into tho tubo b^fora tho «Exp irith 
gtcuii pluto ma BUTDwod uu. I'uwdor wllb uat^d bucnuco WO siipp<r«cd 
ihftt U ntutot bv luuBo diiab wbicb nvuld bo ligbtud up by the tiXploMon- 
Tlio lUbiiini lino i^iuuu out bright onirn^h, uad it mui uixnotxvnhry to 
put ill flDj more litbiutn for luiy nonihor of oiploaioiu. Tho lube 


Ml Li^ 41 an Amdptit Jgeat. 


of ootme ^nik wti ftflor Uic flrvt cxpkwion from iLe waCor^ 
bill tVi lilhiiuu lioui wuru nuiui tliu 1»« Htritiu:. IuiIm^^ 
tfaa tabo had bMu wj Uioronghly v^«]i(ti1 out, tW litM^ia 
eoottBBed to be liiiblo ml each OEpLocioc, Ibcuffh leu Lri^cEitly 
mi fini* A potA dool of ccattiBODUi ipootfiim nDooQ^panica ih« 
vhidufirou tba otnh^j-iiig of njwvtrA i>f diHutuul ot^kn^ iuakr?ft 
cbHratlinQi dilHctiU, hi ft vrnyin tit TCid glaM vim uiu<l Ui cut thin rjlf 
Um lithisoi r«4 litM wrh uad^r obMtfVfttioQ. In aay cpoo, 
«lMa obiortvtioQ of tto floitbOB is vorj tryiug, from tbo 
wiUi vtuc^ ll]« illimuaitiou >cp«arB. mud iho urwAnoM of 
0. Ai fint wo oMiiiiATvil titn lilltiiuu liiio ^nvtni I17 tho 
uf Lhe fri^todtcg gUMi vttli iKut jin^lu^ri) hy iho rinrno of a 
null BVMiKi bunMT ui whlcli a bt«>l of futkni lithtiuu <<BThoT>BU! vu 
Uld. both beififf im th« ftold at nn<.yv WUiU iJio tluii'i-lin^i uaa 
^Mfplj dcdaod, uw flMh'-lmo b»Jib(liiri.'n>n((^aTAct«r. budnojinlvFftva 
liiniB nt Ibo cdgtB ; to Uut it »«» wi f cwdEilu in tiiii wity Ur Hub^ 
•iuMlftItt III* KiliiDt^ 'lilfi^rfiice of vivc-lcbglli iD(tk«kU>d by tht^irr, 
Ibon^ tlw fi<ib-Uaa c^rUia) j AMfaod a iilUo tiio mor* rofraagibld 

W«lb«n (rwl tekitig tbg cxplDiikin iu a iabo bent round ao »a t<> 
Im itAiuuttl spon itaalf, ibe Uto pvlA of tliu lulxi br^mg ]iiirhl1d La 
~ odier, and tho gttti oadatida fc^ ^^dt> (FJg. 2/ Tbo aiin of tha 













<AUttiuti>r (T) w»ff oaJc to ei>inoido with Ih^l of one Lmb of lliu tuLe^ 
n Ibit tbe m§h in iLai luab wan ucu ilin;ctl; ; uud by huiuln uf two 
FiAiilUH^ pruGitit fr,r) iLo light fri^m (Ikt (itb<T lirnb wil< throwTi into 

^ itil, »d Um two &nUlM W«4^ «NM) #imQl|jU)4Vrl]hl/ i>lti> 4kb»T<' t>ll> 

Aw. At Ibo itM wwljiiatod team ttno end <if tho tuV, tlj>^ fli^iih 
vw ••an fi>ooding in ono limb, appri^ochbig ia tbo otbor, no that tbo 
AnbeVftonl of ibo two ]ia4.-H nuuld bt> clinibliil. l^till nv vfi^ru 
■Dm* to Mlb«ttllU«l0 Ktf f«LaiTO ditpla'^'imcnt rif tlio Imm nn 
ml of Iboit bnadtb t^id dUhiK cliaraclcr, B^ wiudiiiic out tbo 
Umi bnttdlb of ikt Licra w^i comdorablj ic<Iiioc<l, Vut Ibcj 
diflWoe st tbo<idgui» kdJ bafilol hjjr uWrvatiuti HufQciuuLlf 
wimrii to otfUibliflli • dUpkMfQOQt- Certainly thnrc nppou<i^ to bo 






ft Tory lili^ht ^ittptaefrm^iit, but it mi sot io dofiiLitfl tlimt o«o oooH 

bo van of tt- 

Ita. In ibo flrit plun. ouo of tAtt^ twi> imiigM of Ui^ tkhiam Una 
idmut alwajv wu rsTentd — that iii»Mhoir«i a dark Ifno ilovn t^o 
Etti<JtUc. This vu ibe lrii» given b/ tbo Bub upproiLohinjt the slH. 
Tbo roooditij: l3iwh in the otbcr liiu1> of tJic tote pltv »« liriMd b 
brij^lit liao^ btLt [l Imd uo dafk liao in iti midillc:. Tkui uUiarvifclioii 
WM CTUwIo a ^mtmiinjr tiia»ii; luul Uiobotuf Ib^ iDTCtml «itAhl)iibe«t 
la^flpeaduutly in tb« mm of ■ocas otber oi«taJ]£o litici bj mout« i>f 
pholiogniibe. TboMnmmAlfi ahnv ihnt in Ibn wato of «»»Ia«KHitlLe 
toCDptntuTO of thfi gMM doc« not roiicli iU tatuininxn a11 bI oaooi 
but tho fruui iif tho wdvo i» coi^^lcr ibftu bho pari wbich foOiiim uid 
AlttoriM *iiit](s of iiH rH' «lilk tfco mr of the wavoJocs not 
friTN^uo^ tbi> Efimo odb^C, One t^oul^ ciuppods that lliim onut bo 
cooler litKtaiQ Tapour in the raiu- of tlic iraTo an trcll m in ita froni; 
but it iH pomiblc that tbu abeorptioa produced bj it cxiciid* OTCr tlio 
vliulu nidtb i>r Uiv liiiu, ujjd liut <ju].v <tY4ir > uiuruvt fllriji iu llje m iiSitlfr 
For wo cWrrnd tint ft-hep n lilElo l[tlihiin oftrbonjit* wM frruhLy jiol 
ialo ibc t'lbo, the red lino wnu «ci mucli c^pttmii^d aa to fill thii wholo 
£tlii of TR-iT^that is to MV, it iT(u wjuc t«ii oi tMTolre tiium a« tridc 
M tlm diatnncv Iwl^reoii ino two v<:IIov liijoe of #i^iiuu : but bj 
waKbiu^ oni t)tft tiibn with wnttr (tlinl in, \ty militi^ing thn ijoflntiij 
of btliitim prownt in the tubir), Ih^^ lino could 1h> r^lui^cd m tridtb 
imtii it VM DO wiiti^r tljftu cin(i't<jiiU) <rf tho tli^Unt^o bvl^tcvn tbc two 
sodiQcn linc^' Tl'i^t noojim to pravo that tbo broftdlli of tb«k lioo ia 
diivi:Cljr dcfvudoitt an Uic Mnouot uf tithiutu mMoL 

v. FievtfS hiA, in n n.«<«it piilih'caliun (' Bnllrtiiis do rAcftdfniU 
ronJd d« Bo1fflqi3di *), coDcJu^nrl, fft>m obwrvntiorid on HMtinsi, that th4 
widooinft "f ^^1^ li"<* ^Q eolflly duo to Qlovation of totnpumtorcL Tbc 
fiflflh of iho cxj^lodiug go^ca canaat bo raJBf^ in lerapc^fttnro hy iho 

firuH.'Eu.'H of B luiLutu 4.|iiaulit;^ mure ut n lithium cijiiijiouiid ; m llmt 
r> <^Tir rruvi tTi<^ wiilt^aiog cnnnot 1>n uHnribcd tci nnytbfn^ bnt Iho 
innrcft40 in tha quantity of lilhiDm privtnt^ or Ut tome conso^iifiice 
of that iucrcAHo, it is uol improLnMo Itji^ Iho Amouat of litbium 
vnporisod In tic fmut (^ tlie nave of viplofiioci ii* li«e tliou iu tho 
fufli'wini;; \a:% ihiid hi:iLcu tJtc nbwrjiti^it'tiuo \» not »ci ivido at tbe 
brtjc'^t liiiu buhitid it. nbile in t)ic roikr of tlio v\t*s tli« ftbiuirptioTi 
(alJ>QJa oyvi tLo wbclo \ficUh {>f tbo Uigbt band, and ao tii not lo 
crfi-„h iiitirul. Only twice amongst nmnj olxcrvattona was tmy 

IE.-' : ' L-] :'f tb<l lltllilllll li]]G £«CU 111 tllQ TCCcJillg ^ftT^ of PKpWJuU. 

(ill ubrtcTvIfig Um flJk^ with a Hpcvlroi»cu]rii of eiiuitl diApr-rKlon 
in«ti4ul vt tbftt AviUi i\u' )^Lin^, tbo oonliuuoiTa spootmn) wa* T«iy 
brij^bti tittt tho incitaUio liiiciu httiotl out atiU brichl^r ; tut on]j the 
rod liDc of litbiuni, hit tho oranf^'c, tbo grDcn, nuj tlio blue Unoaworv 
rarv bright, nud cnutinuf^d vo uhuti tho tJruHHur^ uf tho {Suioh buforo 
«r|aoit^ihri vriLH mtunitd from im<^ *ilrniisjifji>ro ti^ om^thim ut un at- 

llioflj>b«f 0' Tbo vioUt Hop WAV not «con, but it ta^y hvrtt t>Mn SO 





«■■ XAfit ai an JiiAf^ J^ckf. 


■HKb expukded w to U l<i«l b lb« oouimuwiH mctrain; tar k 
■bowTvl tb m ^bako^^pk »IUrvAff4i tUcoDL OthcT unM «w«i how- 
#v>r, MM) — IW mliiun jfUov lioM, tixo cttJoinn indigo lino, a j^ronp 
of «tWr Uq» LiiHaM, 4dJ a group of given Jiufs, ftinoiigat ttJuti 
«»o Um wm CMUpiewiiUi luid tliifl liii«« W ojuipkrifiuu willi lliu 
Botv iff clni M, ffwi BoutiaHl nith R. W» liml iu>l oiiHti^UM] to 
•rut BBj likMoftran. ■liroBUHLitaccinpcfniidfl gtvn do Lioos in tLo 
fluiMi of • BsnMn ba m w, Mni vr« pappMctl llwt it wouU only lio 
voIiAOubI >i a maoh UfW kmpontvo, Bot lL« sppc&in&cc cf E 
nggcaled Hint Ulicr of iktt fpota uad blue Hum luiiflil U} lUnj lo 
trail ; mo wc ^rooeeded to cnapAra Uio pod^onfl of lfa«si Imcji witli 
ttoi» flf Uio oloetHo ap«rk fcolwooii imaclootriMUo. For tin* [mrpoco 
«D0 of t^ Ff«r|r-tiiio« vw Anl brocjrbt cimiKtUj od lo tlw) poialcr, 
<v croM «rm«, id tko ^e>fioc« of tLc iyht^vinz tdOKOpo. ui<l tboo, 
Ifa^jaaBfe uf Uid v^nk btntig Mnppod, Ihc fiiuh uf tlic i^ipl'^ing 
p«M WW obwrred. It wm nr4 'lifRcntt lo tee nlicdbur tihy lino m« 

cm tha Mittt«ri *^ th^obMTTBticffl OOUl^ t>V T«|K«t>NL ■« umliy tiinoti 

IB WIS «wnd wiUiMtl Biijr abifl of the &ppiLrftlD». ft'ino tjf tU^ jnott 
CHH|iiciiai» mm ukd /dltumb-gro^a liuc* in tliu HiLih wuro thas 
UiDlUfid viA liAe* ol iron. For tlii? I^n*? hiiil Tir^lrrl wv mli^ikk^l llio 
plKi^o^raphlo nM4koJ >« oindi teas tijJn^ to th« ojMf^lit Ktgiit lo 
pptlTO tbihiK wcro tokcci in «uooCMitoii vHtboul cuiy Aliift of tljo 
*Tf^*T 00 M to aoountuliite iLctr oflcetAon Ibo plotogmpljia pInUw 
B^l ftwrfim wero fu«iiil OTiuu^b IG i^neral to pnxltU-'u u )^u(J(l iin* 
fpnukm. ft&il ij>jTO tlifti* twntvo o^tilil i}«l w&l! \>n lalfrii uitlioril 
tonim^ out tLo vaWt vbioli AconianUUiiI in Ibo liibo, uid oLkamug 
Iko l^M vhidi «kood lU cud. Jiftei lie fljiiboa luul been takon, 
M wilboot ■biftins ^ pbotognpbio |jUlr, tJic idil of tbo vpootro- 
inps w«i Mftl^ mirr^l, mad iLe elMlrio Bi^rk Ix^tWMO Irciii |vujite 
fMad (n frimt of tbo filil. Wo htrl tbua nn tho piftlo tbo pbotogifiiA 
of Hioflaidi M woU ii« of tbo tfiurli. FaorUcn BcraroltiKa in tho la- 
viokA were tbiui >Jc«iti6eJ i*tlb iron hn^ ; and ou cxioiJing 
jnpLs iitId iLo ullzm-TiLtlBt, uid tiutiBtiltiliuj^ i|iuuiA Ivuiitiii 
^iKimM m Ibn jfIbot oaua bithorto unvI, n niiob Urfjrr nnntlHT i^f 
■4«fiti£0d. Tbcro oontd bo no dovbt, iLob, tlmt vc had 
ben WMU In tbe flub* We KipfioMxt tW it niufit bu dcrircJ from 
4nil fit oix&do duLon hy tbo osptoauu off lLv miIuo uf tbu ttiUr, thud 
wo ha4 tba laibe bora] out ole^n ftnd bri^ibt liho » guo-burcl. TbLn 
mda no dhnJDHttpon in tbo brigbUKu or unmbcr of tbo lioeo ; nud no 
•Baa ta Ibe eoDclWkoa tbat tfajt cxpk«ioii duU^beil narlitrlfMt nt iroQ. 
froo Iba taobv. uid con^artod ibon into vftpoor* Tbia vu confinoodj 
ttnllftf tbala bovaror eanfnllj tbc tube.' bad bcjon olcanod* tb«i 
alwayvbamma olonilDd nritb % rxmty diiptivit nfit-r ton aB< 
«bo«. A3tOQottor (9 Bno* of irco bftw U^'ii KkotiJlod ia 
of vrbkb amrt M lio in tbo nJm-Tblot bctwoon U and (X 
«na broo Una abovo hma botn ioflniulj i4onti£od, imi Ihbt in 
«el^ a iVw photo^ttpluL It iit T. 

Aa Irofi gftTft 90 manj U&o« in Ibo flub it iam^ rou'i'tiiblA lo »u|i* 


lPntfit»» I>0iMr 


Ibil moF4 ?«liitn« nii>U]e wi^olil ^ivo th«ir lEfi«a 166. Lf&Ia^i 
tiiin iboot oopptT, kubi, cftiliuiuia, tnic^ ulnmiciani. nikrl t^n v«T* 
iiTtJy i>ut tnUi tho tuljo. oitil tJtciJr clTc^t^tii on Uic fimdi obM^rrctL 
j^T ^VD cii« MtroTig liTRi ill tliv gnwii (wBVivk'iigtIi SltM'O]. bat 
otbor tine ta Ibe vUitiU ^nrt of tbo spMtruci, lu tbe olU^vif^et 
D DtTODK luacs botWMft Q ond R oaioo out i& tbo phot>jinpb«, fro< 
qncntly wi r«tcTNoJ lioofi. Some rjf iKo photo^Kpba vhinrod olai} 
dutDuLhmg Kit U)u iJiiuUhI WqJh in tbu blao vhrch pju ittiriLwd io tlio 
r^ixMoof onp|)«ri The gr«nt liu'jof cioppi.'T Wl bwn olimrvftil In ilio 
|'£(Lsli bflfor^ th« copper liiiiiiu wil» pnt ttilo tlia lDb«; aai v6 con- 
lodod Uint the oap^>or wna dcrtTCtl fWiu tbo brui iHtb wbiob ihc 
iwH Ijikml tubtd VTvj<i rvtcEioil iuti> th« birge tube, or tbftt tbo irun 
of tbo tube oonUihiHl n littb' t>ip|ivr Wbfri tbir l^iikii lEriri^ wha 
■ucd^ oulj 6a« Tlidb!« Vimt t>t l^ul u'n« il4trt^bj}tr>il, laiH Ibnt nftii tbn 
iStroiif^ violet liuot but two iihro-vtolvit Unca bi^lwooa M &ni N v\^ti> 
fltnrogl^ dopiQiod on thn [il[otiijiia]ib!c jilitcA, Tbc riolct Uno of 
Iwd luul &lFLt tuiii uLntirvtJ iu lUAuy of ihv j^liu^igrupUit ukeii bdfurv 
tbfi buulnn lining wlu fTarmlno^'V HiU nfi nnrHlwl ti> th^ Ut^Ion 
M'Vibbtc aacd to rcknk^i thu i^latta or qaaL-t» plntoA Avr'ti^hL Tbc luto 
iTjifl prottlly incrcoicd in hItpcij^ by %ho ItiwlcQ lining. Tbo citio 
liiiiii;; ^iLV<] uu tiHiblc line at all, aolwiibiitoutliiig Lbv uu> vulutilitj 
of tbii uictiLl : uml iu i1j« iiUi-H-vittlc^t it ptto utiljr a vi^ry ilinUrnl 
itnpr^Fti^D ar oatt of tho linon near P. TbA Cftdmimn, nlmiuuiuni, 
lUL^ till lmii](;ti gavo no linen at olL Zmc dtuit put into tbo tobo 
gHTo no jcinc litiM, mcxtily incjenpcd itc cdjlitkO^jnB 6p«tritto, and 

A rinnn Tim cif mft^oBiiim put into tho tnha gnve ibo h gmnp nf 
lineWi bat no other lino. Ha traco of tbo bloc Lii;o, w ccuuplotioufl in 
tbc Bhdo of barning mngnouum. not of the triplote neor L and 6* 
liOT of Uio vur7 Bitn^d; Iliil\ tlio strongust of &U iu tlie tire. At imfi^ 
lengtb 26fi^. £j auj] A, w^ire well Jirmrk ; but as ^, Tn ah irurr line, ha 
v«0 UB a magn^itEn lino, nnd tbo ircn lino vrnd vitiblo in tho Hush 
before tbc ma^nLi^Eum viiro was inUiKluocd, wc caonot bo fliiro wbctboT 
tho mbgut'dium line. » vvU ti3 tb<^ irou liuc, ivua pro>cii1 iu tbc flAabi 
Hagnoi^iii dill iie>1 di;vt<li)jj nuy liito ut ftll ; i[i<^ niigniQiib^d Lbs 
ecfflilinuoiie apRc^mm. 

UuDipuundi cjI' Hodium. inch Ab tlio oorbonato ftii<l cbloirido, Intfo* 
doood in [luvrikir guvo tbu ultrn-Tiotct Lmo bi't^Tt«ll 1' uid Q vLtdd^j, 
fbvquciitly n^vui^iHl -. bul nu tjt1i(;r]itiu v:ioo]rt ufcuuiflcBi Pbtntfaium 
piiip|Kmnd* ibvik*(ir£l, oftiTij mviTiMvl, ibn imir nf violet lincA, And aXna 
tbo ultra 'TiuJut puir uonr O, but aa othnrit 

A Htriji ot i^iIvLT dovutvpoJ Ino iiltrtt-viok-L IjdMi ono oi) oitbcr 
ftiilo otV; tut vro codbl Tiob delect in tbo iWii Llio wull-kuvwri ip'Ora 
liuuB of tbnt metal. IVbvu |X)wd«r ut hilvor ujijiIilLit wiim liitniiluccd, 
tljo ji<l]-ji4tBk-green IJnu (vrA. 5464) vnn k^^ii nt tbc 6rHt oiploMiai] 
but nut Aftonruda As ajkot- okaUIo in itdolf ah txplunvo oompomid, 
dooompoBtug ^(h »n 07olation of boAt, it a r&K/imiiahh to a^onoo tho 
»ppainukoo nf ihiE liito ot tbo ia^ oipIuBJun tu tbu t^tnt (oiupcfftkluro 
K> aig«ndur«d. 





M» L>Vi< <w on Jjw/yftc J^^ 

SUips of oupp«r. vt«ciru^iilvil vriLL nickel, brouglit otit almmt 
aU iIi« aO^ng nTekvl Uimi In tha nIt»-TlaUi b«C«e«ii K aaj Q ; 2^ 
VMtt plMHoifnpbfti. Wbcc Kdckul ocolfttc vrA« pat in «■) iw tu giro 4 
fovdcr ctf iDrtiUie nieiol *ftor tho £tBt cxplotiion, tbo muiu liuua 
vfm d«Telvp«J, «ad tkre^ »iUIUoiial Uccb iu ilic ijUm^TioUL Oul/ 

OAft Ba» matt mtok fai tW rUbln |>«rt cif lh« 4|mutr ^ ux] iZiut w«4 

Ite mOowM^^Mft lino («X MT6X 

Ooffer wins dcctropwod viUi <«ba1t goic in tho Hash 3^ linos 
Id |Jm> Tiolot u»i Dltrm-TiGloli bolw(«a] uid P ; no Uco bcjrraul 
ifctMv lunil»- CoiMt otttl»lu iQiro jn) moru. 

No ottx«r dMaI 0»a AAjtling Hhc h; mnnj lincji ra irnn, nick«l, 
Awl ooWU : Bftd it it nrambLlu tl^U Atiiic«t nil tiio Hum of thcAo 
ttcteb lUrvcldpod in Uw flaah Li* in Ike houo rtipt^n botirtxin G aud P, 

W« aip«cM iW iUfi^'K&«»t tronld liAto i-itvij fvivj^J liLita in 
As Attiii ^ bit tt mu not ibl Niiit?ii^r mrtiUir muipiii «!>*>. ikcir na/ 
«( AefVffil Cdnnmnub wbictL vro tritd, gvrc ub nny Imu of ttinC motol 
M««pt lb« fMni triplotr &ii4 thai vu eMunlly giTon b; LUo ii«n 
Uib« aloov, and wm mcttil.f fltri>«ger f«r Ao mwigftnoAei pub id. Tko 
gnm AWDiJliiigi chu>ct(vii>tic of mocniLoso, ftml nM;rtk>C(l lo llti> 
osid<^ TOtSi^ bowDVDT. Well Mm uHto mct^lio mncpnneico vnui lunrl. 

dwwuiiin. inlTodoccd na btcbmcnto of AmiDouiHf which of o 4>unio 
btoHM ohniiaiiun tAiiu *t tlio Ami dA«l), ki^vo ttin^o tripli<1fl iu Uio 
griiB. tbc tDdigOfe Aud llio nliiik-Tiolol qv«j K nMjji>ciivo]r> bat uo 

BiMnntli. actiiuob^, vnX ir««Tiii^ ^vo no llnei, net iliJ raoranrj 

^^^^Bii ftBOilgBCM fproa otct iucJi » piMo of cnppflr, bat t^tth u<^ 
^^HB nwltg, uxcopt ill tic uuw of tlialLium, vrbi^h ^vu IIhi gci;uu 
^■fiia iMMisljr, ibfl Htroaig liiiu boiWDen L fujj M.^tirl Mri> ILMt-HlKritv-tvn 
s aoA Op 

On IIm vhoJo il dotm not oppcor tih&t tho fonn in which tho niciil 
ii mtrodnood into tho tubo oiftkoA mucU diflcroncc. The muKfrt 
tfViA 1^ tlic«e wkidi ^ru liiitv wvri^ auilicif ut. tit^iumllT M/htm & 
mini li«4 b^ii pni ihU> (I90 tnho, ite lini^a iV'TillnitNl Ij^i «1i^tw afti^r 
lh*<lrjpor liuin;: h*d boaa modovmI- Thuc, iLft<<r lh< nich<i] 0tn[ia 
U bc^ InkMi oQt« vii tbo iubp cUoQcJ out an complokly an it 
IB«U be ■mbioioiUj, tlrti niclu) liiioa still camii out m tiio tlueli, 
and llw van «na Uie omu with r>UnT lilvIjJh. 

TIm itrM^Mt tHtt of tbo vmcT-flpcotrani^ from t I0 noftf R, 
■■vnll; inprMM it«df moro or low 00 the photoor&pluo plAto; 
M^ whli the cxooptiom of T. wlikL waA 00); doT^IopM onoo or 
Ivkiw su Uni« nuiEe Uieir afpokriaoo in the rugtou niurv rvfnuipUo 

Tkm Uf Ui« oxperimonto hbd b*on mudo with tho t^iuo* %i th* 
ilMMfceno fRMnn, or oeorij iOi b«fot« igmttoc. Tbc proportioai 
«ll9Wn0nu>d oxjrgtin ir«fe »nr1^ tw to l>uo; lut noMoeuof 
p« to tJM UOMit ofono-flfth dill not Keniiihly utTf^ot ibn miulti. 

Olbif lotiktoiivo iaittun« vero tried. CArboric oudo with 

90 Prefe99(fr DtKar [April 1, 

oTjgoD, Aod Dunh-gas with oirgeo, dereloped in gmenl the nine 
linofl as the hydrogen mirtiire, bnt gare a mtich brighter contumoOB 
spdctmxTL Sulphnretted hjrdrogen, Kreemnrctted hjdtogon, vA 
mntiiaomiirett^ hydrogen, exploded with oiygeiit kIbo gave TCtj 
bright continaoiiB spectra, bat uo linoe KttdbnUble to Eolphiir, 
arsenic, or ULtimony. 

Wc have also tried explosiona at higher pTGeanree ; miitnraa of 
hydrogen, earbonic oxide, and marsh-gas respectiTely, with oxygen, 
were compressed into tbe tabe by a condenaing ayringa ontji tiifl 
prefiSDre reached i^a and a half atmospheres, and in some caaee three 
and a half almoepbercs. The gEncral effect of increasing the prasaon 
was to Btrcnglhcti very mach the conlinuoOB spectmm, and also to 
intensify the bright lines, bo that photographs conld be takeu with a 
smaller nomher of erplosions. The linea prerionsly obaerred to be 
reversed were more strongly reversed, bnt no new linoe which we can 
attribnto to the metals employed were noticed. No iron lino more 
refrangible than T shotted itself in the photographs. Bat a banded 
spectmm, of which traces had been noticed in the fiash of the gaaoc 
at lower pressure, came ont decidedly. This apoctmm ooonpiea the 
region between P and R ; it is not a regnlarly channelled apectennif 
though probably nnder higher dispersion it woaid resolre itaelf into 
gronps of lines like the water-spcctrnm. In fact it seems to ns most 
probable that it ia a development of the water apeotnini, dependent 
on the press ore. 

It seems very remarkable that metals so littlo volatile aa iron, 
nickel, and cobalt should develop so many linee* in the flash, while 
more volatile metals shotv few or no lines. We do not know that 
any lines attribnled to tho metals, as distinct from their componndB, 
which have been observed in the gas-flame cannot bo seen also in the 
flash of the exploding gases, nnlesa they be the bine lines of ono 
which Lecoq do Boistttudran has seen faintly in tho gas-flame when 
sine chloride was introdnced. The«e are, however, so &int in the 
flame, that they might easily escape notice in the mnch stronger 
continuons spectrum of tho flash. But iron, nickel, and cobalt show 
no lines of those metals in a gas-flame. Alitscherlich (^ Ann. de Phys. 
u. Chcm.' Bd. 121, St. 3), by mixing vapour of ferric chloride with ^e 
hydrogen burnt in an oiyhydrogen-jet, obtained a nember of the lines 
of iron. These form three groups — one bolow D, one near E, and 
one near G. The last two gron|» hare a general oorrospondenoe 
with the lines developed in the explosions in the visible part of the 
spectmm; bnt exact identification is not possible with his ^un. 
Of other metals he seems also to ha^e found the same Lines in the 
Dxjhydrogcn-jet which wo havo seen in tho eiploeions, bnt with 
additional lines in several cases. Thus he found three zinc and as 
many cadmiam lines, two of mercnry, four of copper, and so on. 

Gouy ('Comptes Rendos/ Ixxxiv. 1^77, p. 232) has observed in 

' For rietall^ Hit of thew lines Ke ^ Proc. Hoy. Soc.' vol. xiivi, pp. ^73-5- 

0» L*^ Mcn JUedptie Ag^tA. 


boMT et«M) OODo of » EtodiAed Diuisui bomor M witli tma iriUc<l 
k ^nkjoliriM-fldti^lbnrgPQaii ]tno« nf iroa wbdeh wn dkl not flod 
Ik lh» flAAh. He nv two of tlia bliio Eiaoc but uot tiw cthev liiMi 
vUob vrc liATv DotiuocL la liko mftBo^ «itL cobalt, bo obsMtod two 
ImU« bLiM nja wUcb w« did cot •*« ia titc cxj-WIoha ; tJ«o one nao. 
CMS iiliiiiBiii, ftiid nma nLm tian ubicb wc did iKit >oc ; and Ikb did 
aol noi&M Ibo greoa «o|ipep tiflo «^hfifrh ivu »Iis«jb Itftw »otti fo tiie 
■. ii otter oiw« Im bM ootioftd ibo rand linoa ifaai w» 

Cctniaria^ tbtt optotnui of th« eiploeiona wilh tbftt ol iron wire 
In • Jel of ooal-gM fbd Willi oijrgea, tbuy ma/ tw ratlkil 
W» &nd Ui Uian gonorallj tho Bfun« hnaa nd Xha «Anin 
nlitlTt itMDfllit ttf ibo lino*. Kor taitaaoo, in tto oxplonon- 
yjetM Iko Btra^tk of tiio eroupt of lines on cithor aide of H oud 
Ibn Ubq at Wfttv-Icngib SSJfip-S Is d(x;iJi>dljr ^lat^i tu» voiupttod 
with tho otjuir llnM tbui it in In th# an?-fip<rtruni of irnn. It lA tfifl 
'"■at of irtJtt tttmil n« tboira montiOEMd. T, bowoTor^ oom«ft 
iCioagljr in iLu lut-mcDtioood ipootrum tli&& ia tbo «x> 

Ova»i>4QTvr wim bnnit in lb* C(a1-x»* u>^l oi^Efnn jet |{4vn tlio 
ttOMBklce) Rod ccfp^vr Mmm on trcm dcvdopiHl in Ibe rxtilmiioTw. 
tMlfor wvo gaT» ia tt>« auDO jot tbo tvo «ilvvr lin«e iimt ^, but do 
oImmmIM oMclnnL Sptftj of ccWIt oib^Hdc Rato d«> ibo «&ino 
Bmb m b tb« c^lonoDOk wiUi % fov oddiiioiuLl; vbile «pmy of 
■■■IpMaM dilorids gnm Ua utroiig muiguioMa triplet at wavu-Uoi^ 
ft(a«t SSOO^ MOM r«A«a^bl# Uitik imjtliiDg obMnwl In tbe eiplo- 
^OM* botiJ— ti)0 QBQftl TioJ«4 triplet. 

iLo vbido tbo vpoctn prodticc^ by tho joi of ooal'^aa nnd 
UB vorjr uiuiUr l:> tbow uf tliu coqjlMiciiia ■» fikr u tho 
Ulitf go : Ihtsf oihibtt ■ fow niiire luieiv oj- fit hmj bo tlitwo 
I «mUj obwtrvod. 
Of lliv IC'*c>^ *»d blao line* of bon •mq bf qq in txploftimu nmo 
H* ruiitiwt'l by W>tU m ooonrricg in tbo Aotao cf a liL-aw:inur con- 
islir; or ot lunt iLo luioo Iw givM «» mi oou LbjkL n« uajiuot 
4i^ iMr idontity. 

WImb vo oono to Buko a oooof^mAon with t^o ipcfltnim of tho 
^itflCHUMhlige from o vcJutiun «f Utao cLlohdc, iLo ^lidL^rvn^uo 
uurlud' Koi ucdy an> Iburo ruauy iuvm* litioo iu ibo 
n« bat tbtfi ml&^v* iiitmuilUm r»f iIliuui \Um^a wbii^li am 
to both «fork and cKr>kisioii arv very diffurcul, 04u1 twtt uf 
tinoa wcoo iit tJio otfi|vwioii« ap^viMir ti> b4i abofint fr^>m tbo 
Tbfi diSonDOoo bctw«civ tlio »pco<inua vi Uju i^[jatU Ul^f^n 
o li<|uid cloctPodo u>d tlMt giTon liy xilld ii1o<TtnHlt« lina unDaUy 
hMB oUntetod to Uio lowr lampcmtitro of thu former ; but ib« 
tiMBoo from tho forvor iMOtmn of ibo huu »t wDTo-longtb il3% 
■iJ ihc ftjtilifPtM rf ilrn Uoo at w&T0-l<4]jE:il^ ^U^butb itroo^ liocfl 
4 lii> arc and ict IIhi oxplovooo, m vrcU m iu tUc apuk tctwc^i; 
to indkstfl tbat tbo ElifTcrciivt)! uf H|Hkrk-B]MH2ln4 




[April i; 

«N QOt filmplT <liio to ^iffor(iD««A of tuapfimttiM. In het v» koow » 
liltlo uttout tho iDcohji&UiD, co to irfoA, nf iha chutge^ of filecM) 
cucrg; julo Lcftt, oitid oT lieftt inlo ndiiUua. tliuL tbtro U n» good 
rmKou f'lr UKnmioff thai lh« eoierg; vhldi t4ik'« ihn funii uf ndifttion 
1q ibe «tr>ctTio dkciiArgn tlirongli n gwi mnal finf tak« the fono <if 
tbo taoliob of tnuwUtioD of tho partition on vhich t«in|kciTatur» 
dcpciLtlii. Tho gias maj, for b nbcrt titno, bo latoitsDlT Imniuoiu tl k 
wry lunt k'm|ienittii'u ; Lbiitl if Lbu iiiipulHB mhit^Ii giro Haid tu Iho 
Tilirttorj TU'Wi3T0«nu cf thn pnili^'JDi (n^ i^f tliffi'T^T^t o)LAra<Tb*n, tho 
etuuttot^ of tha vitiro-tiobA Dla<> luaj differ within Diitain lau-iEa. 

Lf^aving, hi3iToTcr, tbo tcotiDB of vpoonluticiii, wo may monliotL 
tliot ^1^ hATo boTorv i>b»4MT0<l tto «poolrum tt£ iruu &! & loJup«nUura 
intorTDHliJihi bt<t«cciL tltat of tho oi;hjJtrogoo-J«t uiil tliat uf lli« 

Some timo einco (*J'fO(-v IE- S/ xiiiv. |>. IHI, uiul *I*to*?. Camb, 
PhiJ. Soc/ iv- p. 2CC) ivo (Uvorjbt^d tho diiix^trimi pniuiKKling from Uio 
iuC«riur erf ti uLtl.ii.4J tiibu BLn.>iJ]j;lj huktid I'j IIjc- 4;li>:Lrtu urc plAvin^ 
on l\\n oniflitln. Thin appplnini ii.pprr«chni hutto Uimrly tii thftl of lh» 
RFO i&s.Dtnnoh ac it Kho\fd nil, or BtnioMt aU^ U10 ipoo liiu« giv^n by 
bhft »r<] bctn«<ii F nbd U, &ud Uio ftlumiuifim wix botirocn U uid K ; 
but it r0NMjjbUi4 ibo cx|>lc)«kiL-epoctra[u ii: Ujc itJntivo btnmgtb of 
Bcnuo of Ihu iit>it liu^, uufl ia tho ubK^ico cf nlinovt nil iroD Hum 
betweco O ond T. Th& ir^ju Ihioe «ccn i^vdrood i.g&ibsl tholiot wtUj 
of the o^rboii'tubo uorrc«|)<^»<l i^ith th<f filrAi)g««l <*f the (TZi>]oflion* 
liB*a ; tho 0truit|£ ULtca near M and a littlo b«low L in tJjc oXfilcWooa 
boing ll)Oiio n^ost bLiitagly rcvcnscJ in the photognifha of thu cmhuu- 
tii^KT. Tho graktf^r coinjilt'tent<sa hiiJ pxt4tTit uf the iron Kpuctmrn, «J 
woll as tlio proM^n^ of ihe nluminiitia liiio#» Ttbiirb am ujtu^y 
iiuituig iu tho ll3Ipl4l^i(ln-l;fJCct^L]ro, indLcoto thiit thi) t^mi^orahiro of 
tho Cubo waa bigbci' thnii that of IU« oxplodoQ. Thivl iron, uickcl, 
ftijd iiohnh nru virbiLiJc' iu Hoiiiu degree nl the teEUKfaturu of tbo 
iTipLjAimii AjijhtArA trt hn pravfti, nnd makefi the ftppnftrAUOft of iron 
liufiH ai Uki v^ry Apic«» of BoUr promiuoucea, oa ol>sorvoil tiy Vouo^ 
Ui^f^ nfltoundiTig than it UDomad to bo at ^reX eight- Tho oHOotidi&g 
ciirrcut of giifi miLklu^ lliu [rruniiiiDQco niAjr vctj noil ciLTry iftm 
Tapour nilli it; i>r ^^o niH^ tuit imr^iHBiiiJAbly mipprtifi that iJicre ia 
Si(it«urio dnst (^ontaiiiing iron cTiiry«lioto in the oiitor ntniaanhpre of 
lh<L Guu, wTiit^li boaL>iii<iH volatiliiKJiiT i^ud cmitE the rodiatioa oWarrndi 
nLui it ifi boulcd op bj the liot UMrt\itit of tin? pn>iiiincucc, AVhftt 
tlie lutnpdrnlujti of bum a cum ut iii»y bu ivt; ulliuiuC wl-11 i:augL\ bat 
It u lii^i enough to RiTci tbn bjiUogcni-spcclnita, of whji^h uri traofl 
has bbcn ob^eTT^ in thatinth of the tiiploviona or iu tbo tycy-hydnigoiL- 
jcti Tbo tomiK'tnturu tf thu c^ipluviouv wc kiir.>vr with tok^rablo 
ftconnhoyi at lcji»t nhon tho ^avcs nre nt fitcuoaphcric prvHuiu to ^ 
bagin with- Hunsou ('FhiL Mil|^.' IBCT, p. 491^ found tin? jirMhj^uro 
of thA Plpb^Hion tvns fnr hydr4>g>3rk RTid oiyg^n 9'A Atmocphi^roitj 
nnd for uii['bi>uio uviifo uilI utygon L(J-3 ixtiQOtL|>bi>r«is luid bo 
calculated tho (jorrc^jKtixdiug tcmpcnhliircfi Uj bo 'iMi" utid £t03$^ 




Bmdw, leniL 1684. |k &4S) pnt th« prOBsor* of «cploBion of 
kttd lijdioecsi ftt 9^i4 fttiaaipbofTa, ud of OArbodiio oxid« iii4 
■I 10-t.aad tiMoonvawuflbg ksip«ntum SStir* ud 3834^. 
dilaiiiilM4 bj thetvo uWrrnn Jign» domlj, ftod Lha 
ttt pw tnim ftra hac vorj dioavdonC. On thi> wb^jlo^ wt- 
b« *^]2^8^ Aannu&g Uio tciaporatnro td tbo exploding ffOMS' 
l» b« ftfaont 8000°; lodl ««««« Uib* at ibia ^logrm vcoh tnotftls aa u\:>q, 
&>ckd* aul ooUt m nponns, uid emit mfi&y cliaract«rj>»tlc rays, 
od that bf fkr tlto gmlmt p^ nf tl^oHn nfn li<< In-Iwik^i imrrnvr 
UAJta of rofno^btlitj, Q and P. Etch fcir utlii.«r irn-uU tliuro is k 
pfifjomhuani of nj» ia tii6 ttmo mtI uf Uio apovtruia. Tlio tinoa 
pO^Mn«n,aiQd naaagvwM, Uirce i^itl of four line* of Uuklliuni, 
of ihom: of obronuuni. otsaorvcil in thu vxjrloedoiw, inlt 
lb* vune ro^loCL It ma«l ni>l bo iiifvrr4«il tlmi 1Iji.^» fitrti 
tba lisiii (S llw nto i>f oidllihtirH) vhioli cnn Ui sot up in 
•eaMMttCttCo of HI otcTfttioa of limjpfitntnn) k^ 30(0^, bc«aufc vc know 
tkat U»> vpoetevn of ibo liraoliuhl cikuil^ mucli further. JJut it 
migbl bo poouUtf hi ««UbJtih» Burl of tmulfiwcupic hou-Io uf k'iii|H.^ni> 
tftb* liana «hiehn>««nooa«4«vl7dovoU>podo« tho tcDipomnro 
«am MPcfmllj no^od. Tbtw tbo apfM!«rsn«o of Uio irou liiio T 
lo vjnobpooiio with tcmpcrvturc of about ItOOO' '. '£hv litbiom 
Uao hmo m intinblo iu tho flAmo of ui urJiDury Buuwn t>uiiMrp but 
I fi Jdit TixDiln M tbd tMEipftmtnrn of tl>n Iiuwrr frmrn citnn fonnrd bjr 
^^aMOif Ibo |vopoTtion of (|a4 tA ftir in cncU » bnmor* while in tho 
^^^^^Ufangns (bo gT«<ii lino loo iii ooon. Jt ooonm to ticod n IvEOp^^ni- 
^HHRbofO VHXT to ftti ibo fthutsinium linco at H. Probably iii> lui» 
^^E^vpir ■bnpdy broDi^ht out at a iMrUt:^LUr t4ini]irretiin> — it will 
^^d«>7« bo padnJlj dcmlapeil na tibo t^mporiitupc rima; ret tho 
dowiDfUBOnl Toaj b* npid onongh to giro an indioation wfiich may 
bo wlWI fan dofiuilt of uoftDfl of looro oiaot taDa«nranoat. Ia former 
|BpartU«atiD« of «poctro«eopic proUconfl (' rroo,Ik7.8i>o.'ToLmiT, 
pt }S6t tmd uU, p- I39J wo Iuto mora than ontw odtcrtnt to tlio 
Bownly of tbo iludj c^ tno metm bolb or flames and of ih*> lOeMHo 

Bfp» oniStr modtflod oonitilConfl ot prtoanrtu Tbt> pT»Jnc<t«d ox- 
IBta on tbo arc in li>no-<TUciblGn bate nol yet bccu curried out ; 
Itfiopnt it a fitat imtaliocat of a atody of ilaiuu-vpccitn ucdei 

04 Qei^eral JtfbnlUjr MeeUmg. [April 4, 


AIoi:id«L7, April 4, 1887, 

His Gbacb Thb Dues or NoEXHuiucBLAjrD, K.Gi D.CX, LL.D> 
Presidont, in the Ohikir. 

The Mau^era reported. That at their Meeting on the 7th of 
H&rch laat the following letter from Dr. TjndoU to the Honoiuj 

Secretary was read : — 

BrvD Hkad^ Hiimi— . 

Tbe j«u'h holiday ao gncioaalj aDd oorvidtratelj eranted me hj thn 
MBDOgcrs will rome to ad end ncit month ; aaU It tbcrofore hehovei me to itats 
wilhonC further delay, for the mformMtioa of tho Maoiiger^ how mattert ituid 
witU me. 

A brief ooDvenation with mj friend Sir Frederick Pollork, and m; own m- 
flections thcrrupon, have oortTinoeii me that, instead of moldjip a MatccoMit 
mjaelf at tho Board Mwting on Houdaj, it will be more expedient to embodj 
whut I have to buj in a letter to you. 

For more than oue-lhird of a ccntarj it hns b«u my piiTllego to enjoy the 
unfailing BTmpath^ nod eijcouragvment of the Mflna^m and Memben f4 tba 
Royal Inatitulioti. it ut now m^ dutjr to retom to their hands the Inut wbiob 
they finL coniDiilted tu me in the apting uf 1853. I have come to thii x«cilatkin 
oil account of tho need I feel of thnron^h rest, and of freedom from eagngeiiiaiit^ 
as to lecturing, tbe non-fnlfltmoiit of whieh would be detiimeotal to ua ImtitB- 
tiop> and a caa« of Bore dialrcsa to myself, 

iVorti^fl connected with building, and otha worxiH inimiiMl to qnivtnda of 
brain, have for the lui fewyeaiB troubled ms much. Theae are now, for tho mott 
port, iliinra of the pa<t, bo that tho freedom X seek will, 1 doubt not, lOOD feiton 
ma to ^^ood hesiltb. 

I returned from Bwitzcrland in October w refreshed and InT^orated that I 
boped to be able to cope Aoc^nefnlly with all tho dutiea then bc^re me. Ihwl 
flBBUred myoclf of the ftiendly aid of Air. Crookee, and bad eT^'n amnged to go to 
Paris to UEit^huBc unie inHtrumcnttt neceuajy for my eontemplatad work. Ttt 
tbo end of the year my health continued etiong. Then came a long-oantiriaad 
apell of nithcria^ easterly wimle, whieh nbilled me, dried me up, and bnmgbt on 
au attack of sleepleflsntsd, intcnso while ft lastodT but which, huppily, has in great 
part disappeared with its cauise. 

Of my ultimate and completo recovery I enlortain little doubt, fitill it would 
be abviDusIy uafair to the Membera, aa it wouM be intolerable to myself, to allovr 
tlie fortunei of our great Institution to depend in any degree upon auoh capricei 
ofboailb. It ia therefore my denim to maks room for a fluecesaor wboio yean 
and figom will place him beyoDd oU changes and cbanoee of this kind. 

Of tbe feehnifs called fnrtb by my soparation from tlie Royal luatitution I hara 
said nothing. But tho Maiitigera will uoUeretund that my silence in thia reo- 
pect ia due, not to the absence nf aueh fi'olio^, but only to the oonviction thatm 
the preaout ooisaaion the Iea» i^aid about them the better, 
BeUoTO me, 

Uout faithfully youtB, 

Joan Ttndall. 



cat tho 31al of Hkreli tbr falkivring RnAiliitionA vnr« vto^itorl :-— 

qjniir* cJ U«ir ^M|» iTgict Utot IIm «Uic of Ur. '1 judnll'i lj«iUti Kliauid 
' ^ T^ - : r'*' 'jT " ' 

to of hm (niJtlon uf Profiwr of Kktnnl 
ndoapfaj at tbn BajtmI Erutliunon, ftki UimE It ibvilil Iihw ocmipalJod th4 
ll«iM|.tfi» to unri|il Ihal Wiif^Ulni* *a»l i^iidm nl 11k» «An» lini* In *«<nTH Iba 
uinviia ofUolrbuiiv thai ttio r^tii/ tlitm r^l/ioiiHil Frmij llm nrrlivjiu duilv r>r 
tW Pri fr— mhif «iH omdiiett to hu "p^^l^ ^^4 Vfld i^lrjA rrrmncrt, 

•"TIk 1g aiW4HH il» (tw M^ iii Qiiit tkorv stjould bu nH«rti<.loI tb# oKptcwIOQ at 
<wto ikattmfit f f >tFt*tion (Wthp imrvraitliniE Hnil ni'^l t^liAhlo vniH« vlilnh 
dukic tba Im^ ftftod of Uirt j-Anr jrMn Dr.iymJiLlI hrv rpnJorvd M iho Uoyki 
~ ~ bo iDttmjteS «■! iho dallotof his vOw— ««vlm atk^b auloul; Imr* 
«ciJ Ibv* »JffiDMd ll» mkHoD «f tbe lE«7iJ UbttDtkoi, bui har* 

"■Til* lUu^dn bftthtg uearttTwd irilhMit douM tTiil PT*iraaar Tju'IkII 

<f bU ipiliii to dm Boral IiiBUtuiito, buu llail iii (iirUiii: fRUJi \iU liiiiji o^il- 
ttivfioa «kb il l>« dWevB enlr la ciurr vilb liiu Lli4 rtbaUlr n»:^Ji,e(bu and 

AwplgBit ■ Ttot Hm gaMiqaa td Jidatrrctcd n/nal to wojrpl asT*cka«w* 
IvIniBlW* pMiuiUrj DUor* urnii Um ocevina of hw ivIirprEMit AHuot fail 
t» MMM» ft* l»lbgB Of n^vl "*1 r«*p>«^ trIiLPit miut b* «btortAin»il hr 
Tiiifcaaw Tiaihlli d< MjhBi WT w mik'ti fJ M« fif" In t\,p Imfnrrnm mrftfchot 
vUAhBMMMivvBMaMbjrliimincliclnlontDiLuof tLuLiBLiutlDa.and for 
tt*MlT<«7if lMv«lD4|0Mtlcffta!« i-L iu tbcifriro vMvh hb iLtric >c>mikDh to 
Ito WJWlMli fvaovo AiLd to tncnue Ita prDfp«rib-- Th« Uuuugui^ 
^ulwUto bflftiW>»Mfc«ftWd c1i?iiiiuUti««« of Df. rTHd^Jra rvpuil to 

ttok of • pvtwiuBl ehwtrj ibimld tv kucu bi (Im i^imkni wli-rlMiaRl uf Ibg 
fPMtnMfoT Prvfraaor l^ndftir* l«ib«iu* ■■>« abr4it to ksm, uid Ib4 MaoNfciv 
Ifwilkal il iMfl |i i i > ■■ ^ i im H i to him Mllirill bs bannnmUIti t^ ih<i lD«titU' 
4ta, tf bia ■naVI fetodlt oam^j allh a MUtI wlitob \htr naotun^vad iliouU 
W MBila C« Mbw Id ait fov bb bort eta lurldi*). ui hv plMtd Ltt Ihi bouieorUu* 
loMMCkn in ptrpttOAl tKBMorj tf bk rvlBt:nna Hhb 11, lud (be &«! ol ubit^b 
j>rill ka^afrAjH b7 a Tcto fram Ih* jsnttntl fiatb of iLo Imliiiilivn, «iid ia 
■4*r ItavAar to paf yi t Bito and baovnr Iba nitmc of rVi>r' -^^r Tj itiUU lu ocn- 
«M ft« iMnnttoo, th» MaiMffirrt rMifVanHnul Ikui one of tlie f.«iirh« cf 
I daUTctcd aniiiMllj In tka lurttUiUtai »linl] Ic cailad U]i> TyiuUll 

'That tha flannmry HwrvUiiy. kii inrcinuing Vr^ TyndjJl of Ibo 

TW lUiMfscm fvrtlicr rvportcd, Tbnl nt tUoir Mc«tm^ hold Ihia 
il^ Uw fullunioi; Iflltcrr wan toad : 

Dbfl fea rmanrni Ht4s*tu» 'I**^" 'f'*<^ ^^ ''P^ ix^- 

t ba*a haital ia tny ivplj In toot L«ltAr nf Vloifch ^Hnl, iJindigIt «taHr- 

» lli« lift. W callniELto life. 

AaJ Bif n^ilr luuil DvwWiMiif; far t btfdlfdan Iniil [Dpolftodv^ u|mi 
tta *BflattiMn' abUb foa lu^w cunnj*! ic nd, 
tf ■! lib fM«L Iba lto>«l 
M«i W iba MMkn. Mi 
ttaMju Ibb nam » vodi ta aaMMofaij uonb. wi^LHitKU unmikDa fnc. 
JMi M IM *U (W Mbia Ubwn of atrfa u>d v»t«w 

TjJMtt ilk ivjutLiJxifiu witb 
Ia*lUinJ4ii, Piid WLib Ihp n«Hl at 
llilii hlint«oBi Unitrii-v, thin Ummr nf 

vAftfcwviik vb'di I ffiro to 

96 Q^nertU MotUKtf UMiu^. [April i, 

youTttdr, and in vliich Ihe gixxlvUl of tKe Hmniffen Uku corponto loan, U in 

[wrTect hanuan; with tho apirit which It enshTine*- 

Or ttjo M&iiQgcn eiintent when I jomed the lattitnticm, fme oDlf ranahu 
npon ihe present Bnard. Tike beneficent work of m&nj of theat i> for tnn 
vnikd : bat £ do not forget the ByraiAthj and Bopport which thef Bitaded to 
me during ttieir 1ive§. And now tho Imr Una of kindnette* Gulminaifli in 
words and dr'eda Ao considerate and appnviativa— so reprtfleutatiTQ of their oricfn 
in true p^mtkuiKiihood. and warmth of Itwrt. That the; have alEonct auocMOed 
ia coTi¥trtiTig inln happlDeaii the Badueas of mj farenell. 

AVifh IkeartfoJt prayers for the long-eoiitinued honoDf and pro^eillj dT Um 
InstitutioD which I have served aa 1oiig> and lored ao well. 

Believe mc, dear Sir Frederick, 

Uoet faithfultj Toar^ 

JoH* Tmuii^ 

The Hanagen fmihet reported That it iraa Reeolred, "TTttt 
having regard to the distingniahed Bervicds rendered to ihe Boyal 
luBlitutioD by Dr. TjndaU^ he bo recommended to the Membeia for 
oloction OS Honorary Profcesor of Natoial Philoeophy." 

It waa then moved, and 

Eeaolved, ananimoosly, " That Dr. Tfndoll be nrvjinatcd fbr electfoQ at the 

next Gt-neral Munthly Ueeting on Maadajt Ma; 9th, aa Ilonoraj? Profe«or of 
Katoial Philoflopby/' 

Arthur Gamgeo, M.D. F.Rg, 

Edward Bagnall Poulfcon, Esq, M^, F-GA P.ZA 

Mies Francos Harriet Whitehead, 

wore elected Mombera of tho Boyal Inetitntiou. 

The Right Hon. Lord Eayleigh. MA. D.C.L. F^S. M^,L tns 
nominated for election aa Profesaor of Natnral Philoaophj at the next 
General Monthly Meeting on May 9. 

Tho following Arrangements for the LecttuM after Eoater were 
atmoancod : — 

Joiw JToTTSiSBoy. Esq. M,A. D.ecH F.R8. B-ft M.InstO,E. JfJU*.— Poor 

LcctnraH on Ei-tcmTciTT ; on Tuesdays, April 19, 26^ Blfty 3, 10. 

Victor Hohst^et, Esq, F.B.8. B.S- F.B.C.S— Three Lectnfea on To 
MooEHH Phtsioloot OF TEE BaMtf Ajnt ITS Belatioh to thb HDn>: on 
Tuesdays, May 17, 2*, 31. 

TiTE Bet. J. P. MAKAirt, D.V. Prefeasor of Ancient Hiitorf in tha 
University of Dublin-^Thiee Lectures on Tile Heli^nidi of Albxaittiib'i 
EuPinE : 1-cctiiro I. on TueB<lay, June 7, Mackihihia aht> Greeiiib ; Lectnre II. 
on Thursday, Jnno D, KotfT; Lecture IIL on Balurday, Jane 11, fivaiA. 

Phofkbsob I>ewab, M.A. F.E.9. Fullfrian Profenor of ChemUtryT 
R.L— Peven Lectures on Tns CnEMiffrnToF tub Obgamjo Wokld ; onThnrtdayft 
April 21, as, Miiy 5» 12, lf>, 26, June 2. 

11. TOM LfcNDENFELD, E«). Pb,D, — Thteo Lectures on BeccNT Scientifto 
BEPEAncnFfl IN Ai'STitALiHiA i ou Saturdays. April, 23, 30, May 7- 

Jmis IV- II,\i,Kr4, K#|- M.A, — Four Lcctarcs on Vhttorjas Litebattre; on 
Saiardnya, May 11, 21,2t<, Juno 1. 

OmtoI McfUUf Jfttfin^. 


liU^ uiil Uie Uiuilui uf iLe MiimUirB roturood for the mne^ tix. ;^ 

ObOb^mI ttwtvy «« IWU. Bwyr>l>,VoLlX.P*rt'l. >ti>, t»7, 
MfdW^ PUMCnbikifB In^ln EW. XII VaI. IV, EVrllE: S-r, Xlfl, I'aH K 
rtaA& 4to. ISM. 
ffW 2Am X $m \m d Gomnwvf^SUlMlM of tho 0>l'3iiy of New ZooTfiaJ, IflS:^. 

ftiL imt. 

PUMJUMJ$J«te-.pftHodlDnXc^l2l. Sftv l«AO. 
i^^fnftAl^ JBmI MnXh|ygMipw,Vc>LyLVU- Wo-i, $wo. lt$7* 
r#a4«»*B«*Ma IfcMdla. Oot l»Kft In <.lot MlMk Hm, 

JtittdkiV»n.^TJU^OMAh«MdrAtt.alonlU>S. )^at3, Ui^l fuL ISM. 

0*^eo««'BtiaUrr4iit4dEocik» Cj J, P. Dlniohirdt 4lo. ISM. 
BlMM iDdM «riUd«m Woikt added to ILd Libnur in 18W S. Jlf O. K. 

fVWan* nf BaskB In lbs OtllArlv in IhA K«kilfnc K^iom, ^-vt. }Pm, 
HfdAllx niwlf*aB« «/ ttw HbkTT «f Oiwl flriUiii au.I Imli^ii'l. Dy R 

fi^lirii of ladlM Cm. I. MabunaBdAH SUttM. S. BulUn* cf DvliLi. 

fliiUiiOi ftf fifrrlf f^lm unta «iMUtor«a IiUmliL 0m IS^. 
(k^^ flflawWatf Agfclr-rroeoedtPa^ Yd, VL r*rt L B^o. 1SA7. 

Tiiiiwiliini." ! Tfr" PiiT tl-k IWT. 
r-ifrT'-^r^'l ■ - ' '-"-- '^ "^ Bta 
tkMMt Otvfft jr. /:^ iJ^- (f?^ Au&^-CorUin Boriag* in tUnilolA. 

CTnM. Itnv. SsA nf Ouhln.J 410. It«7. 
A«7 AMMtf i< 0M4«*DuUeUuk t' Sobs Doaii^nM Ann^ t- TrlnuvLn^ 

■■« WT, 
frf frfg Atrrfartn T-r — \^^ ^^ Ko. S. Stt. Ift^. 

AMljtf far HuA 1*97. tn 
Alh^B ftir Mmb IBST. 4ttL 

V9Tift)rU»cbim. 4la^ 

bvMMEifen- U. 
f^biirtiMi fill Ifitnfc lim M 
Bftortoriwinil fiT Marrh irm Sm. 
MMJw fee Ifarc4 1897, M. 
bi« fct lUnti 1W7. 4«ft 

KtfMlirlluAlM?. 4fai 

l«w If^niinnnn ftw Mmcli 1*^. 4«0h 

BvDUir »«*« bf UMca 1887. 4lDb 

TiteHUc Jc«Bi] p-i Mncb tear. »t«. 

iMfUbt Ice H«eb 1887, 4bi. 

9B Qena-al Monthly MwH^g^ [Apnl 4, 

Florena, BiblicUta NviifxnaU Cfn/nff— BoUetino^ Num. 37< 28, 29. Sm 1887. 
Catologo d«i Codlcl PaUtinL Yot. t. 7uc 1-^ Stol 1885-7. 
C&tAlogo del CodioL FaDciatiobiani. VoL L Fate. 1- Sto. 18ST. 
QioniAli TolitJci. 8to. JHtiS-G. 
Franklin Jfl#(»(yffl— Journal* No. 735. 8to. 1S87. 

Frf:thjit{d, Edvnn, Etq. LLD. V.P.8.A. M,R.I. (tAd Juaor)— Ditooam on Bocaa 
UnpublLnhcd Kooorda of Ui« Gitj of txnuloo. [DeliFeifld at the Roy^l loati- 
lutJoD.] Ito. 1S87. 
Ge6U>gical iMtiiuUf Impwial^ Vivnivi — AbhandluQgL'Q, Bond XIL Ncn. ]i2,3. 
ToL 18S6. 
J^rbuDli, Band XXXYI. HoFt 2, 3. Sto. 1886. 
Verhandluii^eD, Noa. 6-12. Sto. 1886. 
f?«orff'i^L iffaJe ^oui'enibi— Atti, Quorta 8eHe. Vol. IX. Dup. 4. Bto. 1886. 
Hodd^.n, Rev. R. if.— Aivount of tbc Old Regi>((«n of St Botolpb, BiaUopsffrnte. 

By Rep. A. W. C, HaJkn. I2mo. 188^ 
JJarffin, ^^'cff^* SoI^m'atH det ^nfti«i^Aruhive« NeerJuidftlBO, Tome XXL 

LW-2,3. 8T0. lft8t:-7. 
Iron anri BUtl rTi#ii7uJ«— JourDttl, 1886, No. 2. 8to. 
JapQ-n, Tmptrial Univtrtity o^— Memoiis uf the LEtentare College, No- 1- 8to^ 

Johna llopkiiit l^ntivnrtVu— American Journal of Pbilology, Va. 2S. Sto. 1886, 
lAverifOol Literary and Scientijic Society — Procecflinge, Vote. XXXIX. Xl^ 

Sto. 1884^ 
Manchetter Geologieal Bodrly—Tnamct'ionB, Vol. XTX, Pirt 5. Svo. 1887. 
Meteorologioitl <JJI«— Quarterlj Wealb*jr Roport, 1878, Part 2. 4to. 1887. 

Monllify Weather Report For Septembyr 1886. 4to. 1887. 

WvoklyWeatlier Report. Vol. lILNo. 51; Vol, IV. Noa. 1-6. 4io. 1886-7. 

Report of McloorologicflJ Connt'll. R.S. to 31at March, 1886. 8to- 1887. 

Report of tho latemational Heleorological Oommittefl. 3rd Meeting (1885). 
8to, 1887. 
Met&iTiAogical Society, Jfoyn^— Qoartcrlj Journal, No. 61. 8to, 1887. 

UctonrolttBical Rcuord, No, 23. Sto. 1S87, 
Mid^aex Bofpilai-^Ecporia for 1885. Svo. 1887. 
OdaiOologicat hocift^ cf Grtai Srieaiq— TiansutioM. Vol XIX, Nob. 4, 5. New 

Berjea. Sto. 1887. 
FharmaceuUcdt Society o/ Qreat Britain — JoutdoJ. M»Tch 1887. 8to- 
Fhoffxr^phic Sodefy—JonTnal, New Beriea, Vol. XI. Nob. 5, 6, Sto, 18S7. 
FreusMitehe Akad^is dtr TFtiHiueAa/fflt— SiUungaborichto XL-LUL 8to- 

Boyal Sodvty of tomJon— Prooeedinga, Noa. 25J, 252. Sto. 1887. 

Bandftaaoj David, Eiq. (the Author}— Frognoa of Technical EdncAtion, witii 

apccial reftri'nro to the Glasgow WeaTing Colleffe. Sto. 1886. 
Baron StxieUf of Beievieet, Ao^oE— Hatheinatisch-phpiMhe Clflue: BerMitor 

1886. gnp. Sto. 
Soeifty o/ -4rf*— Journal, MaTch 1887. Sto. 
Ttlegrapli Engitteert, Society oZ—Jonmal, No- 64. Sto. 1887. 
United Stitta Geologietd 5i*n*y— llullotans. No*. 30-33. Sto. 1886. 
F^niru lur Beflhderuitg del QsweH^fieiMta in Pnm t»fln^— YwhflndlnngaPt l8STi 

Heft 2. 4(o. 
IFiU^Ur. if. CDi«dor>—BepertoriuinrurMeleorologlo,Biip. 2,3,4, 4to. 1887, 
Yorkshira Art^ttvlogiaal and Tapogmphiwl Aatociation—JouiiuiL Put XXXYIL 

&TO. 18S7. 

Mblw n«H«>a 

^] 9t Fndtvit^ AM em tkM Work ^/ tkr fmfurUI Tn^ina*. 99 


rri'Uj. AprU 33, 1887. 

ILR.I1. Tbb Pm»ci «f WiL**, K,a rR.& 
T1o^Patn>D, in the CIibEt. 

Sw PmwmwM AittuCB. D.aL- F.R.R. VRf 

C«kini^ ai>^ ln4jAa CiliiUlion, i^Llcfa owM nol <inlj Jto oon- 
ion, bat tUo iu licilliiMill/ nKsoowfcl ndiMtion la yoor B^jsl 
Ri|^iEMfli, will b* |ve-«iiniMaLtj rcvufablo ixt tonsil t« Gooiia, fgr, 
bATmg Mbwrnd dmujt rvivlte of vilttl inpoatutoo ui^j bigbo«t boooifcj 
to U«r miMy'* ealrji-vU iii ftll ixirl^ of H«r Tfte« Rmlm*. 

Tlw cvUbeUia <i( all UiAt i« C('UN]ctviri1|3 vftlmtilL- aiitl Bcioulifi- 
taSkf iBiaMAHiiff <if tbi.' noiiinl ptcdncU at tho (piAt TuJUn KiTi|nni 
*Ad of til* Coli>(i;«t ia QUO ^xhiUiioiw tftobrwiog m it i^lu diil ivrj 
crtnpuliairifo iUiutntaofi* of Uio ilvvdlvpoioiit at MtminvFoct of Uift 
■its«Dl of o«tWn £»dutrie«r {& tlio tauty <xiiuilrin bryvcil fbo vou 
■fclili «CinUcm witb tho TTntt/^ Ktnftdom li> CK'Hstiiiitn nn Empfm 
MWMMoiUkiii iqsHcmilot in txtcul, ^OWdcd tbow at )]deq« an 
f^aclwaiq'^ ««TpA«fliag M pnriavM evuooptic^t. of slailjiDLr and 
fomMJuc ihe wtmsl bi«toty mini »«o«^»ft of thocie dUtnnt ln^lii, 
of wlikK Attoclud iLooj^ wcini^fljt 1>c imlirttlruUJj to<inoor tm^rv [»f 
lb*oi bjr tUA iif friandihip or of i*i|oniiit, tbo knoulodgo of many of 
■« ttttA of A rerv T«4P« or putinl eliftnctvr. 

To tbfl CftkukiMi «vbo Tisikd «« tut jtv, iljo Kxlubition b*i 
httm of tmtHamM^ nlu* la tSurdiu^ Uiuia & uwhl firuurililc] ut;il 
ftpfmfrUI* ttpfortnakf i^ bconiaittg aoiiimiiUvI or ivn»iwirig tht-if 
oU fri«iiditljttp vitb th* Mother Ooiutrj, ftod of cxominixi^^ llio i>m- 
pw thrro »*d4 iu tndnMnftJ. odonlionol* and comcoorciol il^wolop- 
MMit « in U^Ung (o Ilia cultitiUJi^ii i-f tnUmiicjr Iratwcsou CoIduUU 
tnm lUibfftBit MOtiooA of iLo Qjooiih DtKuhLii^itt; »ulI Efi nfTonling 
tlimi*«ttloAbI*D|fnvtiiEiitiaftof Gompftnng the iVBtiDrccn utiiI itatsof 
4«TiUfB0ftt of their lOfpectiTo oonntrivfl niib Ibow of otbor porU 
•f Bflgnf n 24o hk^v cvuriAciiig illuiilntitjtji tbfta vrero ^roTiikd Ij 
Ifabi S***^ lUliibitiuo cijulil Imvv bveu ixriiUeiTtHt \^if tlie LUijxrrtauuci, 
lo Alt Bo** Oonntry, taraeh CoUiiiy, aad t>^ tnrlia, of fdt^rfn^ En. 
ttnal* rtlitVTthrf iirl MUiAy of MrtioiL No iaor« encouraging jJMiof 
ooqU Smto boon ASnrdod «f th« dmu-o of all eI&mcii c*r Ikt Msjcai^'A 
p4^«stH lit bonw io oultiTslo a kaowtoJp? of lliont far-t^Q* comitd^a 
vbicli Uie tfitaqiriM kail pinoTorwii^o ijf Uii.^ Di-iti"h. hueI iiion tif 
Bcitaii ofiipnt)^ hxw <oiitw1c(1. fnto pswporouB.imd.iiupciitgbut 
DdttaftionUt eliH^5 diiti&g Uie pduid of llio <juoou*» tdsu, tlk&n w«» 
HuBJrfipl by Ibe iutcrt*! w\ufh tlic UionuuKlfl upon tboumudft. who 


Sir FmEmdt Aid 

(April S3, 

moo from all pati*j divpUjcd in tbe ctodj cf th« tEittjuetiro 
ooUoolioDB in the |pmcH» ^t Sonih Eooai&gtoQ^ 

It vu tbo ftuccHU of tli« Hihibition mrhioh 1o1 to the drflsUi) 
formulUlciii of tbo VDggMtion trut iuaJo lij yriur Rat&I Hijjb&cci 
in a letter k.ddn«floil by yon in tbo antamn of 1831 ti tho A|]:«dI*- 
GcDcnd of tlnj OoloDuU G^TcromcatB, that a pcrmiiUCDt mprDMol^ 
liou uf till? n^HinroA i>f iLe Gukdiim tuJ ladiH. uuct uf IboLr coDltxii>- 
My priigrT>4«ii}g (kiV(Hfiinmi^nt, miglitwith ^mt hfinnflt L> i)i«4 Rmplr^ 
at iBtm, bft MtebU^baii tn Ihu country. That tbo nMlUatiou of 
thii idoA upon a mfflcicnlly oomprchoaii^fo baai* mj^ht coxMtilclo 
& wivUty tnomonnl of thcr MroomijliaKmoiit of lift/ yeori of a in» 
and proHjwniiti rrif^j ; a uimioriKl i»it ]H<r>i.)tjHl lu its obonotj^r pi* 
c«j>lm(^ «ii far oh U Ofifi^lltiitAil on lunhb'm of t)Ki lovo and lojalty 
of U<ir UiLJoi^tjA dubjootfl^ but locdini;, ufl iho XTouId moat (Ugim, to 
««iTo llio iutori»lii of tbo DQtiTc Kmpirc, b«d oulj to bo poiulcd 
uut l>y your Hciyul HigbutsB lu tw liiNirLily coti<jiiriu1 iu by tbu 
OftlcLHl K<i[»n«Bf:miAliT^ of tlii> 0>1i»i^i« nitd ludlji, wlm wiitfi flu tnti- 
Itsit^lr idiuiliUHd wiLb tb« triumjihs of the rcocrnt IC^bibitioa. 

Tbo Cummittoo to wfaom joxi^ Sir, cutniiitcd iha claboratt'^n of a 
ecbciDi? for can-ymg ihm ixnu:ci'\Jo^i iuto cffttrt. bti^rftiuc] persuaded by 
A riLTr'fnl otrnHidcnitKiTi tyt i\iv Aiil jeat ibnt aiicb ad luMtiluiJori ok yr^ur 
Rjtyul tlighti'>«d il4>9it\^ to aoo «l>r]D^ mto lifi^, to Iw a nkixaariHl 
rcuUy worliiy of tbo Jubiloo of Htt MaJoMy's Ttjgo ocd to fulfil Ibo 
gr«:at piTipoacs which yoU bad iti viriiT, iciut Dot be (cttfiool in iU 
ubjui-ta t<} pufticuliLf [JtitliuQS of tliQ Qut'f^ti'a DouiiuioiiH, but uiu^l bo 
iQHil^ tboi'Eiiigbly rejire^entntiTs of Ibc mlGrojits ncd <if ihtf nuiiy of 
tli« wboU Eiapiru. 

The nutlino cf ilia Bchomo for tha osUbliahmcnt or an Imperial 
loitituto for Uio Uuitfsl Kingdom. LboCHolunicn and India, which met 
vilL Iho oordinl hpjmiyal (tf your Koyn) Ktgbuew, wuh n^ccnaLTily 
oc^noiea in dcaLng with tbe very nido ^itent of ground whiob Lbo 
opcTBtitiuo of ilia Instituto aro intended to coTor ; bnt tItoAo vbo bavo 
Cmrefally coneidorod it and ngbtly intorpTeted its propniobif havo not 
foJUid to ruLliiM tliit it uiuiB at r«ry wuvb mur« tlinti tbu oro&tioa 
and maLi)ta&aiic« of collectioTiff, iUoatraliTe of tbe nalnral r£«*>iiiroo< of 
our Coto&iOA and of India, and of tbo doToloptDoiit and prcnoDt OOQ' 
dition of tl:o ohiflf iudufiti'io* of differont parts of the Kmpiro, 

One of tbe primnry obji-^ta of tbe lufitilulc >t-ill onrlainly bo 
the MtalilUbnrcnt uf tbnrongbly woll ntl^^^ted, carefully nrningt^, 
^d uUioiontly mamtniti^ r«pr«eontatjoiifl of tbe imtaraL pruJcoti 
wbich con^titutti the trc«surc9, and aro ombkniatic of tEio tin- 
piij-kiut positioas in tbo EmpiiCi of thofBe i^rcot Colonial poMOMiooi 
^vbicb, during tbe fifty yeoie of Her MAJONty'ii i^igri, buTu. in tnonj 
iDstinooa, ^xp^Jenoc^ a mitrreUous d&velopmtnt in Ciilvnt, in 
tiuiDQioTi'ifllj eooiihL, and even in pcilittoal inijiorljinca,* Tbo roooot 



* Bintittiffii alBtcrbonti illCBtnfcing tbff dcToLcpiDODi of Ibo Colstilo* di 


M lit Work tfiko iMfwM 2>ui4»l(L 


I gt CO" 


BsUbfilioB noi cotlj ».Sjrdcd ooscIubitq domoitstration cf tho great 

iaiMMl UirL TjkluH lo thd ChiIl^I Rtri^KdU wLicfi iiuiat hlbioh li> 
■■di fbllcctiaTtH if proparlj ornnio^d ; hy tach il1]iiitr«liE>Tw im tlio 
aigaifigcpt cnUccliaiw «f taIuuiJo nvcidfl, fn^m tiootIj ovory iToI^ny, 
ttraj ^oite oiUaiovni io B&jfWd* tmd tho f^cnt variety of valimbla 
«COaof&H] nisdiKlM fruBI lucLia. of Qlc vxEHtcDCo of TrliicU wo at br>ino 
luid liUl»UM.,UaliAMrired EomrjvfnoAUR thni oTiTknow1i>i1i^i*orUi4 
gnat eonstrioi vlubli AoaHitiilo li^i chiof portion d t^iti Ki^ipiru ift 
ited LDi| iBi|xrfe«t, (wd tb»t Ibcir rutonroati aro in taikiiy dircc- 
■lill in lie mUitof «if dc^optDflQl. Our CmloniAl Brothroii 
CO ibodr fM^ fjill to be i^nati/ bfiirf^llu^^I ti>' IxiIti^ iljori>ug!iljr 
Wpwiiftiil Id ft Wttll-Mlootod SAd «Ar^fEi1]y or^iiniiwi aawinblflg^ cUT 
illDVtfstkiiw of th* ■ourco* of protpotity whicb ^nutiiuto tlii^ rjdovei 
of UidLT oommercoh bd4 apo&ft cotitiauixl oiploratittu tmi cuUivati^a 
of vbub luucl dcjHiud Ibe luaiuttiiiiL^KV) uf tiiuir iullu«[j» ufitiii iu(tu»< 
farU uid Horial jirogrHA. N^iiJii^r rjin lliriy fbil tr> map i4ii>u4t4nltft| 
■dvtttegco by panQia^ n fiinoitly HtiUj'/ tvith cai^^i otb^r Id 
(l«ani>itti<iag tbo uivuiooA mEuio from timo to tiioo in the develop. 
iB«ttl of fcbo r«M)arca of Uio rotpcctive portiou» vf tbo Eiupiro in 
vbick tbvir kit is cut 

Tbo IiCftrtj co-operation onA iniporbwt lontorjnl nnpporl ti> 
vtbicli Uio great Colociofl^ tikroQ^fh tJioir roprcxctitjTiA in l^oDdon, 
vloJ^^od tkovpelrcfl «)>ob tb« Khomo for Ibc jnoponni Imperial 
Iuil4lBto wm iu llio fiml iublAULii lituitnl to LLib bnuioli of tin- ^mut 

k nhicb it ifl miv riml^mplftEeil to Ai^oronplitibj A(Tf■^1/A1 rvktir-limWe 
ivll«DM of that otTDWt duira to bo in all mopoiiiji t)joTCiit|fhlj 
HpHjgalgd in Ibo Motbcr CoUQtry, and to Uko their placoB pcrma- 
asllj fai omr miiUt w foUotv^abounrv in thu pdTaiLc<mmub of tho 
ffQMfi^ of Umi E(ti|»ifi-. Ill f^ittboniLoa «f lliitt iuiportttiit uui]. a 
MUle featurfi of U^at bniltling vh£<^b, in iIa cliAiaft^r, will, it it 
bepod, h% wotikj of tbo laontoutoDs cpocb it ia do&tlncd to com* 
M io rmt it wUJ be^ A« kltractio&« A&d oonrcaicncoe prcoentcd by it 
Mftflooa of rvtort aur] > rfnf/fjtoiu fur CuluaiBlB mitiiig ErL(;l&U(l, 
Rud. It Im aUa antif ipatnl, fi>r tbp iinimrlAot SrK?lctie& whfclt rf*|]roHftnt 
Ili0 Coloiuci and AsUtic p(KM«iioMa in tbie Ci:>niitry, and tbo 
f^ilitiov wkicb it ^U Kflbrd fi>r tt^fcratcc to litorattira coQccrnlug 
lboColoBi<ft aanl Iinlia, for uuiifv^Mocfl ou luatkni of twiuiuou iutt^rust 
aad «ftlm to ibo CoJoalats ami tbi»«« ai ImntM. for lti» tnl'irributij^n of 
lofutBMttion botVMUi tbo Briticb manufiiciurof and Iboto in tbo 
OoloBiaa wbo aro diROtlj jbtorcstod iu mtrotiDg bin tdcj xi inline ntn. and 
^■WaUj, for tbo cuJti ration of iutimato ruUtiiaJH au<I koo<1 fiilb^wxliip 
mUi*«& ovnolrM bihI put brathreo frvm ull |mjl» vf tbr? F.itiiiinr- 

no iMtilHbO will, bovOfDT, Qnt only oj>cn|i^ nctiv^ly midcT ila 
Ovit foof in prooMtnig tho ctiltinitioii of ■ bHtcr kntAlodgt^ of tbo 
yogiaphy, oalMnl tdatoiy* and rvsoarcM if uur Oi'1uTju«s aad for 
Um ftitT«BO«nieol of tL« ]iii«itvu uf tbo O^bmihU in ilh CuuiJtry ; it 
ii lifts ooniiiiiplaUil that rnprviHAniativn cnlWljonii of tho nalJinl 
ftojad* «f tbo ColoeiM aod lndia« carefull; id«itlificd mik tbo 




mcHH ^bofftJa eolUdiou of tbo ltat<l MtftbliiLiMrl; sball Ixi 
di«tribtrt«d to fvoTineUl ocotroa, ftnd Uut the prtmiuioA hIuiJI be krpi 
tbaronglkly CflUt i^ruiil onlli tlw ouireot ibfcruuiicm fmni titr. Oilaiiipcn 
viJ Irifln, br<jkrJTig upja ibo iBtoTMla i>f tl^^ ('■lutiiii.-rrtjj mui. Ike 
mmmfHOtim'T. And tlin micn^lLn^ and^puit. 

AllU^ufC^ t^i>> f^rmatioii, ni^d mnmUnaiioo up to daU, of ooUw- 
tiuM tllD^tTfttiTc <if tLc doTtlopn^ctil uid prosfliit coudikiou ivt iLo 
imiicrUiit lufliJklricB uf tlic HuiiJirQ atnu iutiuA. lu I Lnm ■Iwtcd.B 
pari of the progmrnnifl of tlin TnjilitTiM. th« iioop« of lU s^tivit^ in 
rolMion %e» itidatitry nrill bo nf R iD^aob inorooomprah«Budn obftrMlor \ 
i&ileod, i I in to 1m iiopod that tlia work ^bich it wiU iuliJeT« iit 
fiirtbcnirEfrtf ijf tlin dtvctL>|i[Li'?iil aai pirogrua o£ ujiliutiioi Mid tbeir 
fiititrv* TDitinluiriiDMT in t1i<i tTiiid'i) Kiu^ 4t Ivjud u|iiin & fiMirina 
of ^•'luiiUty i«iEfi tljoJr coQ^litirknii m ther ii^wt f>intin«ni«l Slal«A| *tU 
be m^tfl pr^^piiuiiOt in Hi^cnnni; t> tho tmponnl lanliiDlo tfio q^ri^td 
lAmlion vhJch it hhould cccupj^ lu tbo Nntiunal Jablle* UonibrUl 
of Iter Mi.ii.i*iy*s niigti. 

Tbi^o M Ttsi nf^t>\\ fur mn to rMtnTI la tho titirKffl of na ftodBesne* fs 
tliO Itoyul liki-titution tl>fl RFt&t MiiioA vhicb have boou nftdodttting 
Itjc l»k»i Afty jcara ia tho D[<pUoati(Liiii of toicDi-c to tlio fiBrpOMftin 
iluily life, lo th<] iidtnbuiiiuci;t tif cuQimcrcu, vmI Ui Hin ^vfrv^^p}taiati 
at tha btCk hh\ iiJuiiufjujIorviL Nor U il nuooM&Fy to <lirrJI upon Ibo 
fiwt timt lljiH oftynlrv m tbo birtb-pkc'A erf lb* mnjorily of thu gPMt 
,A0ioDlific*ad pnoiicftl aciicvomcnia ^blcb Hat* ivToluiionttod umo* 
~ {DterOMomninefttiofli. A&d hare in ether nay* trnaiifonQod Uia oon* 
Itioni under wbid; mauufiuilurui, ika ultIk And uojumertB vr punmid, 
Tliasovcrvt^bifrr^nioiita, of wlUi^h wt4ift NtttioB uo ■■> juitly prood, 
hivT« |i)ilt iKtwovoTi by many of tberir n«ultii, to oxir boooniiii^ rMiio^il 
&> Ha c4|QAlity of poMtiou vitb otlicr pKimriiont NaticiiiA in mpvd 10 
iiii|)i>rtnEjt ndniuta^Ei ^tc ihi )uag doritDiI from tJm powcNdou in tliii 
ctnintry of gt^aX iiuilr^r^Hl i^boitkhvi ofuy nf rnvv^M aufi appLinklioB, 
iitj<l fr^^» ttio <^iL4iit4jn«nt pTo^omineni^ in Dcrtniii bnti]ob«« uf trmdv 
fiii<l iri'lrfltry wbinh we iwi kin^ crujoyixi. 

In 1H&2. Bir Lyon I'la^fnir, in ono of ci c^mr^c of most lUluroLiu 
liTctTirM on K]int> uf tin* nfHulU nf th« prvccrliug ycta^» ffTC*t KxbibJ- 
tion, «'a« iiofirtltixl by Uio l^auhini; erf tbat grout world** diftpky, lo 
point ont tbat '* t}LO m^ mntirnn], formoriy out ciipital odvnnluc, 
wiM* (frudfmlly bning cqimUt^d io priwi nnd cnwlo aTAilnil-s k» &1L by 
tVi* iiiipUkteuitntii in ItJHrtLnjtiuii/" and ■" Ibut IndTisiry jnnst in fntnni 
be «it]iji4'rt>Hl nrit by u rompetilJon of local lulvnutngcf. btit by r com* 
pi7tit»irL frf ilL^<U<»ot- " If tiufl wu ittroikdy f<«tt to tic thi> Ht&to af tbo 
CUM] KiX'htid -thirty yoara ftgr>« how mncb ni'>ro niKiat WO bo ooDviiioed 
<rf tbn fall tiutti of tbia 4Lt tbo preuitt day, by tbi^ conditioiu uiidftf 
wbij'h ibr Bnlin}] mrrcbikiiT nnd maimfocturrr hikVi> to Comp^M witU 
tlioir rivalx 'fti iJiO UoJitiufjiit ftUfl in tbo Umtotl HutM- 

It IH »ull williiii ll]i> rniuiJlretir'U of nmcy thnt Almost Hie vbola 
vorM wiu ID vory ifrr^l mrahiirc dvi'*^''^'^^^ upou QrDAt Britaiu fbr 
it* inip|>liMf uf nrdiimry ciuct imn- FU^rti »m UtwJy m IKTI, tho 



tm ik^ WarJe «/ rl« JWjkTrai /n#lif>/c. 


ftlL <tt III! |i>Ul i>n-li)<<>^ iif ])i|: ir^iri ; litil rrniti If^T.'S nil rmpoHatEon 
ofBntifli ftoti Of >it for owar ihtn^ ^f^n^taid it %naon}ym 
■n^»i*B> of re^nireiaoAti in tlio Sl«t«« ex«oD<iinf- ibo capftbiliticfl 
fvolvcftaon, tbal vome sinall lUntnd* aroM iu 18Tf>, which woro for 

B^vtiHjt. In t>t7Q. thr p4g Imn [t^uI n<v.1 In iHa Unlt^l fHalo* 
«»a«l»d tp Ihtle over a,000,Oik) long, tii iMMJ thoii»k« bod ^n^rDft««d 
bfTD far eont^ viv. k» orrr 6,1CX>,D0C lotto, hiucc that timo Ih* 
Mtt»l nMln Int ikot bcrnMcd (in 1B$& it lusoa&tc^ to iM'JMO lonal 
«f mo IK). ImI iltr rM;<irfjy o/0r«rf«f4^ vrhich illallj Eii;ttroflto IL* 
im iff«dtt «ir ihtB tf-nntr;, hiu ruDn *tiAffnoiift}y, IhA prMoct cApAcitr 
of an tlM AflMTioAii pig-iroQ vrotk* bcta^ octirn*tod *t ovor 9,UW,00U ' 
%amt or iw«r]v 800 per oeitt. j^rcittcr Ui*a U mu In ItfTO. f^a iaa«li 
npw^tna tbe UhiImI Slatm ; tiTfjIciug nutrt-r Ludiq^ w fiu-1 lliat iLu 
tran et Ftfttivw, n^l^jiirni^ nnd l^rrrmn^ ni>l nnly (vrnipntnii witb nnnt 
fai ika tf>B««i nurknt, bat tlut B(ilffi«a iinrl narmnn iroD ia a4;iaft])j 
ittfvirtnl mto this roiwtrf to « la^lamtc ccrtoat. 

Aa «ii tastrvclin; iUuirtntiuT) of t}iu »ilr«aco »ncl mflueuco of tb« 
inprvronfliiU vlikJi 1iav« twit iomAv in fi)t?r<M»mminilcAti<>n npoD 
Ifat *«]ii> of oar batnnl prAJocCt fttid ihpir htirnrtAnMi oven in onr 
•VB iMdontria^ I zmiT, m tbo notliontf of Sir Lo^thi^a Bell, vt^to 
tft* aatcmnidiau furt that in ib« ofiiiiioo '>f cnicp?tmt autboritioA, 
Ilia DTB fIsiliBUtu) uiprcmlljr nailJiMc fiir atvul lUJUiufot'Curv bj? LliO 
BiiaaiBvr [iit^i y M nn bn brnn^bt athf a'a n iliKlnikro nf 1 (kOO niiUn, 
bttdtd tlOM tty macm famkhlrta tko <?br«|wfll injuic pip iron of Gwat 
firikj^ flftj eoftrertod into ^tecTnul* nt n lover coul tbikn tbo unine 
ifoiiena ciTCIcrtJud ou itindAh BimiW tmiU in I'rvv. 

Fim MvK» Id titne tfae gronnA wbk-li mi> Htv k^i^t tlrr^i^i^'li the 
Art^tofmtoi rf thfr »c < 0€Pfl»g of otbor ooDntrin 1im N^m moro ilmn 
MttttVOd ln0|MVAnl]r liy unptOTOBOIkM cftwtcd through tho mole 
fltf4«iii(HcaBpi^eiMfm<udixm«eqi]4nt better ndcni' 

tifc|irtori|ilMiipderiyiptf prqc «iaiJ «fm>Puf*ctnn.', TbiiBlLi<fiuiLiitily 
of fWl <inniMawl Irt |iroirErf*]ne vtmnj:bt'fr<ni miU bus ItnriTi (rrnthiAlly 
nJn oil br iapn^vftni^DU iu tlio fr^Tkntruclion an^l nrurkin^ of fartii^cr, 
«biU Ia0 tbui otLc-Iulf tbo ftmonnl U oow iTy|nir>I per too of truuh 
nil* tlua «tt» <mpl<i3rc<i fifty ycora Mgo ; bnt, muELrkjtblo m it mar 
trcn, the vtAnHteffW^t 'ff iin ivlvtuce uf IhlH tmp^iUiioo !a nrriitiLlly 
^ taf<wp th* podliivn, in mlAtion to IbiA tnnnrTfnctaro, of otlici 
K i lfa m Utm H'nrmnHj oJmrjrtonccMJ tban Grout Jtrtiiii in tho 
avtkr of «>m1. for^ tnstwl of b«Titi£ lo Tnnltipl j nrir clUr^rcvictr b otir 
liiivmr tn tfi««r«l of Uiv\ ri>quint1 ti> ^miiliiiro ■ Uiti cifrailiilvy tfroUu. 
IbBi iHflht«fiOd Ma wiv mlIv t>^ bA ntttllipllnd hy ihreo in onl^r tn 
trrfvA al tlio oxient of ocr ftdTiuHii^- 

Tbe Ui|i>r7 ^f tb« ilcTclopmcnt of Ht>*l munnfiictu^^ rlLirinf^ tLo 
lilt Mnlf^vit ytflffi alTcrtlB u nmHl IiutnictiTo illnnlnvtiun ^if ibo 
ttMMldiMwbioli nttr«niiti«lik iho Tuliiixkf r>iirn«inni1 r»cnircfi>^ nnd 
i« ovan^iiMit c«P(Htioa of om* ot otb49 of our importhul inrlnvtiH^ 


^r F^tderick Ahtt 


vtsi3(( out of cuuUquvJ tu^TUiotM luwla iu llio ftpplfctiiota of »i«DC« 
U> UiR jv^rffntion cr tranflfftrmfttUin nf mfcTiTifadnring prc«f ars^ and 
of tho vtimDlaliTijj qScom of »i}oh tVaotubliacu OfciL Ui« cxcrtiotiM of 
iho0ft wbr> oTD nUo to bring noiQi»ti&] knowlodao to htVkt opon lh« 
aulution uf pTubli^tuB iu iudantrial cr)wr>ti(Aie wLidi cmtirtly lufBo Ui« 
onliuiirj iijiimjf(ii:iiir«-j. Witliiu ttifti jierifiil th« UtneuliwM of 
BtHHADor ftud ci SicmoEiB ha^vo I&J to tlo rDpkct'iQDist of iron ly 
Atvol in flomo of ita modt ciUidblto applic^AticiUfl, TLo ITnanrniu 
OonvorUxi l>7 wLicb pic iron in npiUj trauafonucd iaU> stoul bf tK« 
iijMtioji bf tLir iuto iIjo UJolUm iuvIaI, Iht, hj far uA ibis cotutttjr u 
conrmicil, to a rc<ry pmt rxtfiQt nnprnicilccl ibo pU'l^linif ftimAOo, in 
wliicli jtiQ iron i« tcunftlonacd hj loug-^^outinuod l^boriotuc trcatnumt 
into ifk>:I (IT luaiWblo iroii. This miportd-nt tliAiii^] m our nfttiooikl 
iiiiJu6lrv vt-iM, (M-o kiijjj;. pru<luctiv« uf m euriuujs crisis Iburi^iu* kuiI for 
l!io rcAH^n ihni ihr pi_o imn proiln"?nd from n iar^ prupnrtion nf 
ihama oTVt tvhicb, {i-Dtn tbotr nbundau^jo wxd the cbcapneu of tbcif 
trafttnuAnt^ bnrc botn lojpcJy iuBtrumcnitnl ia ptmcitif* Gn^^t liHUin 
£n htt bLj^b poftitiiin bj9 aq iroa'produciuj^ Latmti, (;r>Li]t] nut bo 
applied Ui tbo |jnx1ut'tiuM of nukiki Lkbl>; t-it>A hy mmnsr ctf tUo 
BoMomor contcrtop. In tbo pnriflpntion of Uiiu pig inm daring 
iu cotkTorfjon in tbo puddJic^ fuicD^v int> a AiiitnbJc nukturutl fur 
tbo produotioD of riiiJHt tbc utemciiUry otriiatiltioiit pliospbciruUi wlueh 
lit bull curritnl wikU i\ fn^m tho «n] un n ouitUiuiuuliu|i iiipvUitiut 
\f\Ty 4lolrLTiL«nUl tn itfl strenplh, wnn Himinntfld, and by mffinfnt 
trentmcct ■ fxialleftblo iron of good quality VMolMuitod; bat in tbo 
l^ro^lootiuii of etool from tbo kltdo material in tbo Bouomer oonrcTkr, 
tbe pbosp}j(Jni» ia almosl cotirolj mbLiDcJ in tbu icdUI, rfi»t«rini( it 
iLiiBuiliklJu fur mfljiufiLtttiro iiitomilftor pbkU«. lIoiK^fi tlieappluA- 
tioa of thia rapid Glffel-mftlcing pro^M had to bo cbioifly mstHotDd in 
lArtifrnliLr kinde of otett^ iha cupplicfl of ^vhioh ara UtaHcd to a f«w 
difitncta m tbiB oountrr. Thceo bftd to bo l&jgoly sappkmunt«d bj 
jiuport&liuDS frum otbcx ucnnlriec; DCTUiLbtjKiM tbu cbtttouc«« vt 

fiToilnf^liuD and superiority in point of Rtron^b. durnbihiy and 
i;;btoeG0 of tbe sti^^l rgjU Ibus cent into tbo miurkct frota ib^ 
Bc6Hvin4:r oonrcttct oombiacd to maintain a HUprrnuwy of tbcio oror 
iron ruilfi, St<i,, uiuuufaoturtjd by tbe old puddUug procotew tnaa 
tie «rjLpk< fima of thi> coniitry. 

Tbo nJvjinUigiiB preBeiilod by etofll cxer tlie wrongbt iron nf tb« 
pDddiiiifi furcQco for conetnictivo puipoDc* epeedily buootDO cvidoot; 
cQinbiniDg as it dofe nearly double tbo eti^ngtb nitb u ia*>rQ than 
lirc^jK>rLioiiuto EopunLinty in tbiatioitjund ductilttyt iU lulue fur idii^ 
buLldiii^ [mrpoEt« did not loQg fail lo bt realist. It wm tunm fonnd 
more prolitcktdo to btiild a 8tr>Hl cteamor, paying a pric« of uoarly I'/* 

Sir ton for tbc mate rinl, than to <^cini<tri]ct ono of iron irbich fovt only 
L Cif, pvx toll. Tbe f Qccl of tbo rjhpid displaceuiuul of iuiiU(«b]i! iruu 
by f.t' prcidiiowl from on* nf & ijarlJcdur du»n bxA Ikv^u, tlmt at 
looBt 65 to 90 pot conL of tho iron oroB of Great Itritain oonld no 
longer bo applied to tbo prodaction of tsalcrial for mlU and for coa- 





m |A« Wa%t o/Ao fvprnoJ Indiiulf. 


CaIM BtalM of Alivdcft KmUdiI rrvoc Cr^il Bntiiin nearly nrif:- 
fiAh of Its total prodivn- nf pig jmn ; hiil fn^m lATA h11 frnpOTUlion 
«f Brilfiili iron «MMd fc^ orcr tbrod jouv, Aod it ««« onlv in von- 
MfMAM cif wivirciDeuta tn Uio SUtop csoeMinK tbo CApcvbilitlriA of 
tMMtioos, UmI kkum soaJI Aetiuajii v<«e m 1870, vlucU vrcre Ibr 

MMM tWMi tntintaiBrJ- 

B«l »tiili-» in iSTf*. tho piff iron proJncod in Uio United Sttttot 
UBOvntod to liltJo oivr 3,000.000 tctt«,ia lS9!d the maku bnd inenMed 
br TO per «fit, Ti», lo <yitT £.100,000 taoB. Since tHt lime tl»o 

(i/jOOO XhA. \mt the fyponV^v ^/ mriiitvti/m, wltic^h YitnllT intnrfttH tlin 
ijott CrmiJe of tlii» «i>vtilrv» Uu rt»ii ononDcmvlfr tbu prcac'Dt capnoity 
«f all Ilk* AmorvMii pig-iron Torlra b«irig CfltimjitfHl ct aver ^.'JOOfiDi 
Um^ ot TtnUrlj' d^O p?r rrul grater tban It wju iii 1)^79. fii> mtivh 
rc^fttdttifr tbe Unit*^ f^utftt; lr«'ildng nfrnmr Krimr, wn find that thn 
bwi of FrubM, Belgium, and G+rmflny not only oompotea vitU oam 
ia 1^ •twn i>ftrk«i> bat Uiat Bdcina »iid IJcrmaa iron id nctniillj 
iapPiied t&lo thi« ooonlrr to a modcfabe extent. 

A« KB Inittnctlve lllwlnitktn of lh« advftiico ftfid iEiflnf^uc^ "t ihf 
ua|invn«noaU iiliw4i huxt* }f*^ m*iT* in itiidYriyimTniiDionllon upon 
lh« Tiiloe of oar nfttoml prrKinolc utd Ihotr imiwrtnnoc dvdq in dot 
o«ii imlavlriM, I vaj, oq th^ A^thmnty of l^ir LotTtbian i^ll, Ktit« 
ihm AvIioundLn^ r*cl UihI in LLv viiiniutL vt txunpL'tvirt HutlirjritittSi 
lh» or* Oti^Bfttitfi) rEffrfvf^lly niiftJilitA for btn>1 nmiillf]irtnr> by Ihn 
B^Mnwr fimoiw out Itc broo^bl over so* a dintftnoo of JLKIO thIIcb, 
tttJed dc«e lo dt&M fumuliini? tli< chnput mnd? pij; iroD of Unwt 
Britain, uiJ ronT«Tt«il tnto iffri raili at n loAt-r co»t tiinu tliu lUktivu 
ifUHiMie of Clif Tftbukil cttii fhnilHli hftriUr n\U in iVr'u. 

Pmni timo tn timo tJin grMind vhi^b wf hnvtt lant thrmigit tbo 
irfifkpmcfil of tiio rMDnroM of cjthor cDontrici] hnn bvcn nrira tJmn 
rrtricTfJ l«npcnnl^ by UDproTcnwmta ofltctcd thn>ngh tho moto 
iWoDEhaauprvbeitfioniiidooiBeqaiTnl WterupfilicibtirtauftLtf 
IMp prfaitftplw Mititorlyhw pWKiK^ia nf mMflii flurl ti rn , ThriHthfiqri>tntily 
«f IM cospcHMd in prodnernf? «ron;TUt'iro& riiU hon boon RTuJlmUy 
j«tewd by iwpTOTeniciito in \ho ccnntraction and irc^kbg of furnntY?. 
nUO Imi ikui one-bftJf lb« Nuaoiuit ia iiqw rvi^iiirnl iH<r tuu uf bucI] 
niU ikui wu «nijfl"j«il flfly jmja *gt>; bni, rnmnrhaMr hn it tuay 
•MBi, tf» vIHnHt* «4TaH of fttt airftnnci of thii tnfportnc» in netnally 
lo WDfrvn Ibo povilfOB, in rErUlion to tbi* nmnnfjictun*, of oihcr 
NaiJAVM Icoa fiiTovnib)y fTrrmnulAncnl tKhn Groftt Britain in iho 
ttstttr of cn«i1| tvtt iin&uftd vf boiviiij^ tunitfhiirly any dinVnriKD iii our 
bVBttr In iJm tnttt *f ftwl mqcirM 1a |mii1iK'i> n ton rf milH liy twrlvn, 
tlubt iHAicnoo but now orily lo b« nttltipliod by ltin>c iu oMuf to 
■Rivo ftl tbe catcmt of onr aaruilafie. 

nckwioryof tLc f1i<Yi.'lnpiit(ml of irtccl mnnufHCture ^nrlxm th* 
hit tVMity-ftvp yvttn &ffi>r^K a nrotil innlruriirA UtnAtrAt^m Lif T.bu 
tolMtkAl «bf eh nmjr oMiw in tho Ta1u«t>fou?natnn]ro«ourooji,niid 
1W MMoqnont «owKtiott <»f ooo or olbcr of onr unf>^ftat tDdTi«tri«i^ 

106 Sir FMUn^rk AM [April S2, 

steel laanufacture dates bock oalj nine jcarSt <knd ftlrettdj th& jcar'B 
pniduct of tlio basic process amonnta to over 1,300,000 tons of steol. 
But although it is to Etiglr^hincD tbat tho o^ner of iron property 
auil tho tcttHjI-makor are again iiidcbtod fur these importftiit reanltfl, 
Bod to Eii<^lL£b mnnnfactarore that the Hrflt practical demoDstration 
^){ tho encceB» of this proceea is dnc, its application boa been for 
tnoro rapidly claborattnl upon the Continent than hsro ; tii Qermany 
tbe iitiportaoeo of tho subject was at ouco realised^ and it is there 
that considerably tbe largest proportion of steel is produced by the 
bftRic treatnjcct ; it is in Gemmoy alau that tbe valae of tbe alsg for 
agricultural purpoaos bos been devetopcd ; the first steps in its utuiii- 
tion hero being but juBt now taken, in StaffbrJahiro. 

I have altoudy referred to tbe remarkable strides wbicb haTS 
been niailu in tbe extcimioD nf iroQ manufootnre in tho United 
States : the development tfaere of steel production has been Tto less 
marvelhiua. In 18TU, 923,000 tons of Beasemer steel were produced; 
in 1885 tbe tnahe amounted to 1^701,000 tons, wbile the prodnctiTe 
capacity in tbat year was estimated at 4,102,000 tons. With other 
cTtteuaiTC Htecl-prtHluoiDg works in coarse of completion, proTiBion is 
boing made for iucrcoeing the power of production by another 
million tons. Looking to the fact that at the present time tbe 
railway mileage in tbo United States eieccds that of the wbole of 
Enrope, tbere boing 1,-^00,000 miles of railway in opeifttioD, while 
at tbe beginning of 18G5 tbero wore only 34,000 miles, the canses of 
thia enormous development of tbe iron and steel manufaotnre are 
evident ; tbe resonrces of tho country in ore and fuel ate giguitie, 
and the systematio technical training of the people has made ita 
influence felt upon the dcvolopment of this as of every other bnnch 
of industry which our friendly rivals pursue. But it is not Only in 
tho United States tbat tbe development in the production of iron 
and steel bos greatly increased of late years ; thus, in Oormany t^e 
incrcaso in tho production of pig iron alone, during tbe last twenty- 
one years, has been 237 per cent., in Austro-Hnngary 153 per ceni^ 
while the increase in Franco and Belgium is 64 per cent., and 
tbcrcfuro not greatly inferior to our own (75 per cent-). 

Although, however, tbe increase in actual production of iron and 
steel in tliis conotry baa not kopt pace with tbat of some other 
countries, it is satisfactory to know tbat our produciire power 
has very greatly increai^cd in late years, and there is probftl»j no 
Olio braneb of our indnstries in which wo bavo maintained oar 
position so satisfiictorily in regard to quality of product as 
that of iron and »tecl mauu&cturo, ovo[i although, every now and 
tbon^ we bavo indications tlmt in the struggle with other Nations 
fur pnpcviority of prinlnct and for prc-cmiueoce in continuity of 
progresj^, wo have to look to onr laureU- While this Country 
oweH a deep debt of gratitude to such men as Neilson, Unsbet, 
IJesseiiier, Siomotis, Thonms and Gilchrist, who by their brilliant 
d!^cov(>ries and iurontions liavo maintained Great Britain's post- 


m fJU Ifori ^Mtf ImfUfi^ InttthtU, 


llatt ■« Ibv IvmW tn llw urigixuluin ot MitviMviiv mw of itlTfiRtia' 
In lro« ft»d «imI nMii«biecitr»i tlier* (a no i|iintilon tbtttlba tnulo 
pewvallf hM in twoot ytw <tt'riv«ii tho f{Tc«t<vt OftCuUnco and 
BWi cjgt from the ofi^HiiAtioii of tbo Socictj wbieb, nntUr the vnino 
^ tiio Iron ftsd Sdml InfiiUdki, ku bruuglit Ibe iDomlMiTH of ibt 

iMilii Id rfernhw lliol ik^y lla«4nit>*lTM, uiJ lli* lUJimtTj, n^tp ipDiJ« 
e»Ul4e iMtkflit froiK ihab fnw intor^uu^ «f kiw«Udj^ and t>j«, 
fv«irf1< of Amporienev. Uicir f^^dii di»evMion of «n«ovBBC«, faiimvci^ 
ujtl Jirtnitwii of ricv^ uid priio ii oe Uio fiomfaiiiAiiciii of fti«tbUf 

m4 firutiea of tliJ^tr imjkjrtimt o^lUng. 

Wlulw 90 Lavo ■iicfsodotl m matttUiniiiic a fonnnost p>«ition 
iv iroo ■»! iftwl maatifMlvrie, ther^ u« aoioo otk^r iuipMrtoni 
btBttrhas i>( imJqaIx?, fov b tiiDr rivMiliiJlj oar onu, Ujo prc4oni 
ccttdttloBfif wMrb, in ibli Aoniitrv. ivn nitinnt f^nntiin]|jln(£ with rijiud 
^fiH^itiew- d«T«rAl iiA«mctJra illa«trHtian« uiighl Iw i|Tki>tvil, liut 
1 vfiU «MU«at BijMlf «ilL ft bnof oxftminatkni i>f ono of tbi> inuct 

A ^BDM >t dwi tiiU'iry of l1ti« iitiKaiti^Ji r^f «i>n>fi jinxlucU of Iho 
^tiftilUtiDn of n«l nill |>rf«>iit v> iu »n industry cmtrMl nnil fir^t 
«UI)0VBj1«4 ik EngUnd, vbtch hft«, mi tlio ono bntid, by ild duTvlop- 
B^rt oft^etftd tiiwuc»toiiii clio&gD* ill oilier mdu«lii«« aiij ts an- 
forlBBl Uwicbottof onmnivrcL', wbilo on l|i« tAhvi Ijmul il liM bocflli 
tn ffBtti ttuttnm trrntfrj ttr\Tn Qn Iti onnikfc|iiPffi«t i^f thi> i95fitr*niatJo 
eaftlWfftlkP «f AcicaLilc and prntrhcnl wiirfErmi on tbo Contiui^nt. 

lit JianuaiQ;; tli« rr«i<Eit iMlrvt««» tnOfAo in «1i<tiu«ii1 tnaniiiucluroi 
M onaplkM l^ t^ Bililiilioii t>f )8S1, ('Uyl'iLir. in ihu lo^turc i> 
vUdi tc&awieo WftLh4i1j Uvm inni)i\ «Tiohv ofibv jmAt iliivi:lo|ii?ifait 
«f tlm Tfthw of ibft 4rfil<«mii)lin^ Uw, wblch wae tbfm nukflr xo Umnth 
lit «)lv««t Uqndri Ivontcno and oafihlbaT and llio flniicoptic crfM>ii>>l«y 
tkm mi^iuJ material being utilised tor pnTcmoiiis iiii4 for utlificir 
fbuL Tfco dennM lllllii draait IIk-u Llml InaiTL'ui] 18^1 ami thu yei 
«f IbvOVtl ipvat Kiklliilinn. iN^ii^ cnhiI Ur vrnilil Suva hoc-LViEP a liaiM- 
«f •«nllll«^«aU^lo*ekiu)€i> to tnsAnfaetiinA and to thdorta, in w\n*Ai 
fimk wtMaf^ feBt« <fTier «»«» eofttinticd to bn opontvl np, and ittiJI 
jU M tp t ihfinihmi fur riiilitratioti, Uurinaiiu. hi Uih vatiuUo Mpott^ 
«■ Ibe o h Mlnil piwIsHii and pn«rj«->«rH T^KlidIl^H| hy tliftt EiblbUtoi^j 
d««1)fl WTtk tbo ootlinaiaEaii (>f llir nnlrikt worU<>(- in uinnrw uprui tl 
WilHiost fvodapta obtained from coal iar, ^diiob bnd rcf»tlt<«d fra 
IW U«a» of tba orientifio cfcconbl and bad nlrtudr Ao^riirf'l kn 
alauHt MUkmal iiitiioitaaeo; nllhou^li tliin gruat Tuduatry ^^aA iIji^h 
■itll in tia inlkt^y. Pmn tJifi ynar tAVi, uhtm thn ftr«l rftlnnrin^ 
tialict kjwwtt afl JfiMiM, fnw diaa^vtirud nitd imni^qfAetimd by ft 
{«B»it atadeal al iLo (Vlltf^o i>f ('hemitUy, Mr, PckiEi, ono t ~ 
ntlhrnrilV mott f-nmiung )ia|nlf^ to tfau {-itiHtit tuik«^ tho prodnt 
tbtt of *H« ei)A]-tar onluira nr c>f n«ir pnKwaM Itir prrparii^g thft' 
o o t oqitf ]& graaUr F^'^^T'i ^'^ pr«gr4«ti>d doitihtaTniptcdly, thift 
hoTmff kmir nneo bcoooiv on* of U^o tacwt uapartant^ and 


air FndtricJt AM 

[Apra », 

tl*6 «!« of II16 moat remarktblev u ilTostntirg bj «»«1i vto^ cf its 
dCTalopfnVQt tba dinot ^fiplictttion of Kuuntitic n^MAreh to ihi fttuift- 
awtil <H moflDoiloiw pntduaJ umiiIi*. 

It i> ibUfcitiBg lo mis that Pcrkin's ducoTcry of uuotc, u ft 
prcdvt of one of iho moct imporUkat dfrrin^TW of eoftl-ter. mlWd 
aaUiM. WM UTiTod tl in U19 odotm of fta invMligAliMi, fatvikg for 
ito o^JMl lb« Mtifidftl pro^utioc (>f tk« iarduUo T««ot*bb 
qiuBioo, tbo «jotbc«w of ^toh kM Wv tlic aim of muij rtacwrdic* 
dttftng Ike |«rt balf odnlaiy, and np^emn to Im at leu^ nhntit to tv 
iefed^Tod, M thft itanU of it long cb&iu cf »-;* ntifio ry^varnh. The 
diSnJIiM to bo «v«tieone Mbro fnaairo oouU bn pri4JMi»d xipcn 4 
aMM&dnriagMalo voio ttfynMtiud wcroouIjibjlTcdbysfllcBdj 
ptuvBOt of MJctatiflo rcaoucb. n'ln Uj Mc witlj |)rectio»] cxjjcrimcntv 
jOflgMleJ hy iM nmlta, AtriliiiA— tlio pKn^nl at %hb flrht oi«l^Ur 
OoW!ir» A liquid Ofguio mlkaLi— ■ moot fiuiilo tvuroe of bitoroatJog 
.,K>d uBporiottt djoootcmo la otonio ofact&lolrj, vkicb bovo inado tbo 
of HoftDoati ihTjil i,ithvt« fjhLuriiu — ktM piii^nccd witb dilBcaltj 

viriooa nkotiioiU in Tcrj nnftll ijiutntitiv, mt m to ha tltaoti a 
e(Kio«ity M tbo timo of tbo dioeov«r7 of inaLHiv Among 
BBMoaoso from vbidi it bod booa ^porod vju iIia ri^Utiln 
liqoid^kDOWQ 00 hrntm^y fint iluooTorvd in tl<) bibiirat'>ry <if Ibi* 
JtWtutinn in IS^A by Fartdftj, in lio liquid pruducln uoodcaiacd ^ 
oil pu» but ■ftorwftrdit obtained by VAnofieM. in lJi« Cott«^ of H 
OboauUrj, &0B1 ou&L-t«mA»blba, whioh tltto foraiabod in hi« boodeo V 
oorioo of bomolo^ao ]i4)iim#t tnony of Ibom aavr of ip'Oftt impcirtono* 
M iba nw materiUo from nbtoh dye» *.n ohulacd. 

Thv oonvfmrion of bcnuina into ATiiliciD, v^biirli luul bwin ^ffRotod 
hOC ft Tory ooftU fttftlo in dtflbront wnyo by Gonuuc uid KuniftA 
itMkiplon, vfts ftooovnpLiobod u » inanmotnrini; prt>oeM oftor 
Biftny diftccltioa by Pcrlnft, *ni ititliin ft year oflor tbc diecorery of 
oftiivu by bim, it w iti tha lividH of the ailk dyor- Purkin'ii mkogmi 
Ittd otbrr cbcmiKto at once to pnriae resoftrchL^s iu tbi> utme dirMtioD, 
00|>ooi&]]y jn Fmnof-, wburo tbct uotL inij^iirbml <i<»ftl-^tar oolaiir, 
ifo or fucbAirj«, wt« <ibtftiiioi1, by M. Vcrrjub, tbo >oc«e«Hfat 

LoikcitiLro of wbioh in a ftwrc bLaIc i^as. bowt^ver, &>t occnciplLilMd 
by EngUdk cbemiat^ with Vr. E. C. Nicbul^jn at tbrir hf«d. whwo 
EOOgniScOQt cpot^oni in tbo lSli2 EihibUku irxcrtM unirofOftt 
ftdnurfttion. In 1661 boftutiful viokl and ithut o^>l»ur8 woro 
produced, ftgftin by Frtmcb cfbemiifif (Qfianl and Do LAirc)) bat 
Wfjri^ niruiiifiuTttirifd nhnrtly nft^^rwnn^H in u puni ctutri by NiuljribEuii, 
Tbie brmight tlio coal-tar dyo in^Iuilry do\tu lo the year 1^^2, and 
Uofntuiin, in ooogratulfttiu^ liia yuuog {lapil Purkiii (in hi» Jury 
lt<;jKitt) R|roii Ujc splendid indnstnftl roAtiU ocbioTod* id baTiii^ fini 
uiftiiufactarvil a c<i]cur frum oool-Ur, wbi(ib bud btxa arriTcii at by 
purely Mnonlit^t* Tcscnri^h, fnpro^ted tbo bnpo that tbo noiatE^crrik] 
Bitooeu <rt bU iJutL^TprLse might not divert hiui from the p«ib ot 
Kjionti^c inqniry— A bone »litcli be boo Hvoil io eoc fisElj rcaJiAvd, aa 
tbo long ociioA of frw\ oonlributi'jai, uiailo olino«l wilhonl inter- 



<m tkm Wtitk 9ftKo iwpen^l IndttaU. 


a§ttm wnoo Uifti UfDO by P«rkin ia our kmi^vlc^lgA nf orgtnfa 

bf chnnjU of Ibo prveont dny, tai bavo ooutiauod to inflacDco in & 
MliDporl&Qt iiuiuniir the bmnc^b of ujiiiul^j vkicl; hv ctuaU^- 

^■^ Ttke ttix jvATv vucoDoditig Ibove vhioli formod tlu first period.. 

^HpM4-tl)62)i>f piiKbmooof ihiaiiidDtlrrivHru fniiinLl,ikotoii]y oif b^V I 

^^Mt, u ili« ^ovclttpDMEii of iha mAna&ctnro, aqi! of oar Itaovkd^ 
' wt Ibo DoutitnltoD. of tbo bettiitiriil djc« vrUccih outTio CAcU oUior lu 
tnUkncj, ImpurtaDt nBcoralw by HufunLUti, wtiicli, «LUo vtnblinh- 
Iqf lb* oonvetiMM of hia Bot«aiti(^o c^tno^^ptii-iut of Uio rMl lularo of 
■tjBBK l«d ki ti>o *Vi9»atoty^ hf him, of a matoUUtf Tii>ldt dyo, «««« ' 
W&wvj b; UkO production, at tbc )ian<U <<f iVrkin nnJ Nidii)l*oo la , 
fcjUft^ ^iid of acTcnd workcm uu Uiu C^aCmci^L, of tiiu wdl-kuffvil ' 
p»i1ig|il ^mbtm, of Blmnrck brown, ind of tDino «lgbl or oiuo other 
MpovUirt 4j** ■ ^^ 7«ll«w, M&Dfn,ukd (Kttrlut 

In Iho Dcxi ponod of «ix ycnn (1^08-1871) Another Krc*t »trLlo 
TO Bftdv in tko c<Ml-Ur ocloEir inducttj, duo to importAQt ^eivntifio 
rtMwdioA cnmMl oat bj two GirrmriTi chL^miitU. timtW and 
Ij^t^nnanii, vUkoh M tWo, in tL« ttni jiLilo«, to obuio an itivigM 
into Ibo Imo natttro of tbo ootonHng xnaltor of ono of tlio z&oot^ 
Impdrlttfel fta^lo d70-ftu|&, nuncly ttio Maildcr niot. Thaf fopDJ 
^mt ikim colMring nutttrr vhhh {^hemiiitH cull Atizfirint- wnn nilntml 
lo jBfiraMttif, ooo of tliL* moBi ti]i|>(ir1ant w>Iiil bjri1roc!i4rtK>Qit fonDL-d 
in t^ dutillftti'jn <ii ^m\. ft clutoovory itliicb wa« <jH*[.^JjI;r^ f^illowod 
bj lt)o ftxti6cikl fon&Atioii of Ibo mmMfii djyi, oliiftrtuii. fLviii tlint 
<D(MtitaBat of rnilMar, At flrf>l« tliU xstiicTGiaeut of GmiTljo ftiiit 
f Ml iBiani WM nmplj of liigb Ki«ditiflc lutarest, bitt Porkin, who 
«M panning noewcAi in tho nmo dtnoticoi, uou diioovorwl two 
■Mithrdi bj which tlio anufctvion of •ntbivocno into Ihc lusddcr ilyo 
woU bt acouuij>libt»d tiD a largo acftlo. uid oro of ibvio, M'^]i wuh 
fthv ftirlvwd nt hj thn Qcrmftn KkamtKta ■imiiltannniiidy wilb Pftrlrin, 
it iiiU naid ^a Uio mAQufftaturo uf iltxuniiL\ »biob wom for tiomotimo 
iMimlj pmmcMl in tbtHooontrTt Willi v<irj it)uiuvittousrodtilta,(ui 
tfaoEtutkfitvdlaouf llio mftddcx ri>t. Tb« IuUlt Los loti^ bucui 
ortmiJTrif rQlLiralnd la Ilolliuid.Siiur.b O^Tfimtij^. Fniurii\ lUly, 
'rarinj,Bn4 Iftdi*,thociaitfianipti«nof cuicMrr in frront BriUm hnviog 
■Ih^Bffl |i> Ml umnnt vaIqo of iu luucb im ],O0UhO0O/. itorliiig. l*laj- 
^Mf pviated a«t in 1863 tlut im rK>rtoji1 improTducutabud twuu uttninod 
in tM vxtiBcUon of llio r«4 colour it ^i^onuu frooi i\\<t miifldu rotiU 
Ihvrifntto of wbMk.nftnr T<^nii>m) of thfi dyn in thn nrilinnrrvrav, hiid 
lOM nwdo, hj ■ miopia ipnUOiotil, to fiimtiib furtlir-r fjiiiitLticio^ nf tbo 
Mlmrin^ naatCor. Thia mtLlt. tat^i Tnkublu ht thu tiiiio <^f Oiis tint 
pint Rxlitbiti'ju. Iwcuiim iimi^TiifiiAEkt »l;o]i "iioo tlio ilyo 'A'ai ivTti- 
ftcUlT Kt)*nnfiurttin«l fmm iltiUuhci^iiit ; thn jiriiMT pnul for nuulilor in 
1869 mw» frooi fi^ ^ ^- V^^ pnutul, but now tho n^uivalr.'ril in artt* 
Utl ^ftJdord T9b OiT ftliJtarinc?, of oito pound of tbo rooti cnn bo obLaiocd 
ftr onn fcnlf^nnnr '^'^ loikr in Btiil iieod by tltc lovxil corunmtifO 

no Sir Frederick AM [AprU 32, 

section of tbo dyo-tnde, tho wool-dyera (and tn some respectB it 

&ppc[trs to proficnt in tliia dirocUon a little advontOige oy<a Uie arti- 
ficial colour^, but the value of its preaeut uinual cousuuiption in Gre&t 
Britain baa become reduced from one million to about 40,0001^ 
Durin|£ tbo dovelupmeut of tbo artificial alizarine mdoatry within 
this tliird |»eri<jd of sii jcars, the continued reeearches of Ferkin, 
Schunck, IJacyor, CurOf and others bavc lod to the development of 
further importaDt Tarioties of coal-tar dyca, the most valnable of 
whioh, diEcovered by the two hiEt-nomed chemiats, was a beaotifnl 
cerUe colon r^ called cofiino- 

With the diacoTory of artificial alizarine the truly Bcientific era 
of tbe coal-tAr iudufitry may ha aaid to havo commoticed, most of tho 
commcrciully valuable dye-prodnots, oblained sinco that time, being 
tbo robult of truly theoretical research by tho logical pursuit of 
dcfiuite well understood reactions. Tho wealth of diaooTerj in this 
direction mode doHog the last thirteen years is a most tempting 
subject to pursue, but I am compelled to rofrain from entering upon 
it, furtliLT than to point i>ut that the practical sigui^cuuco of boanU- 
fui scientific rcBcarohes of many year* previous became developed — 
that ono of tlie results was the i^rudnction of very permanent and 
brillinut scarlet tmd red dyes, the manufacture of whioh has greatly 
reduced Uio market value of cochineal — that the careful utndy of 
the firiginal coal-tar colours Itid to their procluction in a state of 
great purity by new and beautifully simple seientifio methods (which 
iucludu tho eiteusive cmployuieut aa au invaluable practical agent 
in tljoir proiloctLou, of the curious gaseous oiyebloride of carbon, 
until lutely a chemical curiosity, produced through the agency of 
light, and hence ehristonod phosgene ifa«, by its discoverer, John 
Davy, in 1812); and lastly, that even the well-known vegetable 
colouring mntUr^ indigo^ one of the staple products of India, now 
ranks ainoug the coleure synthetically obtained by the eystomatie 
pursuit of Boientidc research, from compounds which trace thoir origin 
to conl-tar. 

The rnpid development of the coal-tar colour industry has not 
failed to exercise a very inii>ortant beneficial infiaenoe upon other 
chemical manufactures; tljus, the distillation of tar, which was a 
comparatively very crude process, when, at the period of the first 
Exhibition, benicue, naphtha, dead-oil and pitch wera the only 
products furnished by it, has become a really scientific operation, 
involving the employment of comparatively complicated but beantifnl 
distilHng apparatus for the separation of the numerooa products 
which serve as raw materials for the many distinct families of dyep. 
Very strong snlpburio acid became an essential chemical agent to 
the alizarine manufacturer, and, as a consequcnoe, the sc-oalled 
anhydrous sulphiirie acid, the remarkable crystalline body which 
was for many years prepared only in small quantities from green- 
vitriiil, and of which minute speciuiens carefully eealeil up in glass 
tubes were preserved as groat ouri<«ities in my student's days, is now 

«« Uif W^fk r/ iht imfrriot UHH%U^ 


maM rI ft low 



ft low wioo Bpoo ft TdiT lATfrc P««b bj ft bcftDliiiillT wim^lo 
vodm ofti in E^i^knJ, by Siiaira ilQiI Mtutli Tfiu aJhftU 
■ol kiftJrMi clincniiAl tr*ilLi« Ijkit Uhti ti-t/ gntttljr bumfltod \\y 

wiftlwiftlr Qtfud ift Uui liTimiusiiiatflarcft, uiJ tho applioolton of con* 
itnotive tftluak oUBbuod with eJuMDiodi kcovlod^c, to iLo pr^uctiua 
of dSeUuL ■4i|«ral68 fur (ftii^ui); %m\ uu & iiluri^fiuloiifi u?A]n the ] 
ffalilfflo offttntioiu tlnrntopTil {n ih<' mv^flti^Ur'« liiborHtnrv, tiu 
gnftftj coaCTibfttod to tlio ercfttioQ of a dtsliuct jirofatHioiQ, tfaatWtbo 

Ono uf uitt aoM bcnaftcCa] rt«utta cf tUo npid dctoloiiiiiout of Itift 
eoft1-Ur niliiur Imloiilry Iioa bcvn ii8 iiidtiviiO'.'* ujiou tht* ttncuuit Art nf 
Jjraagp vhtnh nuia bst vofy iilcu- adTknca until tlio pr^vrtkiuti of ttaH 
liuftt vf WUliftat, reoilUjF applimlla c^L1lo^r» ciiiaplot«[j rQTolulioui«^^| 
both U fttul the ftfi of oJiou pjiuting, ^^^ 

Iq ttdMnmriiw W ruriuab ttuuitf idtft of iLu imufiiitailu oT thn 
OAftl'lar H'kmr ImlriBiry. [ may fitftUk thai ttie ttiUl vtiino -.>f Urn 
coftl-tef colour* producod in 1$^^ anicnntod to About H,jUi^,tiOO'< 
Tb« TftlDv f f tlift aluptfiiio ahiI ib related Ajt» •vXdch ftrc ij*od witb it 
f«T«ilil>ini.-i{; nu^ioas sliadcft of duJu&t, nuifr ftinouuta to tt\*>\xl unt^'lijilf 
of Uin tiMftl prodim oi ll^o C4>itl-;«f colour induKtrj. TJuir tcuini* 
bfftftiv in Kjirimnd bi i*oii>idcmb|e qiiADtttiftn Atill cauiii^iAi-^, t>^: it !■ 
ft iMttgCfttiro ImH UulI tbc \%lnc of tbo Jtrtificial bJiJEuriii*; itii|J4jrU>J 
latoiU coftaUj frwn ibo Ci>iiLiiKHl Wt fcsu-, vntd 2r^lMfi^^ 'i\ktt4J 
Iba BTarft|(u imlno uf otihJiltir aI JJtJ. vht Lb,, mij Lk^ imaI uf iIa u^ni 
\fUX {ft KTtiticdftl aliuuJnn ftl ono»}i»iJf|vrimj, thii iiLi4r>iit^ impurtoi£, 
rftJttod At 6-f. per lb., wi^old re|ktii)»«ijt ftbont 3,D9T,L'CrOL 

1 Toitnrv to Uiiiik tbat it witJ be itLknatinic at ^U point, %o qui'tti 
mtao wiffdi of moW^ iiiuluJcd lu Frolccwur Hofuiuurn iruporliutt 
' Beport ou tu CmtiuicuI 5<t^tii>Ti uf the Eibibitifiu of 1^63/ uid to 
i&(|fttni to wlwt «xU4it tboy hftvobMru voHflod. la 0J:iTiiiu44itfa;; upui 
fliw of Ibo fcBtOfw of groAlovt uovdtr in th4t vr<^tU'« ^Jimr, tho 
dbibitiun of the first d je [i^Iucb dcrittd Itmb o:4il-tftE, bo >u>» ; — 
"U c**l budrtliuvii ftuouLc or luUn' tu fiubtrivodc, \f» tlm |*Hmnry 
ftVOK* of oolmtr, fill tbo ooctly dyttwwKlA bkb«*rio cojisuhh^ m tbo 
onftftMOitfttJoft of tcKiilc Jnbrictf ; if tbii vingiJAr ohoukioJ rotulutioa, 
m far firoca bouig a1 all n^D</tc, ia \i tbu mr^aot ii; tL« vticy ^ct utjd 
focn^ i>f giiMJuuI aci^fmjilialuuuut I urc wo tiol ciu tbi: wii of |iru£Lm[id 
BAjdiSotiott* (it lbf< ofimiriiiriTiAl n'lxLinrix b^tiviMii tlio gtvbt uob.>iir< 
ecctfcmuig UMJ oidoar'|krodacitig roginiitf of tb<i ^Ir>lH> V Ercntuablios, 
•Ucb a vrould bo prcftUiapttKiatf to predict lu coitaiit, it luOiy bo por- 
ttSifJblo ftiiil pn>dcct to ^jiTccikat u pfuUtble ; oud tlicro Ia fair rcu^'ii 
to MieffT it prubuMo tbnt, brTfurv lliu ]ictrifHl i/f ikciullw-r [bn-niiMl 
Ddiibttioo ftbAlI arnr^, Ksgtund w\\\ bavik kciLttjt %a> dL^pvu'l, fot tho 
T'HrinLr of tbo oolotitw cbo oo largely <ioplL>ya, inAiiily, if tU'i wUc>llf, 
0& bcr uwu fi^AAil starcft, ludocJ, to tlio cii(;iuic4l uicid it t^ixnnot bo 
dfiiabtftll. lltot in tbii ooaI IwUCfttb hc^r fvtt lie qniliiiij U.\ bo di^nu 
lank, oV^K ** tbic HtAtDo llo« VftLtlng; in tbo i^niLrrj, Ibo fututil i^tUva- 



Sir fWimeft AM 


loot* of ILa l«ai|c fAric* of oMtlj dyo tut^riftU far wbioh eli^ b** 
UiharW rttnrtt'^ tho trlbatAiy of foroiga olimei. TuaLcaJ af dk- 
bnvaing lier uHnal millifkUH for lh«u> subEtanMai, Kn^1[Ltiii will, 
tfr^oii'l qoMliOD* ftt no diiluat dtkj b»ooiii« iMnoIf tlM grc«kt«t folottr- 
|iru<liuuig 4>rmoUT in tlio worM ; nav, by tko «trui]:(c«t of r^rciUtiuiiff, 
ak« DMj «n tonf tcnil her oul -lion vc4 blur* tu inai£i>-j2ti;viui;IiKLa, 
bnr tHMUtQIod criuiHuu tu oocliitcwl-pn^Dc^iug Mr^xiHi.n^dbrrfottil 
vtibrtiiiitw f<LT <|ii«t«ltfl>D vn-\ ftifflow^'r to Oiina^ Jik|«ir, tod tb« otbor 
«oiiDtriM whoDO* th4*« orCicliW ir^ nov d«rivod. 

** C>.^bl ftuil imn, it boa bccD «kid, ft» kinipi of Ibe <*rfli, and 
oar IftloA cbcniicol Tlcluric* iiccm di^tina! lu mUl uiaUtor tu4 
laofiDCO to llie Hoii;mioii (if cun}. nnfl « fn^li vlt^mfTrit of aeiraopciid 
fiodoiDiiuiuou lo it* airMily pow^rftil |Kwa««8cira.'" 

Bi> fihT «« ooDOcn^ tho dUplacfiTaonl of SDAddor, oocliin^cl, qua- 
cEtroD, Mffluwer. npil other tiAtnnl iWd miitcnAl* from tb<;ir ]mi«juodi 
of cmnmuid in tbi; mm-kc'ta uf Ba^uid uid tlio vrorlil, Hofoinsn'ft 
|iT«diDei(Jiui liATO bMU afn[|1f fUl£Ued» md U tppafeMd^ ia the oftrUor 
UBJB of tbeoonUtor colour bdiu>trT,Afl Ihongb boiroald b« ui ^b*"! 
traopTOpbclinTcgudto 1-^jcluidWomiiicbcrH'lf ^cicrcfttcrtoolonr- 
ducirjg country iJi tbe vorU. But, ahituugU Gormjuiy did 1ittJ« in 
dftja of ioikiicTj of ihid indu^Lrr, b-^yrmil ]ir<Klucrii|^ n fow of tbo 
lOwn oolonra in » coinevbil impctru cviTiihtum, tiLnnj joath did not 
dtpM «T0 abo not only y^ our G>qTi«l in ivj;ar\l (o tbo nDftUAy of tbo 
dyin pmducod, bnt» lunroriTor. htid oiitntrii^KHl ttn m Uta quutiliea 
manufai'iupi'd ntid in itu lulditioua niorlri t> Ihn Vftrititii* of vnlTiikhlA 
dyed Bcut into thi> Taarkt't Tli« f<i]|(>vvirkg (■ tbo Mtinuitcd Utal 
Tiduo of coal-(^ oiilourft maiiitlWl»r(>d lu tbo ncircnd frodiiciD|; 
countriw M Ut \^k M l878;"Gi=nnany. 3,000.0Ct*/. ; En^ibod. 
<80,nn0i:; Fnuic*, 350,000r; SwiUcilaijd, -liO^OOUf. TJit*) ft^m^ 
kbow tbnt tbo rnliiri of tbu inAkc of oloun in KngUnd vom )nu ilum 
otic-fonHh tbnt of Gvnuiiuyi MicL tb&t otvu Stntscrlanil, vbii^b, in 
OoiDpcting; vitb otbut couotri^A inJuatHally ia At gr««c iiAtnr>1 di>- 
ndfuiilitcoB, wiitt iitit fur U-btnd uji. mukJDg ci|iuiL lu Fimqcv u 
producora. The snpnritJT |irn(iticm at Gtmnftuy in rr^fnrtmcfl ta litis 
induBtry tatkv be Id a nrvatfiiru uicribablo t> komo dcfccU in tbo 
operation of our I'atont Liiivt aui.t to qaontiuiu of wn^v and oon- 
ditlouB of l&boQr; but lb« cbicf canfio U tc Lv found i» tb« tliomngb 
re^itifttioit. by tbc (lorraau luiuiu forturflr, of bia dctptiDiloiioe for 
vuooeea and eontiniitJ frogrt^ss u|>oei tho activo praooontion of 
aoiontifio roeojirob, in tlio bigb tmiuinj^ r^coiTOd hy tbo ^bomiiita 
atkLcbed to tbo mauufaclorioR. aud in tbo mtimato nonociation, in oT«ry 
dirocttoD, cf BjaT^iimtiv hi-itrnlifiv JuvoAtij^Atioii wilb t^'i'bnicat >rork. 

Tbo yonng chiMnisU which the Gcnnivn ciinufacturfir attrmolo lo 
bia vorbe r^uk muob highor tban outk in tho p«ncnt noioQtifio 
troining which ia cu^intiul to tbo Bucn^Ubrul futtir^hiion of tho bftbil 
of thuototic:^! Olid oipi^riiuoitta.1 r<^(i<>arobt nud in tbrj xxmscqucnt 
ajipre[>itLtiua of, nnd [nt^vr of jriiTfiiiiiig, orif^iiin) iDvnHtif^ntioiiH at a 
high ofdcr. Moreovor, tho wi!e*reh laboratoty oonrtilutc* on intagnd 


on tif ffWi: 4/lkt Imptriai fvififui^. 


du G«niMii bdcrj, anl tUo rcoaltK nf tho work cAn-i«rt oa 
iMkdn thft coutK^t pTofesAors and t<»ch<ni at llio iiravnnilin* 

paM4bl« bauiDflia npon tt« f irthi^r <ti?Tfl'>|iiiit>iiE of thu iu^lcttry, 

olw^on in Gcrmaajr i» d«auniatr*tctl uat only 1^ tbo mtiiifii^out 
m whkb ihtt Kiaitiflo hnuiulicH uf thu uiiiTeridtin am] thn 

OollflltfW UW MtftUldied nn^l niatMAiri'vU but nlco bj' ibo 

wljr wkicb muU b^twom Ibc diff-iriiut f^rad^B of viliinatiou ; % 

iBily, Um Uok of flbioli in Eagluid vswa roooutly i[i4ioAiwl l)j 

Hiulcj witk B'**>A force. Xf«r1f ever; Urge Ut^ii in 

bitiod* or hj pajmiml of small &a^ of roootviiig a higbor odaoslioti, 
^nkUfyiny ihom in duo oourfO to «it«r ccmm«rouil oi indusitnal Lifoi 
or ta> puv to the auirflnntioH ur to Uw uuljtcDtjaic ur ludinii»l high 
■dMoU, wttM, u ffK«t co«4 £0 the XtLttoii, biLV>f tH<en rlt^votopnt to ft 
iiiimiatih •El«al St rvoeot jo«r«, uul bSLVo n»qii«i'tJontbJj oxuroLnod 
ft noal li c ac fc i> l tndnooco upon llic tnule And i»QQnLf)rco of lb« 
eaVBlTf- A iDoat unpurt&Qt fciJurc; in iJ^u iluTvlipmcut uf thnm 
■*^fc**** ifl the imbJiTulon L>f iliB w<irk of ifuitrTi4.iLi<iii DThoiig n Inrf^ 
iram1i«r of prvftfuvont^ fch oov *n «clciMw)tfd2i»i1 nmhority id tL« 
paHical&j- Uracil of fCMdkO« «iUi vbicb bo aaiJ» Tlun, <tt tbo 
i/btIuiiLo Fuljt««baio ScbooL^^mo erf tbo T«rj cnrUvf^t of iU blud 
— vfaiefli ««■ KTofttlj «ahag(d tn 11)63 — t^c nauibetr of profnuoni 
» 41 ; mmI »t fitatt^il lh« teulung itAJF of the poljtccUiio Bchuol 
■■aiih !• (( ptnotifl, of wh<iin 21 tr* pvofeMora. 

Tlia IwytnrtMit f^rt Ulccn l^y tho Gcmk^u iin£Tor»i(((^A in tlie 
niainf «if jioong HftOD (op tti^lmiod puiviiilv biui ofbiii Ik^jq <lwclt 
m cofk«tit«tiTig ■ Nlriking fHittm uf cMjritrut to our uiiivrraity 
Tbo tvcnt^focr ii»iirvnitic>« in lliu <*unnaii KiupLns laub 
•riA ita oitaiMT* ftud «cU-oiiiiJp^ed eoioucfj do|NUtaioii1« a^iI nnipk 
fiWiwaBBl aUJl ooa4rih«t« na«l iiupoitMitlf to tbo indiutriul Lrum- 
ttg «f 1^ NftitKui ift ci>-ap«Tmling with tlia purely icftniod ■aknU. TIio 
lM>i WTJfird ui Um BmmH of iho Tocbuiu*! ICdontion CouimiuiLiu 
iW. ni tiu <ggrion it^3-l, tboro woro -lUO «t)i1outB ivorldug in 
lh» chowfft labonlorioa >l Berlin, und ibnt, dunuK tlio mei^o 
AO *l«dc«t« Toro cn^BffLil in tiHgiiul rvMAroli ul HoiJdj 
dM bkditionai d" Iho QTmI *^*b<»l <ff tiubEg >r« uYTtbil; m%\ui- 
), illuti«l« tliC iiMtiij^ftl ftprnwinlioa of thn opportuDiti«a prt^ 
tva ad'Tiiii^ timiiuux; >v(ia tljo apondiluro of 3t)(000l. upuu 
Iha plnwad Ul^jnluff. ftud ilS,l)00j. upcm tlto iiberniaftl dr^partmont, 
if iW Va^UftUflr^Uyof StTMbrmrgtBorrffl toUlusltaUi tlio tJtmpATiiig 
baftj vjik wliieh th« N«odraM oi tba ^uQtry crv ctevutod to tbo pro- 
TiMM of thoM «dii>nlk)a*] fedlitlM vhioh «r« th« ra^ Uf»«pniig of 
lW niltMltml progrcM vbcuoo lli<.i«o i<^«i>aiT<-fl ntr\ dmrod. 

la FruKtf^ adTaAnd nlncftlinn hwl Uicn allirvnl ti sink lo m law 
c^ifbiT tbo jirviTiDctal TunTC7<itU< liftd bucEi doitrojod in thti gr^nt 

114 Sir Frederick Abel [April 23, 

RcToliition, and the VmycTBiij of Paria hod been CDnstitntod by tlte 
first Nnpolcun thct solo ei^t of high education in the country. Before 
tha LlIq war, muttera educational wcro in a condition Tory dotrimoDtal 
to tbc poeition of tlio country among NationB, There was no lack 
of educational ostabliahmcnta, but the syatenia and eoqnenoe of 
itistmctioo lacked or>:^niBaIioD. 

Since tha war. Franco has made greot effbrts to replace her 
educntiiinal rcfeoorcea npno a proper fonting. The proTincial colleges 
have boon re-cstablishud at a cost of 3,280,000/., and the aonuiJ 
budget for theit support rcaohea half-a-mtllion. The orgoniaation 
of industrial odocation hae aovr been greatly developed, though still 
not on a footing of equality witli that of Germany. The ptactictl 
teaching of aciooce commenceB already in tho elementary Hohoobi^ 
and the groundn-ork of tcchnicnl instniction ia afterwards eeoordy 
laid by tlie higiicr clcmontary acboola, of which so many oioellent 
cxaoiples ore now to bo foood in difTorent parts of France: Erevy 
large miuiufacturing centre haa ita cducntional establiabment where 
technical inatmction is provided, with apocinl roferenoe to local 
requironicnte; tho Institute Indnetricl, at Liale, and tho Eoole 
Cuutt-nlo of Lyona, aro examples of these. In order to render 
tlioso colleges occoesiblo to tho best talent of France, more than 500 
scholarships have been founded, at an annual cost of 30fiQOl* The 
Ecolo Centrale dee Arts ct Manufactures, of Paris, still m«nto.iB> 
tho reputation oa the great technical uniTersity of the coontryf 
vhich it earned many years ago, and receives students from the 
provincial colleges, where they have passed through the esaentUl 
training preliminary to the high tet^icol education which that 
great institution provides, 

Switzerland has uften boon quoted aa a remarkable iUnatrafion 
of tho benefits secured to a Nation by the thoronghly orpniaod 
edacatien of its people. Far removed from tho ocean, girt by 
mountains^ poor in the mineral resources of industry, she yet hoA 
taken ono of tho highest positions among essentially industrial 
Nations, and has gained victories over countrios rich in the posaession 
of tlio greatest natural advantages. Importing cotton &otn the 
United BtatcSf she has sent it bock in manufactured forms, so aa to 
nndersoll the products of the American mills. The trade of watch- 
making, onco most important in this metropolis, passed almost 
entirely to Switzerland years ago ; tho old established ribbon trade 
of Coventry has hod practically to succumb before tho skilled com- 
petition of Switzerland, and although she has no coal of her own, 
Switzerland is at least as successful as France in her Appropriation 
of the coal-tar colour industry and her rivalry in rate of prodnction 
with Elnglafiil, the place of its birth and development. Comparative 
cheapness of labour will not go very far to acconnt for these great 
shcccbkob; they undoubtedly spring mainly from tho thoronghly 
organised eombiuatiou of scieutttic with practical education of whii^ 
the entire people enjoys the inestdnable bouofit. 


<m ll# ITofi oftU la^irial InttHitU. 


^^m Froa t]ie ftge of nx k> Inxlro, ox tlLtrt«on. tho c1ul4r» mnit 
^^Blf-Tid jinuaftry tfr:liui>H whtrts, tut tl:^ |iKj>ilH ft'lvftriL'^ lu h^ Uio 
^^iCnultOD beoonwa mor^ pMctiCAl* Tho application of tli9 Imow* 
lodgo ftcqairod m lli««o winkAf^ nebocb; i« cnItLVKk>d for tbn« 
jc«n «i tbo •o-cnllod '* Improvcmocit Sdtoolit," and npoct tliM» 
ibilow Uie C^uitaiml tlifth f^bouK vludi vb diTidn] jnio Uftdn- 
1 aeliiMls, anlof vhfrh lh«m am iriitT-«i>ren Ui tlio Mile 
of Zand) alooo. Abotv tboM Oidt^) arc n«e tiiUTi]rAiii<>» nud 
iokTooliAkal Inriitvto, nhich in RnppcEtc^i bj llic Fodi^AJ 
Govcnmfiitt, tho Cuitoii ilMlf iniWHbdcig liWivDy U itA niil. T( 
cmtm i^ mj Dnmunnu aUIf of profHuuM Htid tviM^bvrs, luid lIlo 
■«nb«r of tlndviils attoii'Ifog in so Urg4> tb»Ch ntfl^ifiovnl ob wbm 
te ■rtKUiMiiiiltti II wbicii it «]n«dy aOomUd, ao Ion thvi &0,0(ICf> 
^•«v roocoUj be<.-ci q-cni opcc ad^tioiuil c^omiMl hboratomv. 
AlttiWgh tbo GcnniM» Ikvv id mttmj IcdinioU ciiUt>g<^ nzn! djriurcnl 
»kiola thef go bi lufio nttmlMrt to th« Zitrich ri4iJtuu% urir] even 
a low Ea^mi oi'prociatf) <b4 ^M«t «idraAi«^ whiofa miul oconio 
from 1^ uorouj^h tntttiin^ ftlloinKblo in tliis irorld-rooawaod >ohool 
of Uvbnki, 

Hollapd fWraUbnc aooihor liHllinsC eump7« of ibu muvau Willi 

wbsoli a NalUm can bring (Im p^worof HTvtiiirintTc tMbniail cduDUiun 

lo htmr m OMmriiia ttf\ xDoiitUuijij; isdu«trtoJ viotonua in tLo £wo of 

Boot loroaUoblu SUaili^iit*ie«tt ntiiU llio Utiitod Stoics i>f Aiuvnua, 

■orirti ia natmaJ voMnurnM^ biTo long ainen rultitod thn imiTifinB^ty 

of adJittfiinal adfuila^ to b« gftinod OT«r Eiiro|wn.u Nfttidiii in t>io 

vir ai imindrj by a vide ^iffwioc an-1 tborjugli ct^^iaiti^n of 

~ viaooliosL So Ions » t'^t^J 7^^ >^^ |L<] Btnleaalmulj 

MTsn] excollfTiit rdncalioiul ji»Litiitiuft4 wUblUbeiL iifioit 

qS ikk Ociotiiuictal polrtcf^luikr Brbob)*, bat it wu not nnt^l 

afcuil Umb jcat* kioT tbat thu ffreat ndvaQCoa aoliL«Tod by (Jot^ 

ui torkmral ««tacaticai,citbi)o Aiiiortca. Iikn Fmaco, «pxbi»ooii- 

_ tipt prpgnao and ilufvolopatciil of acuao ciflit^r jikIumItiov, 

Tha mbynt VM ot onco nuwlo n ttaopovghljr naiiJ^ml riofi. nnil {| 

k a»« JoaC vpOD ft iiiurlor of a ooDtiuy a;^ bIui^o Cnut-roui i^nbui^t 

ffaii mt^ filalc ibonll ptoTMo at Koat una collo;-;, liAriog fir ilii 

kvfiag u tj^ c ta tho diiTmioii of edODlifio imirutJli^a iu lis rtULicKui 

to tin Maati^ of th« oomtryr anil decrmd tbit jiablk- huvU hImiuM 

b« ffaiBtvl to tSo Statoi aM TorritoriM proTiiU:>g nniib f^Iti'^nH. 

tfinBOt^ tLft Btoto cif Kctr Vg«k roooiTnl cIiitc upon a huUidh octca 
of luid, and out of iLib gtant grew tbu I7juifi:rEuty uf Q>ruuU, 
vUdb oodU bo calb<J »pfm tn tvlnpato AOO oliiiloiito fnio of 
44vfft mnicr tlio oooditiij«ja of tbo gmit, uid vhioh crai alroadj 
ai vufk ia 18(7, kriuc in tbo moaatimo reocitied moot im|HiriAut aid 
bwD m wmlommKni of lOO.OOOf. by a priTvte oitU«ai. Mr. Cornell. 
TWaMaUaad «A«t of ibi*- ^thk aotion nitd of f^reat privato mfmfA- 
. ■ mmarln"" ntfi^ j0rob>|»iucDt of aoioiitiflc and toduiical 
tftf^MtMiPt xito country ; bcaidvd aom*> fifty cotk^^, with 

t 3 


Sir FnHrnt^ AM 



fight «ir iibu llioQMiirl ilti4«nt^ irtiioh vprutg oQlof lh« L^ad Gr«nl 
A«l for Itt^ntml f^vxiaUoa. m^o u« now m U^o fitatos abciat -140 
OtW nniTRDiitiiv And oillcgn {yni)i 35,000 ftt)i<]^iiK nrnt t«tw«rf^a^ 
5000 and 6000 teuihanV m m large jiropartiou of vhirh efficioat^ 
jnatmclioa in i^Tpliwl coifnioe it provldod. 

AiDon^ il>o moro ^nMainoBt of Amorioft'« teolmical foliooli m 
llio Blontie lutitule i^ Technolo^. New Jon*j ; the PtfaiMxlTuB^i 
PDljtAchnIc rViIIogD, FhiUilDlpbia ; t!bo tAwrmm S-^ifinoA 8<^!ji^>lt in 
ooniuotioa willi Harvnrtl fninTvitv; IliA CoJnmlHA OoH^ luid 
School of MiiiM, Notr Vorlc; tht* MLUAcbnMIs Inntitato cT Te*^- 
&olo0, BoflloD ; tho Kn^i»c^rin]£ ?t:Koi>l of tUi MiobiuAii Utiivoml^ : 
Iho LAflijntto Collv^, rcniLkylvkuin : tbo Jhfm-Tift^jiriil Okltvge of 
liOciiUftbft Dtiivrntity ; tlm Dninn Uniwnitj, Hi]o<lA IgTcidiI ; wti^ 
ingtoD Collcgv, Tir^miu; Udjou Co11<}^t SobonrMiiIy : uid Ao 
Bhiploj Bohool, ill coniiooti<'ii villi tbo OomclJ I'nirtrtitj, Tn tio fl 

OMsial nvtk ftcociiupli«h«tl witUiU ft fiiw }rcar« tjy Ibi-hr uud tiiKiix utLot V 
highly imporlAitt HlacalfonAl mrit[tiitii>na, whUli hikvn plftOi]<l tht 
t^MiMoxt of ipientifio knonlc^dgv wttliin tbo fcnck of tb« Terj 
biunbtcet, tho enoruoiu atridoa mftdd b; tbo Unilod StftU* in Hie 
daTotojimaut of hotat mJuatrlea TDUt iiuqaoatii^iublf bo iu tbo nuia 

"Wliib fxtiiTliDg thn comprahnniHTo Ait<l w«i11-nrpnkisMl tjatou ot 
tAcbuicoJ f^lnoatioii cuiKting in all partd cf tbn Conbi&«tit aiid llifl 
lT&ilo.1 Slatos, bit rm nut acdcnrulac the groat pr^ifroM ttbiub Iiba 
bt?0Ei itLndt? iu rvouiit yvnn tu Oroul llrJtHJii iti iJii? advftnrTnrncnl aiv) 
Pit/^itHlrrn <>f in^hiiif^il Jnptniniion. Tbe KoyftI Cominintoi] <m tba 
r>oiirt)«]ioii cjf Trade ftnd Indtutrj ntAto, m Iho roeult of cridcaco 
coUcdod by them, tbal ^' lb would b« did^cult to oaIudaIc Uid oxtmt 
tu nbkb our iuJiwlrioe bare Uon ividvil in vikricriui vikjn hy the 
ndvuiiry^ of 4^1(i(»eML*]'y, sfrloiilifii^ titid UvbnJoiLl edufotion daring ibe 
lul Iwiinty ycu^m," 

Tho inipotiaut inflaonao cvfircinc'd bj Ib^i ftdminhblu vork vbicb 
tlw orgM)ii<^tioa of tho Bijimco Kud Art Ocpaitmonl tjB« iio;uiu|'1islied, 
apon tliH JiitLilltivtuid uliI [iiuturiut prciginu at tlicf NaEiroi, In nr^vr 
thorju^^lily Trt^i^iiifli-nl. rnrf^aiior Hiiikw, tho Dt^u of ibe Xcvraa] 
Bobool of SciicnoOf in his r<N?out irnportAiit u ttor " On Ibo orf-aniution 
of UidiutriAl cdu<^otion/' ban reminded Tifl tbrkt ^'tliu dnsMrtt ]jowi»Ul>- 
liahed ftU over tbo oauutry iu <M>uu(iuti(m whli llmt ilripMirtmou 1, doI 
OOlf provtdo «lnm«ntiir7 inAtmoti^n «4<«oU]l>lo to ftll, bat oAW tb« 
BMtAH vbcroby tho pick of tho cAp&bU stiid^ntfl may obtun in Ibo 
■oboolA lit Soatii KcDaingloti fki gccA ft bigbor cdooitiDQ in Scicttco 
ftDd Art u in to bo b&d m tbo oooQtrr" and " thut U in from tbifl 
vonrott Oml tUn utipply itf wlouce &nJ Li:'t ((fu«bt-r« in dnrirod, tfbo iu 
tuiii tntiJji tbt! fildndflnl of rlfimimlflry ^idtirnlioti " pn^vidod tr UiO 
fcchool Ucinixlft. Tho ctii>iu,ion cf fooiJition for Hio orfuoaticin of ibrrAc 
eufw^cd m urt-iiHiufltrita ia coiiKtnT^tly ahtivd nt. m yna nsJintly 
d(3mDU8iiHt4?J by tlitt fi'i»ljou of fr** ntuduntHhipPi for ftrtluioi* in 
thd Art Schools nt SriTitb Kfaifrin^tork, 


on iU Work t^i3u Imptriai rmttitmie. 


fart Ming Ljwiu of tbo Ucitol KiupJoui fur <4KV'nrtmin^ iha itlivlj <>f 
«c>«noe m il» «pf4k»Liu(a io iuJuatcncn, by Uiun nbo iutoud to diivolo 
tlMmavlivi to MBMt bm>c1i uf nitnufttdtiiru or tmilp, Tim Ityl tfi tho 
tfUbUnbmtct tn abovt tiv»iilj-Qt# Uivru* m EiL^atiil Had 8cutLind, 
■ad u two or tbroo in Indu^ oif oolb>ipv« of aciUDOO oorrttttpoihliDj; 
crlc^to ibe Codticc^jtal pttljlcxibnic xibaolibMid kcomjdubiujt 
«ii uork la tAiiiio^ btaJoula m thu diffcnmi bmnrEm of 
Ln tbflir A|>|dinitJciii<tf>iii*iinfBolur«auifl ibd ftrU. A nucnbur 
, Kicb u llid Owon'a Collnfp^ Muobwl«r, tho Y<jrk«bLro 
ftt Loodtf, ibo Gla^ffoir and Brnkifurd Toohjuufti ColltT|[i^<i, tbe 
CoUogo it SluiSobl, ftud ibtf Mft«i>n'tf (*ulkgo «t BimiiiJKbjkjn. 
bftto wlibtiidieJ a bigb rvMt^liiMi m sclifioU wburu iiui<i^i.<c hi iu 

i^p>rUuU7 -wlvftfo^d. 

Tbo Wi^ltiucr of tbc Oilj CompauicB. «omc of ir^IcK lijbl I^jug 
klMiiiflpd viilb injianAtit i^luoitioiiiil <«t4h]iHbmoi]ta, uutuci'iuid 
«itb tk« Corponilioii of tbo Oitjr uf LoiiiI<>ti iit<url^ lr<n 
jvftr* Ago locrtUilbb >au»aiuMiiii>ufijrlL«^TftAOcjn)Oiit(>f toobnWl 
edvctttioB, ivbidt ba« alroadj carried out cao«4 important work. Tbo 
fiMiifyof ArU. wbicb LLitiftUid tbn ajulom uf cutiiiliiAtknjii, ftfU>rw«rdii 
■0 ncCKWfdHj dflvcLupcd bj Ihe SdnilCM ftcd Art npjrartEiiDtit, svt on 
Ibot ubd modortvilfor s»rural yu4rv<fxaxaliiftCJoii« orNrinn&A iu & fuw 
brvv^o« oi locdiEkdiiiO'. Tbi« UAoM vrork «M r«Iinq»i«b«^d ui 1879 

bM faaoa nvt mlbd^lury. *I ht» niiiultfT <ir cundiiUtoB thna pm- 
iKliPl^ lbaift«clf«« waA 302. dtntnbnU^ or«r twut^-tLnc ce&lrua 
*b«n asunadituiu wcro bold, fuiir jcun tflurvmnb) (1HK3) tbo 
B«aib«r pvfCDilQK tbocLtnWue for ai&oiinulii/iiA ww* S8&7, Hud Inab 
*iar tbe7 amcjiimal in 47|j4. Tbi> ntattn^ wliDra oiikmiuntii-iiH ftrv 
bcU b*T« been iucrH^od U> iSti, and tb« umnbor uf Aubjoctit dcnlt 
*itb, from UuHccn to ibrtj-oigbl. Tbe bukoitoid ]iil]ij«u<Mi iiicrdMd 
bf ibiMa Mcuaibftliuitt npoa iJic dorolopmout and ijilctiiitoD of 
^ff*"'"*^ UMLmcti^'ii ill tbu umuafholorluft dinlrlol* ibrtvuj^ljoiit tbu 
mmntrj U alra«dy v^ry mnTkfiL Tho adoplba of iho RyEtcm. 
nripmt»l bj tba ^iTitbcc aad Art Dcpartino&t, i>f oo&tributing to tbo 
p^fnCftl oC kacbon in |riv|>ortioa to tLic nmocOMai attaiuud hy tboir 
pukk it flpoCAliUlg UWflt uwooefuUy m proniutiui^ Ibu otiUMipiljmout 
ad axliiMiim of rlM^m tot tnntrcirtjon in ^<l!]|^t^c!Iil fiiibjfH-U. in 
C K Ufc Mw n vitk MechMifce^ Iiutitatoft utid otiior «ducriituiDiil o^tnbllBh- 
■Mtfea m ntfat «ratra af i»lwtryi In IS^I. tho ntimbcr uf obutetvtt 
is fi&nyt pvi» of Ibe oonuvtrr &ud lat'trupvlia vrbub aro cou[i4>clvd 
«Ui tk «ualMtIon« cf Ikt IiiKiitm* ivu -20:^. bHviu^ Gaor> 
rtalMilii. >bd IliM jotf tbo tiiunbor of claauc bju riiton to S&T, uid 

Ao Tocbmical ('cU«j^ At KLnsbory wa^ tbo fint ^ntat pnoti^ 
at tin ellbrbi oiwlo by tbc tJUy and Guilds' ItiHlilulu Lu 
exifltltig firliimtfoiisl aacbin«Ty. by Ibfi cmaiioii of ut<ihn'>- 

I IS Sir Frederick Abel [April 29, 

logical and trade achoolfi in the metropotia, and tLe rwnlta, in regard 
to Dumber aud EucceaB of stadecta at the dfty and ovening BchooLi 
of tliiLt LDiporCaTit oBtabliehment, havo afforded conclnaive demonetra- 
tioo of the benefits vhich it is already conferHag upon joung 
vorkcre who, n-itb ficonty rpeana at their command, are eame«t in 
tlioir doeire to tndii thomsclTea tborongMy for the snccessfol paraoit 
of iiidustrios and trader The evening coorsee of itiBtmction are eape- 
cially ToJuflblo to Buch mcmbere of tbe artizan classea a8 doflirei at 
the clo8o of their daily labour, to dovote timo to the acquisition of 
BcicntiSc or artistic knowledge The eyfiEom of evening olawOa, which 
was puT^ued, in Che firfit inBtance, at King's College and one or two 
oilier metropolitan echoola, was most succeaefutly developed by tbe 
Bcienco and Art Depattmcnt^ and, being now aapplemented by the 
important Avork accomplished at Fiij^bury Cullcge, is reallyf in point 
of orgnuieatioDT in advance of aimilar work done in other conntries. 

Another department of the City and Quilda' Inetituto^ of a aom^ 
what different character, but akin to that of the Finabury College 
in the <kbJL^cta desired to be ncbiered by it, ia the South London School 
of Technical Art, which is also doing very useful work, while tbe 
cliief or central Institution for Technical Education, which oom- 
menccd its operatioua about tbree years ago, if it bat continno to be 
developed in accordance with the carofnlly matured scheme which 
received tbe approval of tbe City and Gnilds* Council, and with that 
judicious liberality which has been dieplayed in the deaiffn and 
niTaiigcmcnt of the building, bids fair to become the IndnAtrial 
Univcraity of the Empire. 

As Olio of the first stndontfl of that College of Chemiatry which 
became port-parent of our present Normal Schools of Science, and 
tbo crcaliou of which (forty-two years ago) constitnted not tbe least 
important of the many services rendered towards tbe advanooment of 
scieuti^c education in this conntry by His Boyal Highness the Prince 
Consort, most vividly I remember the atraggling years of early 
e:(iKteocc of that half-starved but vigorous offspring of the great school 
nf Lifbig, bom in a strangely nuaympatbetio land in the daya when 
tbe HtuitcnC of science in tbis ooantry still met on all sidea that pride 
of old England, tlie practical man, enqniring of him complacently : ati 
huno ; quo hono 7 That ardent lover of research and instruction, the 
enthusiastic and danntlc^ disciple of Liebig— my old master*^ 
Hofmaun^ loyally supported through all disconragomcnt, and in the 
sevorcbt atraita, by a small hand of believers in the power of scientific 
research to make for itself an enduring homo in this country, sue- 
eceilcd in very few years in developing a prospcrona school of ohem- 
istry which soon niade its infiucnco felt upon British indoBtry; and 
it is not credible that leas important achievements should be occom- 
pliehcil, and Jess speedily, in days when the inseparable connection 
of science witl I practice hofl become thoroughly recognised, by an Insti- 
tntion createilf and laniicLod under most auspicious circumstances, by 
tboBu powerful roprcijentatives of the commercial and indnstrial 


am lA« Work qft^9 Imfenal hvtitaU, 


^nmMiy at Uio Rmpiivs «li<\ Iwroro all otbori, miut raallM 

TiUDMMcitjr £>vc!aWMli>M«i<rt)oa«,«Ti>a fur much MlfMorifico a 
tbe iwi— J»*«^ (ovieBi, lo ncaror our 1q«( ift^aud Li (ho DwuuiiciuN 

]l faM faen mli«Mljr dumocttlrMed hy tliD rtpfd in^rMA* wht»i Iioh 
•a jtUo« in dbe ltinmb«r of joo^g luoo mho. ^uiLlifio4 by tlcir pn>- 

pleta eorrknloDk of thi« OcDtnJ Ia«tilutv, Uuil tliu uombiuii*, 
«ilv«nced aduutlAc tislrvrtiiia with pmcticfll trabiin^ whlHt 
onarw> oT tfndj iiiTahr«, vlH be taach nought tSxtt bv joiiiig 
wImm pr^Iiuina^jr od«<nlioa Imm f|.itolifi«d &esn fur •duuMMi^, 
a&d v|tt«o firobftbld faioro car««x vrill bo mUrv«f«a Vktlj lUo odtu 
iBOd of otHi ur olher of Uic grat uuJwtricii of our txmalrj. But, 
^ ibe ttKMl iBLHwluil fi&TioiiuMf of tfao C(iEi:ml TiMJinicnl C<>llfiig9< 
«lio«l(I Oon«i4t Ui il^ t^ <riVi<-lTtr'Mr>i:i^ nf 1'>«t'fi»rf nf «p7ilictl B««ikOo.<{ 

vhile Ibedr noocwiful orgmUitkia Jm loJ lo IW «BUbluLiuttub of] 
cJwBv uf i&ilnictiuti. vutiplcnnieBbuj In (ha gononl mltm^ Iraclilni 
ifl mwy btga uui«fiK«ar^g eoalra,tLo izicroMi« in Uic iinmt«r 
— ^rt^***T* OAMiuiud La« U^m aooompoftivil l>j on inorcuo in tlio pu-J 
HMli^ of liiilvro* lo |M«i Ike cxftniuatioiu, »u>l tliAt die tiu|>tly 
« Htiov dctfcfaoN^ ia caip|irtciit Icoclxm na8 cwtfn^Jal t> u miliisl'^ 
imp VTUi will in fodioml «i]uoaii&ii, Tho work of t1i« City uid 
l#«Jds* ivliMl* im Ibia diM^liou iw ulr««dy bovn «^ bcf^im^ond il 
U ia Uh fttrt^onkM 44 thAfl, bj tlio orguiiMlion vf vnuicoDionto 
kr beililiLiit^ llio *it<i>d«a< c of iai*aootcw.borB for «itiricaHiLi iHidr^v 
•t IIm Cbnlni ravUUilo« or Vi more ftocusaiblo pronDdfll iix^linioJ 
iiilUgii^ Ikftt tliv Imtfttitl lutdttnlu pwy b^po to clo fC<^ vnrk. 

Wii^l taki&S ftuy dir<cl pnrl iu Llic duty of oducuiion, it i» 
ptffpklpl lb*b Ibe ImpotuJ loMittitu will uiliri^Iy ouiitt in Uio 
dumni urgRAifMlott nf tM^uic^l iiuarnirlinn, and fu iiifiiiitADftnoO 
<a » feotiftg^ ftt loMt <if «<|nlit3% nith iLat providod in otlwr 
tawMimf bv (bs mlau of inlvrooDuiraiuccbtivn whiob it will 
inliTJiffli and »4lfitalii bi>tw«a trah&jod tnd aoi«(Dc« ocbooU ; by 
tba dUTAnUoii of infanDUu>» robitiuff to llto pntgrem ^ tt^Tiuicol 
ptenlirm ■l:rfMiJ,to iha {ircBgPo»ivo doT«li>|ir[inDt <if init»atritiA> and 
tt* n^ nbttncEBU of Itxjoo vbo intoiul (u bufiuc thoia; by tbo |irc>- 
fiii— <lf iBjoarwa in tbc (rmir of nuUoral fur cxiieHmcutal W4>r)(, muI 
BiMlnlinaft iif i^uw ixidiitlriaJ auyowiuciito^ Wid by « vtu-itiy of olUtir 

Th« ptoviniift of liicaEtiM to toubDrv in domanUry tdiools (o 
yy oTh UNTir kMnvlcdgo of ccicnco utd Ibcdr i>oir«r of imputinfc 

of HM|ib [mctml ■{•viiXMlnlJMn of M^fulitln |iriiu-ipli.v iTivdlvtid 
i% tb« |ici_Mii»1f[iyiiif il4:ly )tf^ CDbMJliiliiM auotht^r ilirxKitiim in wbicli 
i«p«lBftl prof^raM day bo vonlo toih^ardfi oiUbli^Iiiu}; lliut ci'Utiuuity 
■ipfiBtirj auil advanoud uJui^ua vJiK'b kH «u w«U 
B iIm Cvnluicnl. Tfc« citpaaiuLiuu uf iadiilicv, comUaod 


Hh Ftfittidk AM 

[April »» 

wjtfa Ukkrid ftftJ. to bo prorEdod lo joiui^ aitisus wbo Bbkll %Sh^ 
«MM U^tuBftl* «riilanc« of «Df«rliir ualural iulclligcnoo ojiit » 
ttriviag ttfter aolfiiropfOTamoiit, ta duUg thom Ui dbftudon far t 
tino tho datj of luraftd-viiiiiiiig, uitt to work at oiio or ntbor of tho 
todiBiMt Bohoolo in Loadon or tLe iiroriiKTiiil dentrco, will tjc aucHW 
otjod lo wbich Uia »*oiLm« of Uw luiperul luntitEitit iiL^.iiy hs 
«^IUd ywfy biiiflflcfmlly, Nat nnlj vill ihn intnllEg^iit vuikiDftii*i 
knovMgft of llio faa^amcstml pHadploB of hw cnfi ■>r lnd» bo 
tbenbf pffonotod; Id* Maoointion ia work uid ntody wtlh ollion 
wKo are pormuDg Uio vciqmmiicii of kiuQirlctl^ id Ji^cr«iit dirccttou«, 
wbkb ■! Aral nan to blm sliei) If* hi* iienuiul pnraoiu md ta■U■^ 
M Qonio in tlfoa to iioanirs ictormt or impottuico )a hte ojoi, viU 
bring Sotao to bim Ibo ^vmotagoiof » wider and iiii^rt> ^omprcbouAto 
■oopo of icMtraotioiL. tkn-i ihc oaUrgcmciil of bifl linn-A icjpudiog tbo 
vilue nod pl«ttnre uf k&otvl«d^ wjlh iti (uru. oLerciacf k IkronnhU 
laioflQW la tbe mm% itlrttftlnn iijwjn l)>oii^ vrilh vhom bo aftonnffdi 
flCi&M into ormtoct. Tbo cnmpLD^ inducMics wbiob tbo ^att mb' 
ditivion of btb^iir, roAnItiiift f^wii tbo dcTelopmont of uicohaiiic»U 
fdijaicoJ, ond cLcmiciLl ticiL-ui^, In cvlouUtui to favoiu, EonHt tbiis 
be^rono oounturfti^Utlt wi\\ tbe wurkicMi will r4<«l]i«, Uu-t if bo ia to 
Hbo ftbOf^ tbo It-Trl of tbo nrdinftry skill^l Ubonrar, puro dcxtorit/ 
io tbo ptftioLilar briLDcb of tbot lr»d« whii^ ho hat ntiidio bio ft^l l T rg 
lAiut b< aupplctiiontcd by vi noqtiaiijtancc with iu L-L>]£iiAto bmui-'LL^Fi, 
bj nmne knowledge of liw irriuulplw whii:ii imdrrlin bin work, and 
1^ HcniH^ faniili&Ht^ vfUi tbo tTttdeH tllJed to liU callitig. 

Thu impoTtuwe of brinalDg t4MhikKio) inttnictLou witbin tbo rooob 
of tbo noodj ecboWo of ibo^owor inidillo c1*m amd not bo dfvolt 
npiiii, and tbcm con be no i|Uc<(tiDn that oim of thn nir*«<t |icnerfitt 
tni'*(io of protikciting iLr «^tiiDition ot tn-biiirnl rdurntioQ nil! bo tho 
wl>11 ornuiuud odiuiiitctTmtiiiD of a njtilly orunprcUouHiTD «j«tom cf 
BclKiliirAiiiA, to bo JEidicion«Jj olilifod >d «taTiooti<4i witb tbc wqU^ 
cvtabliidiud collii|£vo ftiid ncborjU of iicioi^ov otid l^buica tbruugbout 
tbfi pniintFT. in KUnb |in>|H]rtioniL m In niiwt loc>J rrvjuirrtmonU ood 
cfc«itgiiig conditiontfL TbAt o gocNl fuuDJation for vocb a Bjiitf^tn of 
HcboJorBbipa U likoij oro lon^ to iiniauut^ from tbc ru»iircc« m tbo 
ICayil CuuLmiMiou of 1861, um oltouly hwn n^cinMy ludiuatod in 
"tiV uf itri riTjiortff ; may ^t m>t oltui bi>pii t)uit mnhy will bci found in 
onr Empirn tauW ta folluw tbo oxarnplfi of tlip Ut* Sir Jo«>pb Wbit- 
w<irth, and to n-ot in outijotion of the pBtriotiittn of ^cxio men who, 
b; mqaifi'TQut dun&lioun or ludowmcQlb m kid of tLo nork of bnii^Jiig 
InduFflrml udut:dtii>u itiUiEu IIju tt-n'^b of h\[ clnKHiH in tliu UniEud 
Sliit"!*, hftvfl liflfn^d Ui pUrfi otir Crinirinft in tbn posiifi.^n t" bold tbdr 
own Ckud otj'iro lo victory, in tbo nup of mduelry f The Ihornnghlj 
ropi'eoiiiitati7o chftrAPtor vthioh it in intonilod to maintain fur ll»o 
gcjveniiiig Ltjilj of tLc liri|iunA] InbtUiiiti» will Btcutv tlto wioo od* 
itjiuTHtmiiuu liy it iif fumlH nf tiiiu kimK dfi(1i(iHt.<i1 to th^ fTitctmiun 
iLud porf«oti':>n of national cutab1i«hni4juifi for t^ioUnical «d aoMion, and 
to tbo onooorogaaoat of iU pnrsait, in tho vnj« aboTo indicikt^d. bj 


a fft# Wtvk a/ike Tmptriat ItuiUht^ 


tiio«» «iioM oiMuvDflUnoit voali oUwrvriao f ravoat thvm from on- 
iojrin^ Uw ttdTBntafM sM^rod %a lfa«tr fellow- ^orkorp in otli«r 
O4tairl0n. Srvftml oilnr dircctiikn* r«a4i]y «iis^i^«t tl^mauIvM 
vfaieh th* jnflidonB wltninfitnliini] nt mwnrcat iri aid nf tho tnclinit 
tniwinf of eligible men of t>iu nrtiaAn oltiu ooul<l wll f^rna fpoii of 
Ifav »rgiiii»oi vovk of Iho Kipcriol InAtituto. 

B^ Uw Mtebluboiiiitt uf au Editcftti<^[i brAiieli ot ifa* InteUigeDcai 
nApttrtAMit, whi(?h TillfciTtn ft vary prnmitintit B4!tii>norUiaIai| 
iMilato^ ihm «-orkmg of the oolkgH uid *clLw>ltf of nppJtwl m 
■n ftU fttfti of the Lkih^d Kn>gdi>m vtiLl b» inLncKiiiiQcd and ft««idlodp* 
«nd ifae isfoauftlio* omtinafJUBlj coU«clod froit^ kIL (luiuArt^a rulnliugi 
bi tfdaMlkntl irork «yl thd »|i|i1icAliciu of IIia w.ii:»i-rii dr iriiliihLrija 
jyT|iflMl ud 1^ BTU will In virvlmnntEuIl^ dittributnl, A walt- 
wgMiMil En%nTj DqiMttnuat ^Ll fitriLuli tv tiudcutii cumiikK 
Grmt Unlain from iho Colonkfs Depcndoucna luid IikIiii the nvjuuilorj 
tafanuatiua ftad hKicv Iv uid lUuiii In eulcvtru^; lliuir I'httjc uf 
ubi tJi«ir tMBponrjr bcmw» nnd in rftrii'im otlii^r vnym. Ilie oalli 
UooA of xuiiir«I prodoot* of tho Culontou ued IndiB. nuiiat&mod op( 
lo like d^y by MdttioQ* v)d renoKala at tLo contral cjtabliAmont 
of the lutitnta, vUl b« uf ^rcbt «d.1tj<j L>> atudfjatB i» Uic iciuiwd^ 
aMJtf ^JftMiit «d<KnlMJitHt TitMjhiLiouA, m\'\ will moreoTor 1>« itijuW 
whMrrient lo tlu jvarpnME of prorincial ioilafltrial fpollngwi hy tho 
ditfribatMift of lboro«j^ly dc«^|<tivo raforcbu' c!aUJoj^cfi, And of 
ifecitncntf. 6apflia» of natural pn>dufta frvm ihc Color^ic*. TudtK, 
er fhnn oUxir OuBnLniM, wLtch &riT uilliur ur# ur bare Lluu but 
iM| i Bt fa < <Jj •initW. will tif4 TrudnULiiuvd, te tbnt rnnt-riiil mny Itu 
TMtUjr fforidcid to tbc workvT >a uicnoo or tlic iQ^nnfiLctiirtirt ciLtior 
for ikaiciitiflc um«tiK<hiLaa ot for purpotn of toobnionl Gipcnincut. 

llio uutouco vf tU«o ojllctrtioDH uwJ of ftU infomuLliivu ro- 
Uthi^ to then, K« wet] ad of tbo Itbnrii.'A of teohtiologj, fuvt^iiticaiK, 
VOOMiMW Mid ftpplUd KOogrApbj^ m intmoduto prcicjmitj to tho 
G«f«rBKtciit nDMcm* of «cioiki:io ftnd invcctioaB, Art, And tmturul 
UirfOTT,ki iLd Nonuftli^clioolof 8«icncis<utd to tlicCicntnO Tccbnityd 
litilulii, fiiwcMit wlmiiUgoH »o ubviooH aa to uiurii hcjiiio Uir t<uii- 
«itoftlios by thoM who faavo dMlin«d to ri>coj{i3i«« n»j ruiwon in 
bto«r of Uw «atabtiibmont of tbo linptTiAl lastitiito «! Suiitb 


la lbs powufkl public rojinwiiUllorja wblcb have of lnio bofrn 
<ai til* tir^>orBtiTo uMMait; for Xhv givnlur dieiKim nation and 
ttinM|Bh orgWiJiMlion of icftnKtnAl *<laoi4lioEi| tho iDi|iortiiiicu iif % 
firfifl np|ii II I niilTTil i& ccoiitdoriiial <4acAt>ij(), u* (t]fltiij;;iiihbi:4| inia 
vbaft h ttmpnlra»doil tii^dor Ibo lic*d tif toebuiai) tmiEiiiikZ. 1i:l» 
■■imiljr iwttlTed tluU ptoainonw tfliicb it mcntJL It U tni^ thit. in 
■eaa df aur ooUugt*, Umto an «o<Ln4M of iiulruutioa fruuo<l vd\h 
van tff iriil refLUiiOO lo t}io rd^QTrcttuMal* of tboM wbo proiiot^ to 
«MlvInto ■oiwnliln hoens. or Ju oilmr whirs k> lLivt>tu U»ruiftvm« to 
pvnviU; bat ut nnik ihn nif r<vuiti]o omplnj^ai, omhTai>«Ll 
IW ootspmbcvudvo tiilo of oL*fk«, bc-gin tbdr «pr«on in Iiio hut 

122 Sir Frederick AM [April 29, 

itl prepared to be moro than mechanical labonrerB, wid remain 
groatly ilopcndcut npim accidout^ or upon thoir desire for aelf- 
iiDl}rovGD]ent which dirccta thorn in timo to particnlar lines of atadf , 
for thefr prospects of future snceoaa in commercial life. 

This imprcABOil itself atrongly upon the Bojal Commiesion on tho 
DoproBsion of Tmdo and Induat^, who state aa the reault of evidenoe 
collected by them that our deRcionc/ in the matter of education aa 
coniporcd with soma of our forci^ competitors relates '* not only to 
what is usually called technical education, bnt alao to the ordinaiy 
commercial education which is required in mercantile hoosee." The 
ordinary dork in a merchant a offico is too often made to feel hii 
inferiority to his German colleagae, not merely in regard to hia 
lameTitable deflcioncy in tlio knowledge of langnagoe, bnt in respect 
to almost every branch of knowledge bearing upon the intelligent 
pcrforuiuikco of his daily work and npon hie prospect of advancement 
tn ono or other branch of a mercantile houso. The preliminary 
training for Cfimmorcial life on the Continent ia {ar more eompre- 
heupivc, practical and ByBtematic than that which is attainable in thia 
couutryf and the student of commerce abroad has, afterwards, c^por- 
tuiiiiies for obtaining a high scientific and practical training at 
diBlIuct branches of tlie polytechnic schools and in eatabliahmenta 
analogous to the technical colleges, anch aa the High Bchoola of 
Commcrcu in PariE^ Antirorp^ and Vienna 

It will be well within the scope of the Imperial Institute as an 
orgaTiiGBtion fur the advancement of icdustry and commerce, to pro- 
m^ito a systematic improvement and organisation of commercial 
education by meosuroa analogons to those wlxieh it wJIl bring to betur 
npon the adTancemcnt of indufitrial education. 

The very sc«int recognition which the great naase of teobuical edn- 
cation has hitherto received at the hands of our administrators has, at 
any rate, the good effcot of rousing and stimnlating that power of self- 
help which has been the foundation of many achievements of greatest 
pride to the Nation, and we may look with confidence to the united 
oicrtions of the people of this conutry, through the medium of the 
roproHCEitatLTo organisation which they are now founding, for the 
early development of a comprohenfiivo national system of teohnioal 
education, of the nature foreshadowed not long since by Loid 
Harfington, in that important address which has raised bright hopes 
in the hearts iif the ApOHtlos of education. 

In some of the views wliich have been nf lato put forward regard- 
ing the potable scope of tho Im|>crial Institute, the antagonism 
which has bctu raised and fostered against its location in the vicinity 
of some of our National Establiahments most intimately connected 
with tlio educationul advancement of Uie Empire, has developed a 
tendency to circunjBcribo its future sphere of usefulness, and to place 
its fuuctiona 03 a great cstabliubmcnt of reference and resort for the 
commercial man in the chief foreground. I have endeavoured to 
indicate directions in which its illations to the Golt>nics and India, 


M tJk* Wvrktf/i)M iMjwn'of /iufiV«r<^ 


lo Um f^rcftl ikdvArM of Uio ootmtrj, AAd to the odTftnccixicvt of 
Wckmir^l and ocdiUDomAl oaoiCfttiua, cAoikol fjill to bn at UiiiHt a* tnj- 
pirtaai at ilH iainiAtUl^ ooiuurtiun vHlfc ilii> wants of i\w ei^mtnaniaX 
Mctionof thiiorM&Tiiftnily.ui'l UiOMtare tn<>*t M^rtii^uly i|tiito iiidu|xui- 
daat oif Ibo pwuoiiUr looditj to wbiob it mn^ bo frUifod, oaGDcptiag. 
n to &r M tW oonuiMiati ^ AZftpU iipftc<i> nnrl mt A^tuiUttea lO' 
bci deriTul from jtittA-jKiMlioEi niih tho grnftt TfkUEnin] isu1>Hnh- 
fbfiiU to ahi«^ I h«Tv n'f^rrcd, it eoooVTDed. At Ihv iumc timoT 
lk«p> t« BOl ono of th« (brcctioiiitt in whiclt ttio tluTtlopiuoiit of 
Lke PMMUvn Mod ^cUvUy nf ilo Inatilitto W botn tUnn fnr izi4iottkd, 
vkidi liBc ixift fta uaouidJAAti Ami U(ijji>rlAQt Ui^nii^ ujtrxi llio mlvniKie- 
ttCBt of Um eo M iitetfq& of Ihu Emjiin*. I'h^rr aitt, hovt^ror, Epocia] 
ftatliott* to bo fclfilUil b^ tbo liiiflrtnto. vhit^b uro muKt itQiii«diatiilf 
OOBDOtfri aliko Yciih tM gru*t ooninicroi^l work of tlio Oitj of 
Lottdoo oekI vidi iL»t »t i£o proTinctol wntrc» of ^oiaraofott. Tlif> 
jimntkiK, in trty cnnipul ind trftdily vmsMblo prnttrmii, of rnm- 
»««M MBMiMDi or ooUcelioiu «f DAturaJ or import pmlucbcv <u>c1 of, 
«pa«t praJoeto of difftttnl iiatiozi«. ooubincd with oompnJicQiiivo 
■Mflg itKuna uud C>ciliiieft &r Uio boAiuaaA of iiu»pccliou or of 
<nBipard»], ctMaJc*] or pIiTilnaJ rxualnnUoa, Ifl a woib In wlifuli 
tk* Jnrtitato «lkO«kl lend mosl tmportniit dd. Thn avtujtt of n>rro- 
■ yu adtpow with M port* of tbo Kropi» which U nill dovokp auil 
wihtnin will odaUo it lo oc^Dc^ti and form ft oenttol depot of. untnnd 
pruloctA &t*a wbidi tc<«1 cuuiiiKTcia] uiBuiiniB oiu bo im|]pliL<<l with 
epBplrtA, Ibotmgblj cLuniBnl (Hxtnomic ivillivbcins ft>^d with n^rr^ 
Wtitiyp MU&pka of oil ibU. from tica» to trmo* la iww in tlio vnj 
at Hisnl ivodncta Crota tbc roloai^s and Dcpcndcitoiof, from lodiji, 
iod tras uuer covaUio*. In cotalmutioii vrilh thin orgauiMitiou, tho 
dknfbiitlon, lo eonDMrriftl <vLlr¥i«. of i)ifiinii»tiitEi Huialred by a 
eainl doftfttaont of crmmairckl gfi^^nph^ will oonnlicutt ah im- 
fMtaot UitmrQ in tho vrork of tho loititiito, boarinK imnicdiAtcly 
«Be« tbe nilorcsls of l^ mcivhuit at Iiochl in tbo Cokicici, tuid in 

Tte 4(«i»Ktk)D of Apwkll/ c»itnuTr*lAl inttftulim, of whtoh 
■ jwifj r «AoaA, biHoinu, and iMunpU rooug iritli thoir nooc«tori««, 
ral AtfB o lc*diDjc fcaliiro, ftad which 4ill vipply a waot lonjc n»co 
fmvided far bjr tha ffftliono with whom wo oompdc oommGrcUlly, 
M altVidy la oDuteaitlibitSion la th» CStieM uf Ijomlim aikI Nonrutl'? ; 
Mm- grirt ooDmaRUl o»iktr«« will lUo doubtUv» ujHMjJily uk« 
#nB lo ptorido oocqanttodAtkn fvr Miutl/ir olfAlioott fr^ui tho conlral 
flMWni of th« lartihlto. Bo for fti tl-c InJinn Koipiro in oon- 
wnod, tbo orginhmliau uf oamA|niidoiiCD by provinoial GatumiUoui 
miatk olfovly vtitt* in coiu4ction wHh ooouomlv and Koolf^lffd 
mmimmB oBMlbhuJ tk Iho tofonl Pr««id«iioiM| offb^da fiioihliv* for 
ihi ^foady Abortiion of iho oonlMOftplotod flTvina of oorroflpoiidcnoo 
m OMiMWtioiii with tho lQ»i:tiiti.\ uod iW vhluMiAhmcnl of Miuibur 
is thff <US«*««t Coluaioft will, it U loped, bo heartily 

npoB Kod tfpiralUj doTeJ-i|)od, 

121 Sir Frederick Ahei [April 22, 

The eyslem of corrOBpoudenco to vhicb I baTo mora thfln oqo« 
alluded iu iudicatrng some of the wui-k of the Iiutitute, in reUtuHi 
to tocbnicft] odacation and indufitry, uid vhioh will form « moet 
importuut part of tbe mwii gruundvvork of ita organisation, is not in 
tbo Icafit the<»r('tical in its chnractcr. Its possible development htt 
suggc^stcd itsolf to maDy vvho have given tljought to the future sphera 
of action of the Institute in connection vith commerce aed induotry; 
to mjself, wbv for many years havo bcee, from time to time, officially 
cnguizcint of the nork performed b; what ore called the InteUigenoe 
Departments of the Ministries uf War abroad and at heme, the direct 
and valuable hearing of &uch asy^teiu upon the work of the Institute, 
auggi'EteU itself as soon (w I gave thought to the possible future of tbis 
great concepGion, and to Major Fitzgerald Law belongs the eredil of 
suggesting that the well-tried machinery of tbe WarOffioe Intelligence 
Deiiartment should serve asaguide for the elaboration ofaGummotiul 
Intelligence DejwrtmeTtt. This Department, which will, it ia hoped 
ere long commeuce its operations by cetablislmig relations witb the 
cliief Coloniee and India, will be in constant communication with the 
Enquiry Offices to be attached to the local commercial eatabliabmentt 
oud to other provincial represcntalions of the work of the Institate^ 
syiitematically distributing among tbem the commercial information 
end statistics continnally collected. It will be eqoallj raluable to the 
ColonicB and India hy bringing tboLr requiromcnCs thoroughly to the 
knowledge of the busint^sa men in the United Kingdom, and by main- 
taining tliat close touch and sympathy between there and tbe people 
at Lome wbicb will tend to a true federation of all porta of the 

In no more important direction is this system destined to do nee- 
ful work tliau in the organisation of emigration, not only of labour, 
but also i>f capital. The ebtablishment of emigration enqnJry offioei 
at provincial centres in connection with a central department at the 
Institute, will be of great service to the intending emigrant, by 
placing \sithin his rca<^ the power of acquiring indispensable in- 
rorinatioo and advice^ and by fiicilttating hia attainment of tbe special 
knowledge or training calculated to advance bis prospeeLe in the oeir 
botne of bis choice. Similarly, tbe capitalist may be aaaisted in dis- 
covering nen* channels for entcrpriGo in distant portions of the 
Empire, tbe resources of wbicb ore awaiting development by the 
juJicioQs application of capital and by tbe particalar class of emigra- 
tion which its devotion to pubtic works or manufacturing enterprise 
in tbe Colonics would carry with it. The extent to which the State 
may aid in tbo organisation of systematic emigration, and the beet 
moi3« in wbicb it may, without burden to the Country, promote the 
execution of such public works in tbe Colonics as will open up their 
DoniinioTis to cummerce and at the same time encourage the par< 
ticular class of emigration moat advantageous to the Colonies 
thciQ£clvts, aro fiobjocla of great present interest j but, in whatever 
way tbcee important questions may be grappled with, such vi or- 






£ L 






FBOIC 1637 TO ISSi^ 

^ «UQDT. 

. d »•» 

12G 5ir Frederich Mtt [A^ 23, 

(if this pr<^Tamme has been drawn by & combiiULtioii of »bler fauida 
tbon mina- I bave bat voutnrod to ^etch in eome of tba details as 
thej bave preeentt^d themselves to my mind, aud to tbe mindfl of 
othcra wbo bare givon thought to tbie great subject; but I dare to 
have faith in its realiaELtion* acd to beliore that, if the work ba taken 
in hand Bystematically and progressively, the nueleiu being £rat 
thorougljly eatablishod from which frcab lines of departure will 
successively emanate, tbe Imperial lustitate ia destined to bocome a 
glory of the lan'1. And, as one whoso misiiion it has been, through 
mauy years of arduons work, to assist in a bumble way in the applica- 
tion of the resources of some branches of science to tbe maintoaance 
of tho country's power to defend its rights and to bold its own, I may 
perhaps lie pardoned for my presuxnptioa in giving eipression to tin 
firm belief that, by the secure foundation and cartjful development of 
this great undertaking, and by its wise direction by a -Government 
truly repreaentative of its Pounders— all Nations and Classes oom- 
poEing the Empire — there will be secured in it one of the most 
important future Defences of the Queen's Dominions; one of the 
most powerful instruments for the maintenance of the nnity, tha 
strength, and tbe prosperity of Her Realms, 

At the conclusion of the address, tbe Prince of Wales said : — 

'* Ladies and Gentlemen, — ^Having bad the bononr of occnpying 
tbe Chair this evening, I think we ought not to separate without my 
expressing, on your part as well as on my own, oar deep senae of grati' 
tnde for tlio interesting and exhaustive lecture which Sir Frederick 
Abel has just given us. You are well aware of the great interest I 
take in this Imperial Institute, as I am aniions that it shall be a 
memorial of tbe Jubilee of Her Majesty the Qneen, and at tbe same 
time a memorial wbicb shall be of great use to this country, and 
cement still further the good feeling wbicb I trust has always eiiated 
in tho Mother Country towards our Colonies and India. Sit Frederick 
Abel bas» I thinkf touched on all tbe salient points with regard to the 
Imperial Institute, so that it will be needless for me to say anything 
farther. But I thank him very mnch ^ain for having given ns tbis 
lecture this evening, and I feel sure that those wbo have been here 
and who did not feel convorsant with tbe subject, will carry away 
with tbem a very clear nnderstauding of what the objecta of the 
Institute are." (Cheers,) 

1887J <m ike Wwk of th^ Imperial Institute, 127 


Illostbatioks or their Developubnt DoaiNa the Queen's Rejon. 



(1337 ., 5,200,000 5,000,000 
American DependeDCies -^ .. { 

'^ (1885 .. 25,700,000 21,500,000 

(1837 .. 1,500,000 1,SOO,000 

Aaitiuan& .. ^ < 

(1885 ., 63,500,000 52,000,000 

nS37 .. 2,000,000 1,500.000 

Africa '. { 

f 1865 .. 10,000,000 12.000,000 

All tbe Importfl ud Eiporta tokoD togclhrr wcro ELEVEX TIMES larj^r 
in 1S85 tbu Ihef wore ia 1837. 

„ . ^ U337 .. 3,700,000 lona. 
Bntub Shippiai; Tfade with udIoqics ,^ I 

(l8B5 .. 56,000,000 „ 

(1837 .. 11,300,000:. 

BHIbfa Export to Gabni«a \ 

^ (1885 .. W,5O0,0OW. 


C1837 .. 4,204,700 

" (1881 .. l!J.7ri3,277* 

Of »UtheCobDi«inl88l 15.703,072* 


ta Earopnn Colooies BLIGHT. 

In Cejlou ,. .. ,. ,, .. TWICE oa lnr;?o na il waa. 

In tlie Greftl Asiatic Colonica About tlio SAME, 

[q the Cape of Good Qnpa .. .. EIGHT TIMKS na Inrgf a»< it ^ap, 

InOunfldb THRKK TIMKSnr^ l!\t^ nd it was. 

In Uifl Wert Indiea NOT iiuil^ TWICi; mi Izir-e ng it wn^. 

In AnftnliA .. .. Nearly TWt^LVK limrs aa liirgc na 

it wni*. 



How AKb wum AcmnuD' 


^ 1 

aqBueWW. 1 





Indian Empire (inclnding 





Dnmioion of CanblA :— 


Conqoeflt^ TrcAlj Cewioii 


New Brniuvick 

Treaty Cession 


Novm K^cotift 

Couqueftt, TrsitT Cvanon 



BriLiah Colambift 

TrHrir<fL'r to Crown 





Nortlk-Wi-at Tt-rritorii'd 

Cbarter to Company 



Primw KdwnrJ*B Ijiluud 


S4:ttl<emeDl.Treftt; Ceeaioii 





AostmlvU ; — 

Xew HVmlh Wil« 






Koutli Autlra]Li .. 



903, 6S0 




Woslern AQstmlin 






New Zejbiid 




CcsBion iTom Nmtirta .. 



yew Guihpa 



S-^ntb AfticH :^ 


Ctipr of Good Hope .. 

Treaty Cnsioa 'Anally) 










Si. Helena 






Tnaly CeHaion 



Conqne*t and CeflfliotI .. 



Straits BettlimenU 

Treaty Cession 



llfing Kont; 

Treaty Ccaaion 



Tort Uiiniilton 



BrrtiHli Xortli BoTntfi ,, 

CpBslon to Company 



Treaty CVeeion 



HriLiab (iiiinQa 

CoTtqueat and Ccuion .. 



Wi-ftt lailim:— 






WjiKlvard lalanda 



Lwward iBlADda 








BrUiiiLL Elitndunit 



Weel Africa:— 

Sierra Lcouo 

TrBDsfer from Company 





Gold CoA^t .. ,. 

Conquest iind Cewion .. 









Tro.ily Cpflflioii 



(.'oni'tntiim with Turkey 



Trmty Ctstiion 



FnlkJand I^lnndB .. 

Tfi'aty Cer«ion 




iBtneB KMrntR 









ttHnasw^ ^1 




Ti r 1 i^L ^B 





C$#,3(4.CSi ^1 




T4 Mlbk IdH, ^H 



10,71 L.Mft 


M.8H.09I ^H 





•Am^m H 





soa.An H 




i,«n,si» H 




T.7»,iU ^B 




4,0ftl,aAI ^1 




1.715,801 ■ 



«05.I»S H 



1 ,171.1^7 

au'.ioB H 




8,158,078 ^H 




3a,M8 ■ 

. t.«S,B»T 



• t 






e,«w,i93 H 



























































910 JM 


Gi3,L^L 1 












170. a? 



100. MS>,IM 













823, 5TS 


















■ 4 




























(N(x 81.) 





Pv^mmr E, & lUleSUifi 

[AptiJ 39, 


PriJ*^. April 29, 1887. 

nvniv FoLLoos, £«q. Trotfum ud Vioo-ProBiJait, 
In UmCUIt. 

riff itcif/«'»>7 Contact c/JJfliie*. 

Vivo nUd bodio roll iij>om wivli dllit^r, poiuta :n tbe 
CBoneooiBTBlj couit> into «onUot with oorre«|>on'l>iig pointa 
CDifM9e<iF Uic oilier in <»«fty which diflcrt ««Kmtian> fn>rn tl;«t wtndj 
dsauTH ui Uittiu^ ouiiUcI, ftud it iv tbo niture of thU H'lUug^ottlad 
thftt th* lertTircr propoa«3 tu iliiwuw in ilu eip^riiuuuLaJ nantiiKzr. 

In tho fit«t j>U«v, it is vi\ll in nml'Ttitiinil HnH^ xhu uAtnro (tf 
Iho rolAlaTO motiiou i>f Iho two poinlA nhich eataet into e;>ntwi wbM 
dn uuHbdm utq Much tliftt no apptr^OEAblc diat^rtian of lh«iD Inkcfl 
IJnof^ ftiid fur ILlh purpivc on<3 of tho tw^ budiu* tavMi ho nt rcM^ 
ThiM mny mapcotiTtily tm tikk'^ii >» iIjo jilatie BurfrKio uf the grann4 
nnd a oircuiu- di«k h>liiiig upon it. An approximalij r^firMentAtion 
cf UitA motion id giron hj the ond of iho Dpokca of a wucvl vitboul 
ita tjn>' Ii; tbia cft«i> ii is scca thnt ft poiot of the rolliit(c tody, 
whnn it in jiiAb cniiixiig tuto CdtiliKl witli ILo HxihI BurfiCQ, dina m is 
ft dit^otion ttt right ftfiulcfs to Um mtrfnor nt rrux, nnd alwi lofttca at io 
the Muno dirL>clioQ- Tbie octioD ii vary flimilftr io kind to ibftt vrhioh 
occurs villi tho continnouB QirolG form<^ ij Use tyre. Tlio p*^ of • 
|K>ijil ill the lim Oftu bu dmytu iu e, wtky vittiblt.' lo Ihc nudionrr hp 
dcftna of ft pit^cc rif ftwarfttnn (vnifiUtin^ frf iwn Hrcnlwr gliL«a pl*l« 
hold to^<tl)br by n holtnw lir^Jis EptU']|o in vhioh UiJcfl ati Artii iMtrry* 
ILL' n bructh. I'ho hrunh trnco* Ui<i i^oUkuowa cycloid, of wJjKh ti^ 
oulj pi-tlitjn now to be ooniiiderod in that wlicru it dirucitlj approftcbot 
tho surfnm l]uiu«ith. Thit» [iihrt t» jHirpiindioHlaT Id Ihst mirriuw, vid 
whun ci>Ecyol:iiil4 ftw dmwn, lij rciUing th<s diak upon Lho ftro of i 
oirolo, Ctii> eunio fii/it is broughl out. 

Quo body niny, bovoror, not rocrolj roll upon amothcr, and « 
noncftl prvMure ba I'ourlvd, bnl llv^ iiiuj ciart h tftugcnliiit furod 
upon Qftcb (itbor, Tt U noriTrmi^iit In knop thr^w two^wns sepftrftt^j 
^XAjnplea of iUnai b«iiig i\wpor?tivvly (ho trhiKU of n rtilivik^ oftrriftgl 
ftad lliOM of the looomotivo wb:oh Urivn-it it ftlong. It ib to be notol 
thftt the objixrl ill Lhu foruK-ir i:uai> is lo |H»mit vns budy to moTO 
rolfttiTcly Ut Jini^tbur without [i^ruiilliii^ idiilm^ oi>fit»ct cf thojr iur« 
liiooft, nhiUl, in tlio Uttfir ooad, iti ndditinn to this, the nbjtv^t in to 
obtftin Ruob moticin. Tb^^ro orr, ho^vovo^, njouy cases in which it ia 
m«roly tbo motioa of ik bodj about one point vbicb ia roquirod, ftocb 

or rax BsmsB EacpiBE. 













£>M .018^509 



I, ass. 118 




V 12.123 






t, 31(1.455 















34^, H4 


















7^7, iPi 



1 34 .7X0 





VoL,XJI. {SftSL) 

133 Pro/. E. 3. B. Skate on tMe BoOing OotOaci i^ BodU$, [April S9, 

tbit the same reaaoniug woold not ftooonnt for the torniiLg of the 

cylinder in the samo direction oa before with the above model, and 
the lectarar then proceeded, by means of diagrams, to offer an explana- 
tion of this and other phenomena. The Taiiona effects obtained with 
bodies of different relative degrees of hardnees were discussed at 
length, but £gnres would be needed to make these points clear. 
Finally, an explanation was given of the cause of an error which 
always appeared in a certain important class of int^rators caosed by 
tbe dipping of the edge of a disk over a sor&oe on which it rolled in 
oircnmstances nnder which it had apparently never berai snnMNited 
that slipping did actoftlly take place. This tbe leotnrer bad been 
enabled to discover and measure by means of a special piece of app^ 
ratna, a model of which was eihibited and the effects shown by its 

The facts and reasoning, which were given in the lectnre, all 
related to the rolling contact of bodies, and the leotnrer ventured to 
think that, imperfect as the treatment of the subject had been, it was 
one of such importance, not merely &om the point of view of the 
practical applications he had mentioned, but in its scientifio aspect, 
dealing as it did &om a novel point of view with the Dstnre and pto- 
perties of solid bodies, ss to be worthy of being thus brought before 
the Boyal Institution. 


AvHMt iUeiimg. 


Mo&dftj. Jbj % 1887. 

Sm WiLUAM Boimi:!. But. LL^D. F.H.S. MaDikg>»r mu3 Tioo- 

Tbe An&ii*] Rcpurt of tlte Co«tmittoo of Yidtor* for tlto jtv 
1686, ttntifjiug lu tliH couliiiuidd ^njejicril/ uiid eflldbut luaiugtmiciiti 
of Ibtt TnJititiitiaB, wxa nra^ a.ni1 ni3opt«d, Tli^ lC«i4l nint Funded 
[^oporlT oov (unoaaU lo aboTo S'j.lJU^»^ cntirdy derivod from tlo 
OoQlnbDlioEXE) &ad UunAliDna of ihn jUDmbcra. 

Vortjr^igbt Dew Uvotbora pAid thoir Aduuflsion Fdm Ui 168S. 

Sixtj-throo Loctoics Mid Niaotc<a Bvcoiiog Diflooarooi woro 
dolitottd in ISSC. 

Tbe Booka aoJ BuapUcU jurwvfilcil lu 18S6 amnnnlriT tti nlwub 
380 tdlBDlW. makt&g, with 443 Toluutm^mrluding PmodicnlFi licund) 

ma^Mmd tgr th« UAtiiij^rA, * toinl of 731 toIuuw nddod to tho 
Lilouy ui l£* jeu. 

TbankB r^n votoJ to tho rrtuidooi^ Trvaaurofi and tLo Honorary 
SmvoIuj, |/> tb« Comcutta^ of HanafECrfl <uid Vi«itora, kul) to tL« 
ProCDHOni, for Uiou- mliuit^lu Mur^ricM W tbo laatitdtiiru duriu^ tlia 

Tbo following Oeatlomaa vera unsDirDoiuly cloclod m Offloen 
for thA ■**-"'*(; joftr : 

PBBKDnrr — Tin Dako of Northumbcrluid, K.O. D.CX. LLJO. 

aBcnu>T-BtiProd«rick fimnv^II, D.CL. FJi^. U.latiLCE. 
UAV^m. VtatTOBa 

JvhB OliLtt;, £iq. F.L& V.HjC.9. 
»iclulC*ncicbe, Km P.C^ 
Th« Vgr^ Km. Ihah Oinrclt. V-A, 

JiiuD FArtDBT, bq^ 

ChAilnHtftktZty, Eiq. U. Ii»t,ClL 
Dirjd Ld<r4rd Unifies Eiq. F,BJ9. 

Wndttick ^pW. 1^4- FAS. 
UcbUn Mulno'tatb lUu, Emt^ VX 
WlLlluB ChuidJ« RoWt^-Auii-Et. ^n- 
Qt^rwv Jtihu lUnubi*. &<{, VIA. U l>. 
Juava VTiBihuFfti b^- 

H CdckMB Bnnt, HD. U.a F.fUl. 

vvT« «i\. ib»*. E^. 1I.A. ao.i. r KA 

l^nDoslBMu !■«. 

Mo adi 1»«liM^ Kh, nt-f. MLS. 

ft waMWiiUrOvU, But. U.LI. dx:.l r.R5. 

VODm flu^ tm. D.CX tLtX KiLa 
MHi IlMrt«ip^ W. V^ f -ILH, 

VdbM Hwy rmos E>^. V.H.?^ M It-I.CLL 
'" b|- rm- IML CX 


Ih. T. toMdtt Brmlvn 

[Mb; G 


'^VvUglit Him, Eaul Pkkcv, TklutiAf^cr und Viort-Prtaiilfnit, Id iliu 
T» Lavdsu BncwTOB, M.D, S^j.D, F»R,S, 

Thk comiiiou BaytQi^ " Sciviiig is Ixjliuvizig " gires a duo to tLu origiu 
of tiiHTiy Twjpnlaf dnJuflinrxs, for f,bo oridonco of onr uy<ui In lijr no 
mciine to \ni tmateLl, ullI nnle^s corroL^lod l>jr Ihc obH^frnlioTia dorivixt 
from other sl^tisub ^TJU oOgei prov6 iloi^cptivc. Somo popular bcliota 
aru ourri^^it in rognril tii fact, lul crrurivoas iit rt'^cu ti> i]]lc-r]ici?ta' 
tiim. Sriam nifit^rii, wLicb iu tbalt j^ietfeiit fonn ilj*!^ uUHrird, Kru llie 
JiUrvivals or modiflenti^n^ of other bcliefii whk'li ivoro triio. 

In aaduivounii^ to uliiKif^vcr t>LP ok^Qiout of truth in anj belief 
we max ^ uid^d bj irftciitg it4 hifftE^ry b^fh^vlL^da ia timcit or by 
ouui|JiJn]i|; it wUli uHU'd foram ()f Wiof in ililH-ii^iit pWus. 

Afi nil (iiflinjilo of Ibo hintHriPiil mothiMl wii luuy taltn tlm liiiU^f 
tbftt hoTuo-flcah i< unfit for fotwl, a di<i1tiKii>ri nliicb amiu from tha 
circporaatanvHi tliAt tivra&11u(»h wn» unlit for Olirtntian foo<]| itianmuch 
» Ui9 Lar«o wns aiwrod to Qilija, Aod eating it« flosli vmo ii bj^eu uf 


Ab an illTutnitiitn of ttie uoTDparntiTa Tnctlioc] we nuLj taka tho 
boliof tbut ft jHir^iij chii^ot i^io if any di^^or iu thi> lioutHj bu lookod. 
Otbcir furiLiA uf llio Ult<>r aro ttint n (mrson Oftnnot dio m Ii>u^ iu tlio 
dour« cir nini]oiTii of tbti roiiiia ia n'bicb Lu is Lying ato clurti^J* ikud 
ohsorrn-Hon utuxblca uk Ui ikwurtniti tliat thb ]« dwc to tho fnrt ibjit 
tba r*jutii in tbiw Itt^rt wuriii, Htid lift* tlmriiior<> jirolougwd. 

Th« boliof Ihat iliaoMO nmy bo ourod by bnu|^^iti^ tip m^» iu n 
UtTtid pIaoo loay be coniibaicd by iQt^nuatiato ftunna >vjlb llio TmI 
tliftt infL-ctioUA difvuiw* luay bo coutt^yed ^lum uuo Ui aui^tlior by 
arti^U4 uf ck^tbiriff. 

SomooiiioiiH j^rubably hnvo an hiflt»rioa1 cHgiitH Otbtim depend 
OQ D^iyeic^ ixnnlitkjna, nuob aa atiimblLiig on lonvinj^ tJio tbriN^hold oa 
jiu lE^dicLktii^u of ooniing niinfoitiLuo. Tbia luftj bu rxT^i'dud n* ttlmply 
KIT nvidnucA i]f iL duBoioii^-y in tho luotur puwur of thn xiidiTiduftl 
vrbioL may onuvt bim to fnil lu fta 0D3Cl^Doy. 

Otbctu a^uiT^ mnj bo roforrod to uuliAliuct e{7EUutioD0 or vnb- 
couadctu« coiidiliirn^H ]>roaiti» ftro froi)Lioiitly iufluuucud by tho 
drcuii»tuiMH iif l\\ii diitKnor, oithfj* at the timit i>r nciinLt d^s bofonii 

1887,] on He EUmetti of Tr^ih in Popular Belte/M. 135 

ftod hcdlncoiiAtioiifl as well u viaions of gbosto and fairiee may be 
r^ardod u fonuB of waking dreams. 

Hm eigiks whmh vera r^aidod in the If iddle Agee &b distinctive 
of witdiCTaA are now looked upon u e^ptoms of hysteria, and the 
condition of hyBteria ma^ perhaps be defined to be one in which 
impreMionB oHgiiuting within tJie body iteelf tend to overpowof those 
tiansmitted &om without by the nsoal senaory channels. 

The phenomena of thought reading and of the divining rod may 
in many cases be explained by the fact that eenaory impressions 
may be received and sanj lead to action without rising into complete 
ooiAcioosneBH in the individual who receives them. 

[T. L. B.] 

186 Generitl iTmMy MMUng. [Iby 9, 

Monday, Ma; 9, 1887. 

The Bigbt Hon. £!ab[> Feboi, Mooftgor uid Vioe-Freddent, in tbe 


The following Yice-Preddenta for tbo ensuing jmt wen 
announced ;— 

The E&rl of Cnwford uid B&loame, ¥JR.B. F.B.A.8. 
Warron do U Roe, Esq. M.A. D,CX. F.B.3. 
William HogginB, Eaq. D.QX. LL.D. F.B.8. 
Th& Right Hon. Earl Porcy, 
Sir Frederick Pollock, BarL M.A. 
Edward Woods, Esq. Pros. Inat. C.E. 
Henry Pollock, Esq. Trcftaurer. 

Sir Frederick BramweU, D.CX. F.R.&. M.I&at. C.E, 
Hononuy Secretary - 

John Donaldson, Esq. M. Inst. G.B, 

Miss Mary Angaata Gtrantf 

Mrs, Bayn6 Tf^^Ttlrnn^ 

Owen Bob^ia, Esq, M^. 

Mm. Shore Smith, 

Frederiok Headows White, ^. Q.O. 

were elected Members of the Royal Institution. 

John TTNnALi., Esq. D.C.L. LL.D. F.RS. was elected Honorary 
Professor of Natural PMlosophy. 

The Right Hon. Lomn Ratx^oh, H.A. D.G.L. LL.D. TJKS. wm 
elected Professor of Natural Philosophy. 

The Special Thanks of the Members wore retnrned for the 
following donations to the Fund for the Promotion of Experimental 

Research: — 

William Hem? DomTille, Esq. £20. 

remaining after payment for the fltatn^ of Professor Faraday by 
Foley, and its pedestal, and a bust copied from the statue presented 
to the National Portrait Gallery, 

1«7.] O^ntMi Humify M^im^. 187 

iibU,ud tho Uuuke of llw MteaWn rotnnwd for Uw kuhu, vin, ; — 

4M Uiwri, &vJ^ Edm- Attl. a«r[* Qutfta 1 n«cdfaoDti V«L UL 

Mvte deUft Cln» di &ci«uM HqpUi. eivri^Tie a FL!D]«ktifr-«ar1it 4*, 

VtLL tl*. lAI. 

MbriiillU CUm di Sotonn F(iLifc«, kUUoiikticlw a K*iidi^l-ficno 4-, 

^M«ly. ftiif^— UontliliXiTticra, V(J.3(LVU. N^e. ffro. t»K7 
fiHlAfeMoMounuJ. Vol. VJIL laii 4. «i& ISH. 

itnAtfii^ Bif«t rtjtiftit4 0/— PrdOMdlngi^ lsatfM.7, Nn. I», 4ia. 
Jfiwmi (XnMni iru^>-C>Ulorii« of LEtuilh. t^v^ fiditiDQ. Vul. 

tivUt l«lb*0«llMiB«Df RrrtildvMtdPlibM fiiro, 1»($T. 

TlMml^J-lHT n '*■' Itniuh MriA^jim <:KHtivm] I|liIoft> TrtOi IbBT- 
CkaAtflA»M|r— JDOrUAl for April, [AST. iTc. 
n^niinr, Jb«, J. «ul it cJbB rtUiUthgn) — Joumal of lAfviKDlarT ud 

ftkiaolDrr, Xn 4. a. »niL 18^. 
CUT A^Imt/ /A4fWii»-Hia>it«i of l>io«f«liug;«, VO. UCXXVIH. «Ta 

Ote. fhvMk. flte, £& J. f^il 4t& Jf.Af- (CJb 7Piaitff>— Jr»jnMJ of tho Royft] 

flito I AMMJiiTi Jimiri of a«Bne> toe April. IW7. St^ 
AWyM ■» Ar«U, 1W7. Bvo. 
rniMaimfT flrnr "^ 4U. 

flMWiranfiwi tfr f^prll IfTTT 4tt. 

DMOrUteAprtLlSBT. 8fu. 

fbvApntlBOT. foL 
lBdB<lUtoAgU,l*a»T. fr>l 

iMteAvlUim. 4b]L 
Msrmj^£i«MifteiarApiilteeT. Ctop 
K«lttnfarAH(l,U»7. 4to. 
Bto» iMwiliaqtitf ttM AfffiT. tWTT. 4Ui. 
TBtowjiifff JoOTwl Itaf Aprtl. Iag7. »*□ 
KaafbatTibr Ai-rtl, 1887, iU^ 
nm0hBAIi'ol«i.Vwi'oik>£( CWifnl^fiollc4lfia,»WD.3(],Sl, Siq. 1897. 

^ BmA c' fbcunli ud Hlvliirj uf iLq PikriHli ftf j^i. 8tppluai, Coisaiui 
qnpr^farf MWyi iHpyd;— Pnwdiaffs ^t-m S«H», Vol. UL Ki*. 4, %vxf. 
JWifJHh. As^iWdl, FumrA— AlJiandlungKti, 1l«Qrl Xlt Nc*, 4, -Itn, 


Mirbocb. Btt4 KXXVI. Deft 4. 810. 1887. 

TateDdlviE«B.l(tM, Xai. 18 1^: I4»7. Ko, J. «tci. 1883-7. 
0dr4*4G<r£«n.(4^i'^U£Am>-&bikit: Vo»(n]r(i», 4lA lft»£, 
lhf^««, «k«E«1!/ AOUHda^ dm jMhm>— ArrLlvci Na<^iUrt>UUE«i, Tamo XXI 

K KbwWmio^A*. (Ib^ ES«i<tj f^«.) «T«. ie«7. 


Pn^^taftr J. & BurdonSMdeneM 

(iU7 13. 

higheo' powen. Th« nueroscopk^ dmiiu^A iTlii<jli wore iLrowD oa 
lL(T MTiuiu ii]iu««d Ibftt oftob cf Iho flno UMOsbruiot uliiclk had bvon 
doooribod concitM nt two difisroiit atraotora. lu ttppor ntr^o* 
pfVODlN Ik UjAT of tpparwot Loddo^d«oui matoriAl in vlitch nudcd 
an distn^ulod ht mlorTftln. Thi8 niaj bo <nUocl tlio prut^pluAmio 
luiun«H The MoAat or Tcutnil Uv^ir mi^clit be ciilloa ibo uenre 
lamina, Boir it Ik roaJa up uf Ili« arburlwitLiiuii uf tiic innunifrnihla 
nertioiis SlaiaQBla whidi nprmul ibfTon^lv^A (»n<r tlia iircitoplbsmifl 
UminAonit« und^ miifAc«. Aa ttieea filnmeiils bnuicV r«i[r(44u(tlj 
HA tbcy ivpi^rooch thoir doatinatiMi. tboir ultimate cndinjcA oro omrnijc 
tlw HuoUcst crbjocU vrkich cmi bti jivtiugiiiiibed tiijdvj tbo cucjoKupe. 

Tbe olflt'lrit'al urjjhU offwr* Ut ibe jt}iyHi(iTn^iHt iiiif tpf llm mtiai 
eirikiui^ 4;TiLmp1» of that a^npUitinn of 6trattur« ti fnui^ttotJ vbiofa ia 
univorsol among livjiig bctings^ A t^iagl^ coliunn of ihc oigni of 
lotptdo tc*erabled iu a vt-rf rcmarknblc dc^^r^O ft Toltaio pSe. of 
wbicL the plute^ aro lb>j 4jEUiiJv.ii]t8^ Lut li ut a rvaooibluiL'u nliU a 
ditfitrfiirGf^ Tbe dUfetvittoe 1fi?« \n tiling tTi&t Ihr nr^n U onlj a 
batUsy wboh it ia waked mtu ootivity by n ttimuliu- Thic vakbg 
dp GV (ti> ii£C the ordiuiiTj luugiiAf;o uf phyeiulogy) cxcitatioo* ia 
dvrlvod from tbe ituiimil't braiu, ivljidi fvr Ibo puriiom? hub wJdad (o 
il H i<jm<'ijil clucliic \ohei ou cju^b mdn, from nliicb tbi^ ^noriDOiifl 
nervoB, n'bich arc £o richly euppti^t Ut Ibo vb^otmsl organ, nnusata. 
Tbo uBo cf tliiii kbo ifi cbviouelir not to pniduao olo^ncity iiaal^ 
bat. bt tbc vriLI of tbo nuliDal 1o sot hoo tbo cocrsy o£ Ibo OTRaiit i- e. 
i>f <'jLL'b ^'f lIu^ RLiiTiY tlunofLiid pifttce (if irhiiJi it c<JiiMf<t«- Tljubi iJt 
tbu tiro buniiLin of isiuih |}Uu\, tbe uvrvouii uiul Um ppolopljumiir, f*fl1i 
rcproMCffl t diutincl fuuotir^T), tli« prtittijibisoiio tbnt of producitt^ ttia 
rc'c)»]rud ok■ot^rtIi^>tivo offoctj tlio norvonH, tbat <.f roodvtng from tho 
Urajii Aud oumniLiaicfttiQg to tho protoplasm tbo impalao by wliicb il 
i& dim: barged. 

Id a rcnner Iwitnn- it TlhtI 1>duu Hbovn tbnt all tbu ordioary 
jiijsiologifitil vha.tia63 whioh occur nt Gvery momcct ol our oxifltoEioo 
m w3iat Qii^bctt onllod ibo orgviji of miiBud lifo* ixirtioalarly ul oar 
QffFTM nnd iu[1i9c1g6« &ro ACCom[nmoJ by electrical cbbn|;i'.A, ni^d tJwb 
ifcUboiigb it Ifl not y^t pn^lilo k> ^¥0 ntiy pbystL-al ttpliinntian of 
thu&4< c^baii^dfl, rapid progrees is nov boing mode fn ik'tumiuttig Ui» 
luwH of Ihmr osecidAtiotL with the other pbyeirat CH>iJCi>rui1iuits of 
iMUM'Tdrir and nervous action. Ae it is practically luucli nii^ra 
ii^jh^rUnt iti undcTBlmid tbc pby»oli>^ of muAcIo oud nnrvo tliui 
thai (if tbrt u]t«tncal or^ns nf a fow nsh, tbc Iftttrf^r ban bvfin ooin- 
psmLtivtily inanfficicntly etudio^ The purpose of th« oxj>nKa«Dba 
madu at Aii5*qhon is to bring tbo pbonomciia of tUo clnctrical 
dificburgo QX abook of toijMrdo wm\ tbo pbyeii^logy of its orgtuj, into 
lino with Lbt> iilri^dy \t!ry iictiiMtuly iiivu«ligftloil pbeui mj-^tiri of 
Tiorvw mid iQT^Hcln. With rtiforeiii>« to tlireu Inst, certftin very dcitinito 
liiwH have been cstabliBbcd, of which, porhiipe, the moet fondamooUJ 
is that wkuu fouoticnaUy at tcgI, Iboau fltructuros oKbibit uo otcetro- 
mutiro atjiiOQ- The atiuuturo mast baro buuu ^mrtmjd|^ ueted upon 

0# AMW SUeiruitl FiAet. 


ky «d«w «atc9tt4i AflcBCT cnf^ltlo of oiciditir iL Anothor cctoblJAKcd 
fiMiia thftt tlie ofleet u of linLitod dttrktiaii, and lliftt for il> devcJotN < 
■■■I ft oarfun tine iDtnt olsftte, «4iiob umlfr ftbnflar oooditicaii i* 
■]B«jt lh« iuna lor tba flUB* AwtnraL A Ihirtl u chat aII MuiIh of 
—**■■*** fte4 IB t^ Mmo wftj, tfao o0ecU 4iffci«iiig in mtoOKty, sittt 
m diroctioA. In bU tbeae TcmotB!* nnd in otb«ra of Ices inpoitoBOQ,. 
ibe eleclrical jiUle tt^^rwA wiUi iaiiaol« uid ncrru. Tiiimir^. Ifaw^ 
Ihn^ a* wn ham m^t iciUi a fUrnriam, af whinb tlii^ dovclofiiMfnt of 
! dacCriMl utioa u tiio oxclunvo fatictioo. Ut«re mc^iu to bo good 
, WWB for Uw hopQ thftt by it< inrrvti^tiou, ■ bcuor Auproaob nuj 
^^^^Mila tlMb 1a» Litbrrlo Imod |&mbl« %o t]i« ccntnu i^tunUoo — 
^^^^^■f Um rvoMM why lu ftll iLUJjiud htmctanii tbo twaiitjoii £twn 
^^PI^^MIJTft lA tlic a«tiro Uinta i^ iM fur ka onr pn«efit kiiawlcii!^ 

^^ Tlw qiHtftioo mhf MrtiuA fiftb «rc c&du«^ vith va ttv^nUr ft 
>— M «if Ol!bft0« ftn4 <lcfei>oo^ vliicb ttlhcm ftllifO to thorn sooloyi* 
fftHj do tvA ptaaoE*, ftftd ftbnvn ftll, why &»inu lUU baiti <doolnni 
w^A* «o rdbU ft* ti> bo divl4«i» ift nw (UfliouU tit ftt)K\r«r now ft« 
w h ia Mr- Itowin wtoU) Uu) ' Ohpn c>f Spooic^A.' Tbo i^Ha t^hxin^ 
to tbt doTelopviCDl of t^ orfau, vrhich teach us to ro^ord it u, in 
mam aen«^ ft aodifivd tOTUicb, migbt »aggwt timt tbo iruuJUoo fn>ui 
Wilitn In nrpn "la > l^iIlioI f>n« dctvrminisl liymtanLAJ ootidttioim. 
B«l «• if* pt^9tMA frofii veering nnj «aoa nn^cttion by th« 
eaotid^BtSiax that an ol«ctn<al orieui only bocutnd* oavai^toficoTin to 
ita poaenor vboo it htm ocquiiod p^fficicai «ij£c to be ascd in tbo 
4Bptsn of praj. luid that iu iitt |*t«vf6uB »tuj^ce uf UuLbitiuti it muitt 
b* vmIm^ NfllErftl soUctloD (wold nut itmnttam dotctTniiio tlio 
dg»ikipm«it of tbo «]ooUittl otmo by modifioibtioD of caiiad«. It 
ii moBO rcft^ODftble to imagmr (bui all (uib, or nt «fij mto certain 
hariliaB «f fitli, pamtm mi imduTcWjHd domtrul of ttru^^tttro, of 
wliU IIm aigctrfcftl orgko Ia tfin mftmiVuLitunk, Sir timt wlmt wd 
!■«• lA ftoeooBt lor u sot it« firocatiiw in aciidc Gtc.K-|)tional coao*^ but 
tl« «LMnM in tJbo grottt majoniy^ 

Um «sipliMiM of caoh & t^udcucy «e Ibis byptjtbvftut HuppoAo*, 
ftOttU TCftdar it M«ftiU« tur uotund Mooliiiii (o oifvivtu uflicivutly iu 
ftboftt IM oboBTTid rttvnlt. 

(J. B. S.] 


Ifr. BeMfaotm B^ixr 


Bib FuMtircE niLAKii.'i:Li.. D.PX. F.H.S. MTrvit.G.C Hoocmrj 

Lttihjtwj the Firih of Tvrik 

DmiNO Iho jxhtt four jtar* mwy thoiuott'l« of riAitore ^ni all [«rl4 
of Lhc Ijuitoj Kiugdooj, auj, indocil, I naj mi/ from all jiftrtfi oi ti)8 
vcirlJ. hiivti rnoro or Itwi oareftill^ IrMiiMTtai Iho vnkrk* nmr in juiv 
ffroM ui^cUv ilr<f i^micnntoa^imcie nf EMr Jnlm FovJcrt ILc Gn^iioar- 
Si-Chiir (U)<i mrmlf, for brid^ng tho Firth of Forth. Tbo DrcMot 
IcctTire 19 Ml impcrftict attempt to ooDfcy to VdU, by (Inscrijilioa uiil 
illut(tmt[uu, ButiiQ tiiitiou erf ihtr lUH^ilmlcj cif tliD prripcirtianfi uid 
diffioaldos of oonetrnotioii of nbftl fn goiMr&llv lultuitbcd to btt ono (if 

llhift nuMt imjMrtatit oa^ooriDg vorlu vet tmdoHihhon* 

TLo Forth ^hi<1t " bniltcd Ito wild Uidhlotidcr/ ami c*poc^«]l/ 
Ujnt pJirt nf it when; the bfiilgc cri:Hb«}», hLuuU be noil cooti^ knovtt 
to evttty rend«r of fif:linTi, fur it liun 1k«i) iniul« the «Deiio of muif 

■ftdT^iilnTtf. Mr, Louia SlovoOBaa'* tbnlljnff stoty, " Kiilnappcd,'* 
will lia>v Wrn ^(^ad by oioitt of you; tho oofo oif thut fllnry ««■ 
ItyiiiLppcd at ihc Tory npot wlioro tbe bridge cToaios, so I c%a 
dcKfri^H) tim poiul of (TtJKHiii^ iu DiivJd lliilfimr*K own uonlfi: — 

"Tlio Virib of Forth (iw in v*iry writ ttiftwn) unm^w* «t tbit 

.^i&t, ^'hiob makon a oonrcmcDt forty ^idli noHb, find liini? tbo 

^Qppor roai^h tnio n l&nl-lockcd hav«ii fcr aIJ iniuiuDr of ehiiis, Ui^itl 
in tllD miilnt of tJ^c lutiv^** lit^fi au inlnTid mth hc^iijo ruiuB ; on tbo 
■octb ibor^ thi<y bftvu Niih n pW fir tbn KTrrvir^o rif tbo ferry, aud at 
tJu> Olid '-f tlifj pior, oil tbi> other iiido of tbo roiu], oiid hntik^ Aniiwt 
% pretty f^nrdon of hnUy trota ami hawtbortta, I cqqH ^e^ tho Intildiiie 
w)iirh ihoy (oil tlio Havrus Iim." Siicb ww* tbo aiipcaranoc of tlio 
djh^l 150 jt'HrH aj;ij- Thy uiiddlii pior of imr brid^' nuw ival* on tba 
■slaud r«f»irri>d to^ koA tlic TI[i\rk?i! Inn flmirinbes too wM, for bofng 
ID tbo mMdlo of cmr works itH ntltuotionii prove irrotiEtiblo to a lam 
pnj|kottioa of our S500 ^i>r1uucu. Tbo aooidont word adjoiiu tbo 

Erotty gnrduu willi Liiuihorui. uiid maay d<xu) nud )tjjtin.-<l men barn 
noil (?«rrli^<^l tlir^ro, wlkn nould haru cwuped bod it >iot twciri for tba 
wbliiki^y of tbo UnwiiB Inu. 

I would wiih if poHsiblo to iiQfrcft* U|«ii my hf>arcn tbo csceep- 
tiODal MKo of tho FoilL Bi'iJ^r-, fur even (liuso wLi> bav« rifiit^d tho 
works and noted t1i«i «TionauiiH gupe to bi? HpituEied mi imch ffi<U uf 
lucb Oamo.mayyol hnvo gone away williout roaHsmf(tbo Tnannitndfl 
of tbo Forth liridgo ofl oompared with tho lorgt'rt railway bridtcos 
bUlicirto btdltv For th(i samu that arobituote inLrvduco huaiaa 




«■ Sntfymg tkt I\rtk *fF4>rA. 


Ignnn ui tkoir dnwinf^ to pro « ■OftU to Ibo iMuUiDgA, do wo 
t«qfluo • oapc lhi iig tl Qnoeufbnj lo cdoablo risitoi* to ftpprociato lli« 
«SB of tin* Torth BrJilgft. If ire «ofiU trmiuport ocro of tbo Uihcm of 
Um mftt BriUiviiA Bridgi from Ow Houi Stnitt to Ao Forth, vo 
Aopjit 6n4 ii voold niui littJo mnm thati otu^faitTtb of Lbo Fjiaoe to 
b* gfMLtud bj «ich ol the snfti Fortb Bridge jtirtlon. T^ ir^t an 
UcB of the hh^^UkIo ut tan iMlcr, siUAil iu Fic^f^lilly utid Wk 
|o«mi<da BaeUii^nEn Fi-ljuvt, ajuI ihf^it ivmidilf^r l)in1 ^a«i hnw U» tphn 
Ifco ootiM 4abu>eo wrou the Groon Puk^ with t copiiplio»i«d ctooi 
Mr w <ni i > wotfiiiif; 15,CL4j ton*, ooi to orcol the mao witiioQt iHo 
foMtnlilj oC a^ ialenooJi&lv pier or suptoit. OonaUtsr tho that 
o«r nil Iml will ho mt hi^h aliovir ihv twit m tbd top of Lho dome of 
Ibo Albert fUll la abo^o ittiwl IcvcJ, nnd thai Iha Atnudirro of our 
faridyo viU tou 3Q0 fv«l y<]t aborv that loTol, <<r u tif h as the top of 

Ii >a DOt ou accosnt of aiw (Hjly^ tb«l the Fonli Driil|fC luia 
•ivitPal m Divcli gMMiTal intnnut, bat Aim IbAraou ft \n ui a pTfirfLiiifaly 
linlo bnoim typo- 1 viU not my rtovoL, fvr tLon ib tiotbitiff n«« 
■■is ibo aim, il in a outilvrtT bTid|:o. Unc of tbo fint qvoitioaa 
aakod hy tba gcaionUitv of lifitors at tbo Forib is — Whj do juu call 
It a eB&t£toT«r brUge? 1 wlinil t}iA( it >« Tint a uilUfmtory unxtw, 
■ai iW it ottlj CTpwaiii lialf ibc truth, bni it ta tiot my t<i tnd a 
iL«rt UMi ■tiltinittnj name for \ho lyp«. A oantdlovLrr in riroply 
■aaAittiMM Ibrabnobcti but tb« 1700 foet upecingH of the >Wh 
m nrtiia?^ W a ounfoukl fttracliiiu ixiubijitii^)^; vt Itto brackits ur 
caadLmn aad ooa nntral girdor. Ovint^ 1*^ tbn nrohi^l f trm of tlin 
■Mlatndo of Ibo bd<iga vacj pcobous kdd tbo ajiiukca ooticn thnl 
A* pmoifJe of ooaatrDotion la ioalogona to tlibt of au arch. In 
fn^MBg ftf thia loctun ibo otbu daj, I bail to couaiiW b'jw Uut 
la ■■![■ a fDDeial aodtonoa ap^irociain tlio tri^« oatitrv amJ ilirvrtiuu 
^ iIm atroMM on tbe Forth B^^ga, and after ooostiltfltiou with eomo 
of flttr oa^MOra oa tb« epot a livrng modal of Xh<' structure iriw 
icnagod a» loUoira t — Two nua aLltiui: »q <baira pikuflod tbcir pjma 
lad aappurtod ibe aam* bf gnapliiy rlkrha bulling a^.-aiuat ibu i^hnLiv. 
nii rafnavaltfd tbo t«o double curtiliivirH, Tho a»irt1 ^(rl<T um4 
tffnantod bj a abort iAicIe alniLg from -'Un »nn of tocb nmn^ nii^l tht> 
lanbawgia b]r '^P*^ axttading fawa iho oibcr amui to a caiipio of 
filM of btkJu WLea atnaaM m Lniugbt on tbia nyBt^to hj m Joad 
oa iba eaoml nnler, tbo aicBi'a amui anil tlin andiortt^ rojiM ooma 
taia laarioa, and tbo atkka aad ohtir loga into ooroproMion. Xa tba 
Fortb BrUffi} /ou baro to inasJuo tha obaiiv pJaoud a third of a mila 
Mfmti mad tbo moa'a b«ad« to bo BGO foct above Uk« gnjuod. Tboir 
na afv raproMaitod br hagn vti^el Inttlui QMrabora, aiid ittv «tiDhtf ur 
fCHa bj slail tabaa 13 foot u diamctor vAd 1^ inrboa ibicb. 

1 ba«a avidfinoo that ofoa iangoa irhcii bridgia^ in primitiTa 
itok a itnttm of iaer« than ordiaary width, bar« b^n drirca to tb» 
■^ftipg of tbo oaotJlorar Kct<l ooolial ^rdiix t;faicia as wu voro 
iriffta lo il al tbo Portb. TIidj wirald find tbo twn c-acttlloreii ia 


Vr. Mnjamin Ri^er 


ihe proj«cllDg UtU30l>iC« of a oodplo of iret« on oppMitc ndcii of ^ 
riTvr, Ku^l lli«j^ vould Luh b; |p«H ropos » cuulnd piuoe Ui lie miilH 
of tbcijr caTitllmraftt oud m form & briflgD. 

Tho boat ovidoDco of ikpproTal u imitiLtioa. and I ttm pl<44od to 
bo abio to IcU vi>u iKftt aiiLco Uio tiral puliligntioa of tbo ac«]£n far 
Uto FortU BridKU, ]intclic«11j OTor? bifl bridcu Utnm^liviit Um vcirU 
hMft l>iVEii biiill on tbo priaQiplo of Ibnt cloadKii aitit Jnanj olJi«fn sfv 
ID progTBU. 

Tiior<> OK throo ivai& p:bra at !Ji<> fortii knoffu rc«pcctiToty m 
tko Fifo ^lioTt Lbu luoli Gurric ptcr, aud Uio Qtiooasforrj pier* njid tapoa 
ittcH nf thmif Uivrc ftn> biitit Lugo cuiUloror« «tretcbiiiif Ixiili imjH. 
Tho Ftfti pii^r hUitiiIa Iwlwetn high and liTv-wkUir miLtk, ftiid U 
KOpknWd bv u ajwi L?f ITCIU fl. fr>Tit Uio Inch Gi^rvio pier, wbick u 
tiortly foiiEid<id upon n ri^cihy iHlnitd in mid-tttroam. Aaothor »piu) of 
17C0 fb' catHcs the bridge to the Qaccniforry pier, wbicl) Is At 1I14 
odgs of the doup nbnuijel- Tliu total lirnuth uf tlm rmdiiet U nbont 
1^ mflw. Bcd thla inoliidnti tv^ iipnrLfi i^r TTOO fl,. t<ro of 675 fl.. 
b»iiig Lh« ahocgiTArd «ud« of tha oantilavora, nud fifWon of 16tJ ft 
Inelndinfc pi^ftf. thoro U tlna ulmoat flXaoUy 1 mila oovcrorl bjr iho 
gruaL cactiiiivcr spujfi AUi] LuiulLur J lulle cjf nAdiiot approach. Tha 
cimr Wwlviny nuilt^r lliv wtitm of tTiv hriil^e Lt }6i£ ft al hi^ valer, 
aud Elio bifjrhjul point of i\ict hn'df^it in 360 n. abova dit^ aann^ datbtn. 

Each of thcr main pior» uicUioM Umr colamns of miXfionr; fomjdod 
ou tho tock 01 boulder clny, Bnluvr low water tic pjctn differ vomo' 
wbml ill vLnrtkctLT. atruidltiii: lo tbo UiolI cLjudilJoLt. Ab luob f^u^o 
twn iTTt^xi^hl-iraTi oaiwiirin, vhJrb might bo UkrTind to Itirg^ tuba OT 
buckoU, 7C ft, in dmtmitop and 50 fl. to 60 fi, biffh, were bailt *>n 
UnnabLtij^ wayii on tbo (dopiug soutliuro furc«bctu of tho Fortli. Tbo 
bulLuiu uf tutli cniaHuU WJW li<it jp 7 A* nboTiJ tbu GultJug t:djffc. tunl 
m ciruiil^ldU'tl h ubautljor TO ft. hi diairj<:l4T and 7 ft- bif;b, r^jiuble of 
being diled nt tlic pmpiT tiniu witli oiaiipruniir'd air t<i rnablc taon lo 
ncrk OS lu n diving bull bolo^v thu wuUr of thu Forth. The ouoaonf 
W«jgbiut; Libout 470 totis sva8 laiuicbcd and titcia token to a bojtk 
aloBgaidu Itjc Quei^nidorrj jottyi wboro a certain amount vf cuutn.'trv 
britilTnrork. ainl ^Ea^ing n'iL« uihled. briugiiig tbo u'l^igbt np ^> ^CAi) 
tons, A Tdj"^ strung ftiid ootftly tr<i& i^tagiDg had prtivti^uidy b«in 
orootod, aJou^'><iil<i wliioh tht^ uainaon hah luoorod in ogrroot po«>tion 
for eiuking, WLiUt the irork dcetribcil woa pmooodlng, divcn and 
labaur(u« men uugugcd iu iiitkkizLg a lavul bed for the ciois^nn to mi 
on. Tbw 16 fl, b1«p<> iJi th» r<n;k li.rtw»ni waH IotpU&I up by baga 
filled ^Vlth eand or conoreto. As kooh ma th^ n<ii^ht uf cai^iMu and 
flUing rcibcbod 3^70 tons tbo caiesaa roiitod oa ibo eaxid ba^ and 
floatud uo more. Tbe bigb leJgo of rock upon wbiob the norll^vrn 
od^ of tbo oaisfton rmiN'd wju hlasUnl awiiy. hobw Wiug driran, by 
roi*k drills auil otbonvise, inidi>r iha cnltia^ ^^^p and atjorxt 6 in, 
beyond for tLo chargci?. After tho mon had goinod a littln oiporii.moo 
in tbis worU no difBculty vaa found to undur-cutting tbo hoi^i whin* 
atone rock to allow tha vdgu uf the caiflua to nrnk* aud, i>f m>iintc. 




PK Bridp^ tke FtVjA of F^rik. 


Ikra WM iliU lorn dtfflcoltj £d recncmog tiio Mod bftf^a ttfuiptvoHly 

as <n dry UaiI, t\\9 vlr^^la Af lh« TO ft ditLmbtor tiy 7 fl. high 

oMwiand tLroi^ ftTorlMiftl labo with *n tur IkJc %\ the top, unJ 

Tiidtorv mit«rod Iv pftsv thiough tbiii lock into Iho ligbtru] 

biiloiv, v^icro Iho prasiaro a( tiai«i wm w bigli ut 35 ibd- 

At <^ »n i*/'<fTTy all four picn vrciro fovod^d on c^inonn idcntrcU 
la priftoi|tk viUi thc«o nvcd for ihc liorji Ourlo ]it«n^ Tbo iLw{i«l 
VM m ft. b«li»w high mUirr. Iu«t4«d cf a ftloping mrfkcA r>f rivrk 
lift b«d «f U)« KofUi wv of wfl mud lo ■ oontidomblo doi>ili, 
|Ih««^ wbkb tba ououiu htd t^ b« euak into the Juml buuldcr 
dftf. Tie trJcoM of AnJdn^ wm «> fvllovrt : TIki cauhiju Lciug 
■iM on uo nft nul irlitab, of cunnv, prwrticnlly ^IInI tlif^ 
vtwtiag dvuBhar, olr VM blnim fn aaiI % t^w rn«a dacootiioj tho 
iftift«r bibt of locm lo the working ohftmbor ia ^nftv tocltnr bvay 
IW amiL Thia wm doao by dilalicK it la tho noccnAary utcut by 
vaMr bmogbt dovu m pipe nodcx praBoro, and br blowing; U ifiu in 
fluBqmd itslu Uiriiiii^h uwlher P^P** b^ caflvi> of tha prnunm of 
*■!■ ra Ihfl olionbur. It vu found ibfti tlio >aud «tf«lnl th« otbsoD, 
Ba ih^ ft pTOflnira of air cunnidonbly in oxoou of thai of tho wrier 
nlriilt «wd bo kopt dp. iukI U vu nnnerri^fy to vvry ih^ )ifui*iiiiti 
MaovilBg to tbe lieigbl uf thi; liila In vrorking through tliis aoft 
both iBtrUig««(>A wd ooonge ir«re oelled fur on thi» [iftrt cf tho 

ao% «»4 II te 4 nloMan* uid duty for mo lo t^j Ihftt lh« ItalinDH mid 
fff >pm* wigm riii ott the work vr«f« nortor found wnuttuu: iu tLoou 
^wuUtttioM- ^niere mw ninny* i^ ohmiioo of tho i^Uutiiij rJnkJu^ 
«>ti«Blj or irre^Sttlftrly. and Einpri>oning ■^mo uf t\yy men, ^nd 
JBihqt <MI •BtoccMdoQ ft f^w in«b wor* buHod up lo tliL^ir vhxu^ m 
Ifca salt aad ott uwUior tt^ c«i«*on itavo a sitldoo >lr^p t>r 7 ft 

Wili AW of cor cwsKnOJi 1VC HDfartmiitaty bftd an ocuLduut mud 
laMiif lil(^ wltkb, Hltbough it hdd tiullitug lu do with thn siTtkfng 
<tf IboMJOBoa, wfttMlrwtly dn^ lo iJioR^int^ t^wm. tie- tho iM>ftni^«ii 
itflW»kl boUona. OnBOvyoar'a day, l»Hr>, Uio KW. CjuotnBTorrr 
laiMO, whic^ bod bo«Q tovoJ icto position, and vrrtj^hluil, uitfi 
•fcovt 4000 kma of ooooraLcv otnck iu the mwl. and in»tti^jkd of rUin^ 
vilb ibQ tide rvivaiiwO Aied oo that ihe vrator fluH iug over tbo <h1ga 
iU lid intortvr Tho 4000 toM of volar oaoood tLo oaiMou b> 
•ok fartlvfiT ia lh« mud, coftoeially at tho onlcr o<ljco, ood W alido 
farmd and tJlt^ Tli« coatraci-3C» tlctcnrtiaod Ut raioa tb» aldu of 
An lai—ih n&til it <j^m» oburo watur luvu], and thnt pninp out and 
fl<vt tiw nioirm baek failo poBltlon. About ihrtv mntilhii wro 
awB|i»l ia daing tbii, bat wbou ptimpLnH had pr^x^i^hvl a cviijtui 
oitaA tbo caJMMO eoUafMiDd nwiuj^ to tho Itouv/ <iil<'fiia| |itif«tijn 
U Hat Kvlcr, avd t«o um wura killod. 

VotXII, (Ko,8r) 

UC Mr. Btfijamin Baker [IU7 20, 

I moflt DOTT 8ftj ft fdv words raspecting the design, mMm^wtore, 
ftnd erection of the Hnpentnictiiro. 

Dtgign. — I bave ftlreadj illustrated the principle of the eftnti- 
lever bridge, and nood only doftl with the debuls. At the Forth,' 
oning to Uke anpreccdonted span and the weight of the etmoton 
itself, the dead load is far iu excess of ftny number of nJlwaj tnuuH 
which conld bo bronght upon it. Thns the weight of one of the 
1700 feet spans is about 16,000 tons* and the heaTieet rolling load 
WLiuld not bo more than a eouple of coal trains weighing aajSOO 
tons togotbor, or only & per cent, of the dead weight It is haidly 
necessary tbeiefore to say that the bridge will be as stiff aa a ro^ 
nndcr the passage of a train. Wind eren is a more important element 
than train weight, as with the asaemed proGsnro of 56 Ibe. per aqnare 
foot the estimated lateral preasora on each 1700 fL span is 3000 
tons, or two uod a half times as much as the rolling load. To 
rof'ist wind the structure ia *' straddle legged," that ie« the lofty 
columns over the piers are 120 ft. apart at the base, and 38 ft at 
the top. Similarly, the cantileTor bottom members widen out at 
tho picra. All of the main compression mcmbera are tubc«, because 
that is the form which with tbo least weight gives the greatest 
strength. The tube of the cantilever is, at the piers, 13 ft. in 
diameter and 1^ in. thick, and it is subject to an end prenore of 
22S2 tons from the dead load, 1022 tons from the trains, and 2920 
tons from the wind ; total, 6*224 tons, which is tho weig}it of one 
of the largest tnnsattantic steamers with all her cargo on boaid- 
Tho vertical tobe is 34S ft. high, 12 ft. in diameter, and about j in. 
thick, and is liable to a load of 8279 tons. The tension members 
are of lattice construction, and the heaviest-stressed one is subject 
to a pull of 3794 tons. All of the structure is thoroughly braced 
together by *' wind bracing " of lattice girders, so that a hnrrioane 
or cyclone storm may blow in any direction np or down the Forth 
without affecting the stability of the bridge. Indeed, even if a 
hurricane were blowing np one side of the Forth and down the 
other, tending to rotato the cantilevers on the piers, tho bridge has 
the strength to resist such a contingency. We bare bad wind 
gauges on Inch Garvic since the commencement of tbo works, and 
know, therefore, the character of the storms the bridge will encounter. 
The tvFo heaviest gales were on December 12tb, 18S3, and January 
26th, 1884. On the latter occasion much damage was done thron^- 
ont the country. At Inch Garvie the small fixed gauge was reported 
to have registered 65 lbs. per square foot, but I found on inspection 
that the pointer could not travel further, or it might have indicated 
even higher. I did not believe this result, and attributed it to the 
joint action of the momentum of the iustnimont, and a high local 
pressure of wind too iustontancous in duration to take effect upon 


om Bridfittf Cb Firth </ JWil. 


ft i imiuw of vij flls* or cvf^ Th« gn^t bociH of 300 «4]iut« 

mA I dcisbft vnuch if tbo prtamrd vonld Iut* bTomj^od iuui« tbuti 
mbiaak vo Wgc ■ anrfiuow the bridgo. 

VflMybctw. — Tbs bMil pUcea rsqnind for tlitr tube* of iho 
P«tb Bm^ woul^l. if fbcM ftnd to onit, atrHoh 4:2 m;lo«. Spocial 
iliBl kmd lo b» dovisod br propftnu tboM pUk«. Lnujr ^m&c««, 
Uftlsl in MOMta in rtaacc* lij 0m nodiioen. and in oUxorabj coal, fint 
hmM Ifan plvtiv. wkicli wrre mil hanlud bt^twcmi Uie i1i« cif rui 
VOtOD bjdrftollr prwM, and bnnt to lh» profxr rftflLni. Whon oool 
ttw«d|mw«r9 platKd all roan^ and tho pLo-toii built np iiiii> Itio 
ftiK « A tbbe in llio driUinjc r^urd. Here thoy m^ro dnalt wltl by 
ri|^ fvaai tnToUing iMihiin biTiog Il-u tnreirauig drilla mdiatiug 
la tha oanirtt of tha labo, viJ rlHllin^ (liDVigli at luucli u 4 in. ti 
•a»d atoat to pUoM. 

The inMrion amabora and kttitM tfivdcn ffcncinUy am of kngto 
Ian. aavti to IcngtK i*faoo cold, and of pUtos pknod all n>iiai). 
Mallipln dHllH UiiT tLrvugli immeuM LuicVciun iif kbivl at an 
litattMMfig ral<^- Tii« largfir mft«lim« hflTii ton ^fr]1!4, wKioh, g^vng 
m Uaqr dei, dnj and aigJit* at 180 MvolqtipttA par minatn. nnrfvnn 
■ocfc cqnivAlciil to boricf; an inob lioJo tlir<JTigh 230 fb. blt^otncM of 
Mlid atool CTOTT tveotj-fbur boui>, 

ftartioo. — Facllily of oivi^tloTk \n one of iIia miwl ifn[>nrtant 
dMHiiali in tbo cau of tbo Fanfa Bridft« Owing to tflKI !"(. ilf<ptb 
of vtlv, aeatf«ldin|E ia imfnariblo, and the bridi^o baa to c>>n8tit[tto 
tM irwn BoaSaldinfi. Tho pHucipb of crcotion luloptcd wtji thcrofurH 
lobaild fint th<< jtortiiiu nf tlio itOfivnJrurtiinT ovit the intin pior«, 
lb# groat W^l toar*r«, on tbo/ may bo rullnd, olthitTigh n^lly [i^rU 
af til* ouitUaTct, and to add sucooadTO bayn irf tha cotttilovor, rijfbt 
and Ul of tbeao towtfa, and tberofore bfdonoic); ench othor, iiklil 
Ibo «bttlo ia «oaipb-te. Tbia Uun; tbo ^ctieral iirititrlplc a gtvjit 

faftU^ oaitl*!, acd ia odor lo prog(v««, ia aa fcUowa ? — 

AAar tfeo akowba«l», boriaont&t iah/^ and n Mirtaiu l«oi^ of tbo 
varticalB aa blgb aa atnm orauiM cuuld o^T^iviiicutly rvKh irare 
hoEU^ aliAlo^ a(o^ vaaoTMlod. TbIa ixliinnEihI ttf two plntronrw, 
aoo on alllwr afda ci tka brldgn, and fiitir bydmnlic lifting rnma, <mo 
ba»rk 19 ft. tabu. To cany tkcoo rami croai fjinloH «-oro ftli^wl m 
do UUa capAblo of befog ntaoJ ao aa (O anpport lb« rami nml 
tdaifc i m aa aradiun phXMtled, and ilOil pUiA snmnXiyptui in t» 
Mdtiio eroa< ginUris, TravtiDlng emma oro plaiwd nn l)]^ plftt- 
Mkd tkaoa «miaa, witb tbo man working aloft, aro of coiinh» 
aritb tbo platfoma fvhtm hjdreuho proearo ia lut into th'> 
Tlio nwdo of pruocdorD » to raiAri ibo Trlalf.irm 1 ft. ncd 
ta llio aloel pillta tr> carry ibn Uiad tHiilit tbci nunn nr^ ^*tliiig 
PWrilj lo mako oDotbEr ninjlie cf 1 fl, Wlirn n ||^ fl^ Itft liaH hnon in 
ma^ vliiela ia a mailer uf a i-jrr koun, a ]<nu«v of rwnt« two ur tliroo 
4ayi oocm to M^n tba riTcliuis to l>o cui»pl«tcii Tlio julvrvnco at 

L 2 


Jfr. Beajttmn BoM^w 


tia«« Lis bccQ <4 tk« r^lc of throo lifb, <ir 48 ft in boigbl* t& «' 

The mtstn of cr^tlon hy orerlt&TigiDg oflert gnmt ndT&iitag«« 
t« i«|2V^ ttiMy, na («oh fiiicceviiLii^ iiart or Uio itip(inlTiiotar« it 
rivotod np utl completed before ft furtEifv jtortion i* a<1(1«]. In UiA 
CAM] of fti} onliufrry briifZQ the wbolo tnpcritmctiirc mnvl first ht 
boujiomrily Lulttnl up uti HmfTiiItling, &111I tu tlint couiliibti !■ liaUe 
lo bu aw(*pt ftWAT fiy itooii rtr hiirricAni* at fiiiT iTii>trii>nt 

Tbora U notliii^ naw itikdor tl^«i sun, nnu tlicrtrfuro 701a vill sot 
1m flnrpruod to hotr tliat in 1S1*>» ft ccrtaia Mr. P<ipc propnAcd to 
OuMlTiict ft i:miti]tT<ir Ltiilgc. i>f l&OO ft npan, ftrnJHi the E««t iLivDr, 
fu New Yorkn mvl* tudixnl, iitZitbitm] ft fiO ft. iiinil-Hl «( tlii? umo timiL 

I luhvo ilivrritiffll thn prri^xuu nf orc^c^tirg lh-> Fortti Bridgt la 
■nljiir proiuc, if 1 h(i4 thought cf doini; it iti Tomt' 1 fcbi>ulcl baro 
oj>pr«j.riot&i btxiilj Mr, J*oi»o"h lyrical Totnion cif bi« ititcn-lud opeft* 
tiuuH At lliu Eubt iZivur, uf vrliiL'l] ibu fulluwiit^ in k ttttmplci ; — 

I ^^ KiU^ti rtmi-Afo in built Adth off Uio lr>p> 

^^^ W)thnitl Ihr^atd nf VMlToti], plOf> <ir pmp: 

^^K lljr dclikAiid ^^tvimmcti pcitla ImrmI limrri, 

^^H And on Ibo llaibcr't «Dd tp^in Pi^i* ■> mint^- 

^^H ^r^> bit lb« bfidn* Ihkl were cm LutiU 

^^H UtipaMt Ibrir WMgLI tm ounUts pi«r, or ililt ; 

^^H ^ul im Ihv Inidg* tlur a-qthrir tiM 1a Ijaut, 

^^^H HEniilvi lA Rim In Bivit fnirh ntvilhwmuit; 

^^H A lucW UD tswh Hldv id b^v1^^Ml ilfmii, 

^^^B And Bliif\c4 &oid tb^ fal<TUiii tg tbo crovrti.* 

To cmry f»nt tb*i worlc at Ibn Forth TlHclgft t)ioro Is an anny 

SfiOt) witIeu^qti ofliccrod by el prcportirmi^to nnmbor of uuciDOCMu' 

'SrttTtbint^ cxcxipt tbc rolling uf tlio ntccl pUtm in doQo 011 i£o »pi>t, 

' ind cotiBcqutiitly tliet^ utc litenJU LaciJmile of stcijLUi Piid bj'ilmulio 

«nglmfH »hil ilhiir nifU'LIuui n\u\ ftpjOinitoufc Vm [riLEni.<niiis to meiitioD, 

iDftny of Xhava being of an entirely originitL obanioter. 

It IB, of oouroo, impofiaiblo to cartr out u gigastio worV ^f tbe 
kind 1 have bad tbo bi^uuur of biiiiguig bi?foTe cbc liutitiitioii witbont 

tHiyiu)^ fur tt, iKit mcroly in iti»iivy> but io lui^u'a lires. T nbnU 
iA7i^ ffttlftd in my tnek if you do not, ti^ soma oxteiit, realUe th« rifika 
to nfaicb KcaloUB ftnd plucky workmoa wUl bo suro to oxpoeo tbom- 
Aolvos ia pufibin^ on «itli Ibo work of erecting tho Forth Bridge. 
Bpdnkiug uu bt^bELlf of tbo orgirciorSf I moy vay tbat we ]igvi^ ft^k % 
vorkmiin to do a thing uhicb wo nro not propAroil to do oureclvca, 
bnt of oouroa mon will, ou their owe iTiitiativQ^ oocfteiotinlly do nuh 
thinga. Thus, not lon^ ft^ a taon tra^t(^d hiinsolf ftt n ^r^^l boi^fil 
to tbe HiiQplo grftfip of a rope, and bis Loud gpttitig numbed witb aM 
bo uiiuo(LHoun»Hly rolattu) LiA b>dd ftiid r«rl) bjwkwHrdR n desornt of' 
120 ft., Lflppily inTpO tbe wnt«T, from vphich bo was fifihtA mil IMt 
tho VOV3Q ftftnr «iakitig twioo, Ancitber mftii^ g"ing up in a boiJtl Ujq 
otbor doy. bflTing that fnmilinrity with doiigcr vibicb brofid> c^ntiimp^ 
did uot trosblt) to oluec tbe raili and Btoiubliug bwtkwnj^ foil 

1887.] tm Bridging ike FirA of For^ 149 

dirtttee of 130 ft., cmrtjbi^ amy a dozen ntngB of a ladder with 
wtieh be cvne in oontact, as if tliej had been straws. These are 
imtiTinfiB of rvshneas, bnt the beat men mn risks from thoir fellow 
wcfkmeo. Thus » splendid fellow, aetiTo aa a cat, who would nm 
knd over lymd ftloog a rope at any height, was knocked otot bj a 
ain dropidiig a wed^ on him Jrom above and killed by a fall of 
1i«w«a) one utd two bimdrcd ftiet There are about 500 men at 
mk at each main pier and something is alwaja dropping from aloft, 
1 nw a hc4e 1 in. ia diametor mode through tho 4 jd. timber of the 
itapng by & Hpanner whioh fell about 300 fL and took off a man*e 
>^ in its ooorae. On another occasiou a dropped spantrer entered a 
Ma'i wai«tooat *nd came ont at his ankle teanng open tho whole of 
tiidotbear bat Dot injuring the man himself iu aoy nay. 

H»ppUj there is no ladt of pluck amou^at British workmen; if 
CM mill fdla uiother atepa iuto his place. IMffieultiea and accidents 
leodMuily occur, bnt like a disciplined regiment in action we close 
^ thfl Tuikflf posh on* and step by atep wo intend to carry on the 
irok to a TiGlorioiu ooucluaion. 

[B. B.] 

Dr. JCbiP 

{"•y «• 


IVJdAj. Hay -27. 1887. 

Til BiOBr Hojr, Eail PRKct, M^iuL^trruid V9ce-PK«iJi»ii, 
in tlio Cltfur^ 

Ktiolayy o/SiiaUi Ffter. 

ftafal tb* iaSiettow or Kjiuotic} dliso*«» ther* an 4vo ftl mj 
tmto — niunolj^, icttriel fcvar mkI diphtbom — of which it mAy M 
fAiil lliut Ujiilr iprvftd u to a 1u»or exUdit dopf^bdcut Oa dofectlva 
duauictic Hinitiktiott thkn is tliu odum irith some of the* other vjinnCic 
diiMiMMB, 00, fur iuetftuctt, ^pboid forur. I&^hkU it i« mainUiried bj 
ooiDpoiccit tutliorltioH that HOiirlot fever and dipljltorlA do &ol iuTado 
tiouHM of fault; muiiUvtioa nith grcator frequency or «UTurltj tljtut 
thciCD of poHu-t Miiillnt^ iirmiigt.'im'iiU. Thtit riuw m faniuKl oh Iha 
imiForHut 47i£p4rrii<iu>< giL)ii<sl ftrinn^ tlii> pn«t twuuly ycnrs — visL Ibftt 
•pidumioa of ftoarlct (vmr and difiLthi ria ham b«4a bivttght »boilt bj 
BDilL I Bwy bofO •Ut<: by nny of <<ipknfttiQTt thftt a fut woU «ilBb- 
liidiod Kod iincding no fiirtlio:r couinivut U thnt Bcntlet fnvnruLiI djph* 
tboria mx% Wko imftllpci, mMslan, wlio(>i>iiig <--ni]g}i. and typbmt fervor, 
oomiaaniotblo dirnntly fn>m pAmon t> ]»«n<^ii. Tiiiit loodD <fr LnfcotioD, 
di>uljtloafl tui in^ihortant oijCt nud i^ctmiug into npanCioD in slnglo CMCI 
nboravor tbo elcracutary mica of leol&tiou Aod diainfbotiou ve truuH 
gnsaied, tltogtrtlicr itinku iiitij iuKlgriil^t^i^ft! whun c^-inpt.n(\ wJtJi Aw 
liif««tioTi pnxhiood on «, ht^tt soaLv, If a oorQmo& ivtiolo of diot lilu 
XDilkflhonld booomo iuitoino wnjcirftDotboT thovohiclo of oontegisn^ 
ui bftB been fiTCJTed to 1t« tlic coao in a nunkbor cf cpidankic ontbrvJoi 
Thimo epidtujiico. liit>>iii ha milk niMu-ljitinji. milk dipbthi^riii, tatd T 
maj ibo ftdd milV tvp)ii>id, Imv^ thU in ojinuion, tlmt ulrufwt dutiU 
toBAoniJy, or at ^tiy rain wittiiii a <ibort tiia#, in a mtinUur of boajuw 
baving no direct conimu»i<!iitEon by pnrticiii or othortvJtio mih ou 
Biiolbcr* Uiciu nuoiir, MJiiiotniJcs Hiugly, MriucUiitcH iu batcbon a« It 
were, cnst'* of illu^^M — hcurlBt fuver, dipbtb'*nu, or tji>boiil foTcr lU 
tb« ('»«(■ may bo ; and it na& tliin p^cnliAr vliaructer ivbieli fH;i)r>U>d to 
• ooTidition vhiob miiet have btifiD crnmuon ti> all tltwo boiiiiiAbuldS' 
On obi»i»r cinmiu'^iiuii it was ii^Iccd found tbat nil tbrco briCiKibuJdfl 
bju) tliiv. auU inily ibis, iu isiiiumuii, tlmt ihey i^ert «U HUppUtd vith 
luflk «oriiiii(; fri^n^ th>^ Rtuue Hi>tirvr< — tbu is to «Ay. frcna tLo mno 
(laLfyiiinn- Otbor boueea, eupplieJ witb milk from a dilFonmt Boui^ 
Mcap(?d ; iuid« fiirtUor, It waa ebu:m tbat, tu ^oon as tbo coiunmpttoo 
of tbe Buspout^Hl niilk vemxxl, tbu cpiiU^mic. od supb, cmnc to ou obd, 
«!T(«pt, of cunrw*, tliu iKtuttM iLu« Iu HuoomlBry iuiectiou from pQiwiD lo ^m 
p«riOJi. fl 

Tbc Modical Dorartmcnt nf the LocU GoTOHLmcnt Bo4rd b«TO 



tm Brielofif e/ SeaHtt Ffver. 


kii for j«*n fttA tbcir ftltcutiob fiud on Ibcw milk cpiiloE&ii.'«^ abd 
itt i1m fi«pod» of the U«dioU Ofiocr uumj of tboio aro ilcAcrilvJ 
vUb yaJ iliittU| Mnuagrtjhwe Dr. BalUr^M Beffirl in 1670 uti 

ui IsJiagliMt. Dr. BnekaoAoV cai 8euk4 Tovor in South 
yMninjclTiii in 1S76, 4111I Mr. Vomt'm on Stiorlot Favor in 81- Od<Krd 
■sd St. P*i>rrma in IblSA, itr« MpeoUIljr to bo rcCetrDil to. Ur. EraMi 
Hut h«0 uUi1aI«I «U IIm ou&ruJui oS latlk cpiik^uicv nbJdi vrcm 

itinnJl Modiol Co&QMM fn- 1881. Not, &ika1j«ing tlicrio vai- 
ItfcAks ■« &r M IlkOj r^Fbr ta Hurlct fercr. tbcrc ato lOToml of iL^rn 
whuu ibv M«(ump4iuii lliAt iLc milk cuuemucd M(X)uircid iLc ponor of 
Ubrtko hj v^KhuniUMtiotx fniin a hiaua mhiob ouuwit bu ciclu<Iod. 
TUi fatfPK0K, H [irovoD, woulJ KliitMl on llio «viio fixHiiig &h if i)uu 
tsi oovMioa &QU ponon to per«oQi ; fot- it it clov, vlicUwr tLo <imi- 
lignm M «oariTfod fruo one pcnoc to anoUtcr bj ftir. food, drink, cr 
<liwmi>e^ il aUar&nau^ina pjuUgiim from Lrrsijti U> ^lonwu. Kuw. 111 
nmnj mi the cumi of fipfalpmW lAhaljiVnl hy Ifr. Hati, iml r««cirxteil Iiy 
MtaafMOt oXmivmt — i. «. nfUr Iddi^tLia modo of luilk ootitMniiLA- 
IM CftUlo4 bo cxdndcU, m I pkLJ bc&«c ; but ccanparin^ the <U(<« 
■hai tbo uuLk nu Anp|jo«ed to Iibtq Iwcwt^q vd ouiilui&ui»tod willi 
nbm Uio niilk ku ftotoftUj |iruiliioud bifoollou, Lt will tm 
tfc«t ■ c«rujft tliRCfifUicj •livU, flvd, u iHU bo «hn«n lator, 
taodttoS infuTtio* - via. ttam a |Knic*ii aflboichl iritb ccarUtiiu 
to ifca (»v util Ihrvcfik Ikx cow to tkc nuik aui lh«it lo kQUkon bcingn 
MBgiii be ffiHWcii eitLer* There amoLLcr epJilouili^H uHidnltil in 
ibsB IftbW Im wblefa Ihtt n»1o of bfeoKou c/ the milk U nnt Asc^r- 
taisad, mmI iq k ihinl sm tbo milk ftof|cin4 ii^rhetivD power in Hvm« 
iny or t&otLvr, but ccrtaitdy oot ^ib a hmiuui Morrc- 

Am att illiijitr«lkua vf tlic flrvt tcrouji (f c^piMcmica — Lc- fiubAbln 
OMitaiiiMlinii fhMQ ft hnuBii Muray*— 1 nviil rtfcr to a obmi rucorJcul 
I7 Uf^ Robttiwdi, of Kttiwkk, fa wblob • ikijy cIomIj a^ciiiifyL u 
boM wbana settrlc4 fttvcr lift4 cxirtcd for nroral irro«k«. Thv cowh 
W» BUki^vTOybisbtaiidiDoniiii^i&toaitoiicn tiucan. nhicL wm 
CMiU MviMi an ofvt) jird, fttat tbu nfhxicd luiuvu. II11? vhililn^u 
vbo in4 ouigbt mmhI ferer in tb« lo«niitj plftjnctl otoiit tbu ptM 
iHdIo in a «I»ta of doniwunfrtion. On on« pu^oul^ dnj n ^uijvnJ 
ipiibiroin of aoftrlot feror broke i>ut in tbo lo^rn« bi>tiroNi Uitity adJ 
far^ IkviliM boiii)( iaTndcd. AU ihimi mfiriutt from tlic (]l«<«m> 
mMJT«d tbnir milk anpiily ftum liim [lartk-uLir Irkiry-fiii'iD. Sciuu 
■If brr of rtoiy fiuoilj agppli««l k**! oiUiur a warlatu^al «ore IbruLt 
tr Mmrloi fbt^r on tbU dnj. CHbcr fju»i]>(4 »np|i1i«>l tn»D n^Strcni 
«Mir?Q rvCBpul tJ>o JiaMtfc A LhliJEci bud iLu lutlk rmv fc^r HUpper 
•al «u tfUekad. Hifl kuirlUdy biitcil bor Vollk tJio iminc nigbl And 
wenpcd. Wo mwU haro obavrro thU n InrgO ntuulwr of iitih ow«tt 
rf fltBrktiiM oconttvil ott Ibo OMVO dnj, muJ th« iufaroooo from tbie 
iki U 1^ on >cauo olbtt- ^j. Portly bcforo, vfbcn the Qbildrcn wbo 
pnoling frnin nwrnt hcitrUi fovtiT ncte- pl^yiii^ in tba ynnl, Ifaoj 
nod iBfrr**™ lo Ibo milk wbteb wm in tb«ir noi^JibCkarhDotL 




An nn illiiAtration of Ibo ■ootind kind (vis, no4 prob^btr from « 
Lvmiu) noorce) 1 will wfor to Ibc oulbrMk of Bcvlct fcwiT m Oifoird 
In IbuftfiriErgof 1fl8S« n<^JtO«Ml tj Dr. Ditrbifltlrv : fn tlji^St lUrlLrn 
InmoVt HoApll&l RppoiU, vol, xi^ Tito nnbfiUacn <ff Dr, T)»rbiAbir*'i 
Kftport in tbia: — Tbreo mwd flr«to kept hy tiiofaa n^fco told the tnilkJ 
and lUDu boUKV, cdilaiiiiikf; 66 pcrvon« in nil, ^i<oto rapptic^l m^rnuBf 
Bzid L-iiJiiii^* ; iLc tiiiLk miB uhvlt nk-nxl, vat tlivtv viiut j^uvnllj haxvUf 
iMirmgU at 4«r^h nink{i>g for ntl tlio mHtomfim, Tn llit: }ion*n V) wTii^H 
tho Qi-tn and |>«d(1ciek bolotigtv] tliaro wra a cofio of difbtfacm in & 
jount; lady; obo viu rcctDDfc<l to tbc inSitacLr^ ou M&rob 1. Tbo 
connjikn bud m obiJd ill wilb PCBflut iVriir in bin cuttagv frum 
K"l»niary "27 till Mjwb S. On MiLitb 5 Dr. Di^rlii^biKi lnul ititt 
r^ilM FJ^fnATrd to thct boiifrjul and ibo oowman'a rott&|i« Ehorottghl/ 
duiiifijclctl ; tbo cocnmu luft bm eottAf^ to iloop to ]ud|^gn noflrj 
tiio CftTC of tbo COT* bavins l>ccn baudod over to anotbot man, on- 
guvd ff-T that iiuijiuKi. Nuw. if tbu lurlk bad iHMXUUti iijrtM:ti<<I iVuiu 
Htb^r nf fbf«t> tK4> CAH« /niio dijibiborU And th«» otb^r )V4ir1n( f^ivor) 
titia niQflt bavo occiiTTtid for Uio drut b4;fi>r« March 1, firir thn otbor 
itdoL-ci Uiircb 3 ; and lu tho |)«riod of i&cubalioQ of «e4rki fofttt i> 
kooTFi) tu Iw lu A rule K-BH tban utcu daj^i; !t follow* tbat H«rob 3 
beJDg tbo Iaai duT 4>u vlitHi tlici milk Limb) linvi> rfif.vnv>*<l tbo tviii- 
tagtuni frtun a buTrmn U^ng, March 10 wrtntd In* tli^ laat rlny nil whirh 
novlfit fovLir c<Jii]d have If^ciL prtHtUiXid by tbat milk, the mnjonlj of 
CMiw of Hi^ilvt fcvrsr mnnt bare ooourrod bribrc that day« at ona 
ciiiLiiol B.»iiiiiiT tliJil ill uU IbcBt ULUwK tbc pi^riud of iuaiibutifiU WB4 

tiTiitrib.-t<'r1 tit Hri4ib luti^tli Rjd nj^iilti daya. Rut mark what rMTlj did 
lappoEi. \}r. Darbidiiro Ftit<!<9 llmt no ooao occurrod tiU Bluti It), 
<in vluoh day two coned of kjfc throat und <rxn> case cf ptcorlct force 
occiured; on Uorcb IL itiie uun of floro thtcpl; lo) Mnrcb 13, two 
oum uf KiTf) ibmal mid onu i^f Hcnrltrt fuvvr: mi March IS, fonr fUMi^ 
rif aarrt ibroat aiid two ofK^rUt fnvfrr; tin March 1&, oim com of aoN 
tfcH?at aud one of ncarkt fcvor ; on Marob K>, tvocoffCA of nnro tbroM 
find ouo of dipbtlicria; na MnicL 17, ono caac cf voro tJiroat i ui 
Ubrcb 18, 01IE5 cum; (;f Buie Ibrurit^ Nov. idl Ibwu i'uhm vtcrr {iraviid 
by lir> J»arbi*b'Tt' t*ibnvo l>wn paiwoil by Omi milk- Tb<>n> c<«tin«d 
cmbiH^cjurntly othor fioH^^ij bat ibftAo vcn tractid ti> havo ht<iii dno la 
i^tXiUOAij ittfoetioc frfon porsc^ to pcrun. This ia n (?mk] illuAtr*' 
tfou <if » njilk opidi-Qifo in wbielj tijc niilb tuont pmbably vttw inA 
foiilLHl by binuHr Bp Ti<*y ; fttid Ib^re are olhiT milk epidi-iuica itbuJi 
oil analvHiR of datt^ load t^ tbe Gome coiiclneioo. lliu ibftctioii uf 
thin milk wan probably brought about] AA 1 obal] abow you b«TO*AciT, 
in aiimfi othor vay. 

An nii irijitniiue <^ ibe tbtrd kiud— -ttk. wlit^nt inilk lio* cIcArlj Trol 
b«ob mfe^U«.l front « bniTiau scniroo— I will rofor to Mr Fowor'a 
Botiort iri 1^82 on on opii1i.'Riic outl^roak of acarlot fcvor in 8t. Giloft'l 
and Si- PftofTM, " Tijo diftoaoo I'oft diatritntwl vidtb a milk worried 
doHvu] frciiik ft Siirroy iaiiii. In tbin cn^o two iW^U CAutd tm 
pfDrmfrd : Ma odo thftt ft i^on rooenlly oouo into milk tt tiiii &nq 

on Stiotog^ of 


kid Wcc mfltmnij from waao ttilm«iit] soocniTpgl^ from Uit) tino of 
hit cUtihie, of wiudi loM of bair in pfttchcn wm the ta^M oon«picaoiia' 
■awfaeUtJoiu ; llif! oUicr UiBl liioro otiHtvd tw diicaTortblo miiaii^ b^ 
nlir^ i^iP Tiiilk wbK^)] SaiI criJTKiiil«l with srArlnlina in lU diftribu- 
biti Doulil }taTo rAci>:Toil tDfvtivn mmlUy fr.tcn Um) huuiim Ba1>jocL" * 
Tballodioal Dofiftrtmcnt of tho Local GoTrn-nmenl BooH kavofroia] 
tbtfv fMrU dt»wb Ibo oo&dnaioa that '* dintruAt laiuit bo j^Hctvl uu Ibo 
bhit^mIIj acpaftcJ MyUiwiwm tbut nirllc tiKiuIvex Eufv<?tiv» prcjuirHiw 
Andly b^ linmui agendnt;* oni rirrD»T that " ibd ^itmion df HiJc 
fam vp«ei6c li>Dlic^ of milk by jiftiticalar Cov« gnS^riii^, vrliotbor 
rocoguacd or tiot, fr«aa vpooillo dutAAc vm imii to bg *rJBdug,^ 
TinM vvcnnr rvovivul slrikiiig cotidTiiuUion atid pruof b/ b ruport tit hq 
nolfaffcnk of itcirM tvv*^r lliat iH-i<um>i] hI tbu i-m1 uf 19SA AnJ tba 
biffitmiDg of lASfi in iho Dortb nf I«on<lon. wliirb wiu JDv^HtignUKi bj 
Mr. Pbivcir. Ui* rcporl im pnbliohod in ^v/frtjvu in tlio K(ip<>rt of iLo 
lUlal OAoer«f Itio LfOCfU (ioTcicment B^.aiil r<>r IB^G; uiil I wilL 
bn gira jruu lb« HubBbuioe vf it. Atr Wyutfir KI>t1i, I\ifiKUcjt1 
IHIfwr of Hnftlib for MaryUbonc^ hnit In^t Doct^rTil-er (lbr^rrvt<I1 & 
iii|i> Mitbroak cf MorlAtiiia id Lt« diAtric^t to t>o ajittnoiiilM with th« 
ditfribtttkia of milk c<}i3].iii|{ from ot farm ot Ilcndon, nni\ htid fnuLid 
1 war Ml Ibr bolioviag tb»t tbe dioottoo tuul |ircivnil«l cKcliLsirtily aiming 
CMtumifi fafphhw vElL mitk ttum tint Bcmrcu.-L Mr. Puwer^ tm % 
mum bxisudcd iotjoiry, found tbat a ■imdlAF prsvalouco of vtiot-laLTTift 
bfed cieoorrod aWnt the mtiio Utac in cither pariehna In find ntvit tlio 
nctroDolM UaI won famiidicU witl milk from tbc iMns futm. l\y 
ntfrfnl uiqulij Mr. Vvvmt L-uuld uitb cuiluiuty i-ii^liEdu uu^ <iiiiitJimi* 
mIoa of tko niiUc fr^m n bimiAu Aoimx ^r iljal ATjytliiug of ilo ktftd 
lOMVn *M '* MMitorj "" ooudilioMA c<*ukd bovo had luiy udi^oiTi] witL tlio 
Mt«|irilj of tbc tn:Ui. Mr, Pawcr •bovcd cfiucltiaiv^dv Ibut otily 
Mvteia Moclioiw erf tJio milk BUppIiea of Ibin farm, hrnl flimlly <iiily 
MffCua umnt Trfm vbicb tbtMo t«ctiuii« of milk visrv diTivi-d^ bad any 
Mlatioci to tb* obwrrd roeult<. "In tho oiid," mlt« tho Molicbl 
OSeer, "bo bw dcmoiMtratodt bojcatd r«&iK>uabl<i 1i.Mibt, ttjv di.}jco* 
ddue of tbo ailk*P<Mrbiti]im of DoooinWr oa a diavMud c:tji[ilitiuii of 
flkftaia milub i^twn nl ihv fann, ft miuditioti find introdiieod thcirn In 
dw pnrkiDi Qumlb by tcimo ^tiifnnlA nj?w)y iu-nv«<1 from Durbyjibiro ; 
i^ ho 0d<1a Mroftx oircvintLantiiil ovidonoo for bolK^viitj: lli^t tlLO 
litt*r bbtfiMfkOtiA of tbiA dcpcudonoc vrcro br^rTi^fbl nhoM (Ijtijti^lj tbo 
■■tniwnp of tbo Ui«isHcd ujuditiim of rruo ict of AiiSiiKila iu nimlliHr 
OT(» kftrr Ibo fwliiim of ^n iiifufrtiijii." Now, tbLt diimtw au it pro- 
Mtod itMJf i% aoDO of tbcvi Bondooi oow« AousiitiMl ia tba priiu«tioo 
ti •o»i uiid *raf4tMitf in different porlfl of tlin nkin with bwa 4if b&ir 
in pilcho% oLxnltoiu on tLo nddor Aiid tcTatti, ai^J a viMX-inl din^n^j, 
notoUj of tb« limg*. hr«r, kidiivy, &ud ipUcn. wliiitb^ tJtbotigb tiiild<if 
bilaunrtvr, vwy mncb r««MoM«d tbu viM^tjral l4<<irti)s ^•r-cnrrtiig in 
oC teMO Mwlttt foTCr. By oxp^riimiiit it wu »ilLirwti tlmt Ibo 

Ilr4if«l OAnr'i £tT»l tor tt^e^KH pp. r. aod tl 




nwUnr of ibo olc»r« at lh« uUer u mmbw-J or titErdaTe p»if^ 
InffMlA «A oa inMnlntkin Iftio Ibft iltni ntf f«lrrA ihn mmiK nloan 
•Mk ittp ro fe cod ; fvrtbcET tt wm Aovb thu io tlj<i nicer* of tbr con 
Aero exidod in Ur^r^ micabcts k »podca of microeoccufl nlkh d| 
bayif pbnled ou uiificinl autrilivo uwdift, nucb h atv umxI fi;«- tb 
iialf of liaobvla, PRidiiOM in » few dhyn a cn]|i of nificnMwcol 

aUo frott other Metoru. Wbcu oiUrt^iuo icMcibUcd ftotn a ciHliTai 
tkfi of tbu nucrooooou tlicy bocoooc ^ftcr kii incobftticv period 
sflboled wilb & c«I«Iuniuh uid t iBotrml iLiKnin iLi? taiiit; hh thfi dbvwri 
of tb# Hittdon «>■■. Tn Hiint np, thc^, it Liu bo«j Ali<'>vni Uiftt ft£ lhf| 
AMdoQ itma there oxuU4 optUih oowb »flcolod with ft oovnnumioahU 
^kOMc vrhiob, ID niiULj pbuitn «f ita pfttholo^t bcarv a groit rtvu- 
Uaaoo tu buiiua Dcuil&liim; futtbcTi ib»t Uio njilk of Umu aji*i 
^VD ursrtot fwnr Ui Ijiiniaf] brJit^ ; iliilI, liutly, Uiitt « |4r1ir(ili4 
luicrcilMi iraR ^bfainftrl from tb««« cowa vhicb in «ttK««i prwlnoodi 
umilu diBc«#e b> th« duKWU of thow cow*. 

In order to couploto l}m ortdeueo tbim far «>btAuiod, it ivon nooe^ 
mrr lo itruve Ui»t Kwlel tvrvr in nuui tn dim t>> tbv pnvni<v und 
t»Bllip1krati<in in lhi» binod Mid lionot of tho nmn mfcrooMvoB, uij 
UiAl uiifi microbo, if obtunod ffom bimati scailot ibvor, prodoou in 
Uic cow tJic MAtnc diMOOO M LO fnodoood by tho microoooctu of lliq 
liimdaQ COWL Kow, tbiA |nW' liu bi-aii nlufbdorilj citvn. U 
tho trvt plioi*, it han 1jn<>it iihrinii thnt tn 1)ia blond and Ifwiioa ni 
poraeoa ftfl^clod witli A^iulfit fnmir tlxAf« ooonn tbo fikino BBcrvooootu 
w waj pToocnt in the oovr. botU boioit idontioiJ in sueroMopicoJ and 
in cuUuml cfum^jter*. In tho nccocd plaoc it noci finsnd ihftt tl)( 
■J*tuiii cif tltiH mirrnbe on nniinuU in i^Euc^tly IIm mwe ha tb« mlt^ro* 
oi^oonH fitiind tn thi^ Tl^udon piuts. OalTEA and ntlc;« aftor inoonlO'' 
tioEL or f'^ifdinj! with n lra«o f<f tljo jiprowth ctf both Hrbi of mictooood 
booamc alTi^ctotl witJi cijIiuihitih and riflCfMNti diiicaAo Huailir to huuuu 
■OMtrlut tcyvt ; In anXtm Iha dijuiuir id uf tb? HUUiu uiild t^w itn in fhl 
Hondftii &t\\%. Yifrthvr it nvt aIiowh Ihitt IVvtis tb^t l>liiod and ihl 
tiuBUO'i of 1]i<«(^ kiiijTmla iii^^<t>'d with onn or th9 ivibor not of onllifiF 
tuJiLF., t1i<i Mnto niii^roroci^Hd vtoa rL^r^ovciFAd- I will remind joti thrf 
in (kit iiif<!ctii>uri ilini^a^L^ uhiLih liuTe Wiu iTrcrvixl dofinitedy to bd 
ajuociatr?d with a fmrtJatilur Hpi.H'EL'W fT mk^robM thin mltiMtie intnfci 
duood into n ^uftC'^ptJbJo hnU- Ibrivow nnd iuviUip)i«8 onil thns 99W U| 
tho di^t^iHOil conditKoi, dilFotiu^i of ooiinvt^ with tb« ditTorvut MpooiQl 
uf Uiicrobm. I think 1 niaj after this mj thftt thia micrvboir wncto^ 
flatvuM traTJatinir, iK tlio f)a\\vo uf hnniun EcarliTl it-vtr : ftirtbur Ibul H 
prodooo* in buviuo rtnirnalw n ili^^ns^ idcititi4.'al wtlh thi> Hoittlfia 
diMMOsnd liuman fccorlot fovor^ nnil thnl (Njneoijitonllir while ihet oo^ 
iv VOWttptible to ii^fcctii^>u with bnuinti iH^ai'lut iovcr, it cjui lu ita tum 
btt Iha SOUrco uf dinbiyium fur tlh: buiimii j<|>?ci[us im hta* no dtiuhl 
tho fnu in that milk opiduniif-i from tbi> HL*EitTt>u fami- 

J nhikll Duw ipvD you u itriking ]»ii.^:<j of «vi(it^i)C« woll in bunaoiij 
nitb uhnt I }mru uii:irtti<inotl liitLvrtu. Id Octobur L8SG, FrofoMOj 

tm EtioXaiff o/SetuUt Frrwr, 


Ciliill fvrwm^dcd lo me oertun tiuof e«i4<BMl Bilk, mU 
IWikiBo of Komo bfBBil. Tliis milk «%« vmdm iW|deii» •/ kavmc 

a Fron oDBust <kf UvooliDvof Ikkoondnndifeilk IkwvofaluMd 
bf («ltiTatiaa & micmbo wkidi Is «^oi7 ratfic*, morplioloaieidlf and 

oo«i ftod &om koiAui •CtfM fvrcr. Tbe tctkn of Um mknifa* of] 
Uweoadantiil mklk w» >ho toNwl im m iiiuL K adi«i^wdmHm,*a4^ 
b mM fiMOtd UiAt \l prodiinfld dtft IdRntJrd dlMMo wUok«Mpro>4 
4pmJ ^ tb« miciobD of tutmui V!«rl«t lover «ii4 «f tha B«ttlaA I 
«o«ai I mftj mM UiftI lku» Uoct brmnd of OfMtdccwGd milk u, Uk« ftll 1 
co»1eD«eJ milk, ubUuiofl fixuu cciwn* milk ; Iko Uuk bmwl u » di««^ j 
«lk^ ftad muiil fee Ihu |MK>rDr c-Uihvia; jinitnMy it Imia nut been 
wfflofanHj h— ttti in tke tinE boforfl Enlmj^ th« Uttar ; tku Uii« il'4 
Mofcahlj tbocMOOUi bododooodfrum Uic fvci tbtt cilery tin of Uiifd 
■Mttd wfaioh I Ofienfid ooatai&e4 ftome or(:<Liiit!aDfl ; tkiUL, for ""^'"tl 
1 Bad list GOV UA wmluuvil tba bCMrlot fcrvr microbe^ laJ KBotkdr 
ipdii of BiivoooooiM ; aAntbat Mo ^ttntalud ft kunlM ipdM of 
■igioiictcTi* (mUj, OAd * thitd tis opoticd confaanod a tdooro^^vciu ud 

9 IfMM of bMUllW.* 

AaoI^ht pkoD of intcntaimg «Tid«tK» ^ooooraia^ tke Wcvvomom 
■wrilnlMB lA tkia. Tbero oocnrroil dnilDA lbs boglaitfag of tb!> je«r i 

wron •pidomm of Marlot fovpr in WinLblodoa. Tbif opidp«mlo wai , 
Ab> liactta lo Bulk oumuife &ons a piirtitmlur f]irm. In cno of IIto 
ktfttM ftUff^kd vith tiii* milk llicrv ocourccil cbectf of ccoilct fc\«ir 
■■000 baBHn boiiiipk ao^ ^l Ibu umv limu u iwt muuki-'y nti» otwi 
III ■■ II Mini ft gocd (ka] of tba viLIc bocanjo ill; it died aflu- ftro dan. 

1 had Iba ofiportttftitv to taikko a jf04t mort*m oxaai&ati^ of tkia 
MUBftlt aod ihtto ooftid bo fio dombl abont ita baTing ditd of acarlal i 
Imr, FnMU ibo Uood of Uii* aoukoy I obfoiaed by cmltivatiou iJift ' 

mteOOOOmttfta WiftobiaiDrtI fnmi liitmun Hf^irl-^ fvTiT. frumlliO 
oowa, and frocn tbo a<»idfjQwd milk. r^jHtrmi^tuU buulc on 
wilb thU nicffoocwnuK of tbo WiiublLxIoa monkey uliijv^ui Ihal 
Ika mmm iliai^an ia pfodbcod bi^tb by iaocuiAtioD otiU by focdiu^, It 
Iftrlaif liiaN) nromd, ihi-a, iLhI tlj« cow In hiiiHHiptililu to infLit^tirii 
vilkaaftrlol mrev frovi ma:t, tha trit impot-UQl quealiuu u tUia. 
Bwdooa Utfttoilk of <iiicih infootod comf aA«uiiio utfootiro poworT 
dttriy ift ooio of tvro iray» — Firtt, «itl)cr Uxo milk booootaa infboled 
bf llio milka* daruig tZio prihrcin uf milking. |inrtJcJoa t£ oontagiDiD 
laiftf rObbod of ibo aloert »f tfm iid^l^r or Wnl ; t't, the milk p^ m 
kfomamod of iDfaotiTo |Mmcr — lliflt U, il b<iin^ a iic<irotiun <<f a oon- 
ittMCoMdlj dtaeaaod animal, f mm provioun and from laotv rcoont 
wh—ialiiiiiia I am i&oliiicil to thi&k tb&4 LiotU vwvm bold ifood. 

Ijiovoobb to ibo 4piefttioai>— Uuw i« tlio upmarl of Hmrlet fever by 

* It d *UI kaA«c tlial on Mvoini of mienriAinti hklli<'rrr> kn^vwu tr^ rri|»bl« of 
■vrMOf a liMuamiiHff at llr fkh, 1 1*. a( bcrUing inu«r; irinny vf tutni v« 




milk li> W ocmtmlM ui4 «bDckrd f Tlik fiEinstTiinmnlrcs ibn}f [mto 
tlvM MiiL Tint pf9*iOtioa of n]foc4^0lll of tte ^nr bj nun, 
daoeuj <ir ia4inoUr ; aaooed, proTmiion c€ inff<1ioct oi tfao cv* b? 
Iha cow; tMdt Mt% daitnclioD oif llw i;uuUgiain of Um nillc cf 
■MJh con- 

Aa ngvda ll» l^:^ ftU Uiom rolos v1iir?1i huva httn kid 4otrii to 
pMTMit infcdiDa oC ono haniAa Mag fr>m ftaoUior, of milk ot mny 
tiaStf QtotMiil Ijj ountetfl or oilMV^iM with * porM*n nStrbig &om 
•cAflcl fuvcr vt cucttJiif £r\HM Mk iufcoU4 Loiucv »ho apply Iwra ; uiJ 
Ihb pftrt nf tha ttihfoDt onniai nndar tha geuonU Biipoet of tbn proprrr 
iBDiCvj muMigoaMot of d&iriM vhiob !■ letod upon ia all wkl' 
namgti] Jurioflb 

Aa regu^ tfi« Moond — rii. pnvonliou of lolDOtloa of ibe oow bjr 
llw oow---thl8 Is obrbndj mom impoduit umI laon ^iffioiih fif 
ontTingonL I «ij obnavcl^r^ beoAiiM ooo or>w «9oct«d uith Iha 
<twDilP ift MfMtUo of eomiiuiiiioaliiii^ il to othon m Ike auiic fvta. 
Mtd vhoa moTod to aaolhor funi ftJ«o to tko oowa Uioro^ 'i'lw duMoao 
la Ibo uiv bvbj: uf » uitU chftnvl^r u» ubuIj ovurluokeil, TbQ 
dioouo in tbn fikui at iha cow may Im proitnnt aivl nllgbt, £>r tnaj \io 
»l«ctil iu iti morv ooi]ipit<i]oiJH DiiULifoctaiioa, wborottB tbfr nivcral 
dittcaw is of ao mild & chkrxlur that it rt'^^aifoi ui oxperi todiagnoM 
ik Wkea a cuw eliun^ iIjo dtM4«c of tL<i Bklu uid ou ike Bidd«r well 

pitvionikMul, widi an uiiniAl will Iturn b> bii oftmfiilly AVftTiiftifd faw 
vuDoral diiwaM. I xtood hjtfdJy uj Ibkt am^jiig tbo iiuuky culADocritf 
diBo&sov of tbo coir kticiwD and tiiLkiion'& thort mnj bo onoof tbo 
otbcr whicb bean ■ rcdciu bUuoo to ibc calnufotiA diMrdor oocnmng 
(u MTarUUinu, i^iidi culiLiiivmH dL>iaHf<u iinml Irti oin'frjlly i^cirlii'ltiJ 
bnf'in> ftn Animul U cond>im»cd ; hut If visi^onil dib^ftjut abould bo 
dinpiKiocd aa vq\\, tho uiimul ebi^aM be car«fully itolatod and ibi 
tailli slicnM tuit ha WKd. And it mnai be c\ca,r from tbin Ib&l orctT 
d&iry sJiuiiM ba poniiiiiicfijtlj dJiJcr iLu tujivrriBiLiu of ui dpaHt uid 
ilk tbffi tha Tivftfrrinary pn^ff^tm ahotUi) }ni aa nai^nr firtr Uin vnrk om 
tbo Ittodical soiiiUiry offic^rn luv and for aomo liiao pMt bnvo b«oo. 
Bat, judging from tbc attLtudu miacimcd by thu rDtcHniry tntkttritiaa, 
I am afnud tko Tctcriuary profDAmoii Lim not jai ^neptd the full 
rnaponBibility tbul ruitti i>ii lb>.<iu.kilL UiwiirdH Uio geriorJil publiv Hml 
tlio dftiry fAnnnrA. InaUoooa ak ou record wb&c on Ibe loilli from a 
pfkriioauLT fATm hATtn^; boon proTod or ovon eDti>ec!od to boor Any 
rclAtioiL to A Mnrlot fovor opidoato, tkc bnAincea of euck fATm bocuoo 
tumph^r&rily or eruu j)oruuiueiiLly MUB^miiilL-d, uid tlio iH^DUEiiary bv^ 
of t1ii> nwrK4- <if ARoh fomi irrevooalila. Tbul tlii^ diRrkiUf? ivi the (wv 
tvtitoh 1 huso dotciihad to yon na bcatIoI fovcr is aa yttt iiiiknonii to 
tho Totoriruiry profctidon dooa not do nvray with tbo oiintoo^o of siioh 
di«uiuw. niid I vtutorc to »ny tbat Wug ne j^oi iuikuo<^D to vid 
iKi^nii-^igiiiBtvl by tlit^m abiMild bo uo moob mure etimtiluH fur tbuir 
trying to roc^it^niiu It. 

}iiiw tbo f.Uird quoelioii, ah to tko dofitraction of tho oontAj^nin is 
the mill^ Thief I aia ^kd to >ay. is Tory eaaily curiod oai. I hATft 



0n EUaio^ ^Srmriet fWcr. 


that Hraiingmi1kit|> to 8S^0.< or ISfi^ Fall.— tint >i,ooDna«T«l>]7 

■telbft boiling |>olntt U p«H'c<Ttl7 c^lCoiviit lo oomplotelr d4:Atn^j 

dc vitalLlr of U>o naicTc4>c of tcftrlU tti^vr. Id tu|]|K)rt of tbb slBto- 

ftai 1 can quoUs bcModcB tlw olMurvAtion i^ren alioTa l>j Dr. Bt^WttaO. 

lb* fcUnviu ci)M«mUoQt reoordoil hj Dr. Jiuy^b, H^li^wt Offlor^ nt 

BttlA ctf High Askant And BMdlcj, ^nd ropcrtod ia Lt>7^, U- thij 

fiiid: — Botwoen Jnao 1 aud 7 Ibono vrcrc fiAocn cmo* of acarki fcrtr 

btkna dicUui houmii; Ibo icmstM of wliicli bid li«d do o<iiuiaiiiiir»itiiJU 

wA indbatfMl pecvDou* bet liftd «]] Inen auppUcd witli luilk ftum a 

taivlwt^ ft octtun cowmaii worlccd, I'ut MMriEWii Loil in hta 

l«Uj •eroiml obiUivn ilJ with matIoI forw. Tko i^ftwDum oouli&uMl 

•dlhaig ibo cowfl darij;*!^ ilio illiuH <'f bie childnm, Ibnngb h« did 

■rt Hnwfilf bftVotbo forer oud Uic ntilk min iiotCnkui iato Liis u^^tUgo, 

tivt Uia point wbi«ib I wtih lo bring ant t* Uii>L,lTLht olLbr housM 

UiU«»UKMtt ia nbfob io«rl4ft frror bad broboa out hiui b^>(i «npplivd 

«tib IW MLDio milVt but no •catlul feror occgito<1 in th<in, Acid why ? 

BMiOM all tlnvo LftT« Oi>nfkumvil ouly tbiT rioaldcil milk. 1 iilii-<iiM 

ibMvfbr* atnngljr xit^ th«t nU nnik iJkiuM hnvo Ldud IjtJiUfll, nl our 

f«lo b«tfcd to U l<«M 86* C. (Ibat it, 185° JTfthO bofom b»f fig ooonmuA. 

indtjndtfingbv Ibe tufjw Dvi&bvr of omm of Bctu-lel foror ntoordod In 

fton nuk opidNBictt, ono it juetifloj in «*yinir tbat acoEmid^nUlo 

psnatetfB of tbc lotaJ number of caKH of ihajlct Aivor ni>nM buvo 

Mi ATOid«J Iboroby. No! oil, beotaio imfortDiutoly the rulo* of 

iHiljq^ of |»ti«3ita nfformg frvnt aou-lci f«y«4 «r» nut aIwhjh 

nganntXf oin-j«d ^ul. Mid Ibercforo £af«ctioD ftoni tK)r»oa to pftrvtni 

Ml o«««r. No/ would proTCutiOR <-f WArUtina by ^^^ cicbii^<i 

fmktitiA by cTtmm- Graoin cficnot bo KiibjcottMl to ht.4Lt, and in tito 

tpidtfoio of >caflcit foTcr tliat occurred iu South Kunniufetuu in IST^ 

■Mthftl fta invi^tipibxl by Dr. liutbikrian, (*r>uu wiu lt)'> Tubiclu of 

vnlKwn. But| cuoitdcnng iJui j>romiiii)ti( ^uHitiun tliMl milk 

Wf^ifli In ovsry booiithold ^ili f bf Irlrfin, tho, yKUKibiUty nf inf^r-.Lfnii 

«U wtmAH brver bj nvr milk doflorraa cvLTcfiil altoution. 

1W ]«cl>m> WA iUtudntc^ by dc^monBtnitioDFi i>f tbo Wrrfrcor'^iM 

0Oorco« JndKatnl- 

IfiS Mr. Dmid GiU [Jun« % 


Fridftj, JoDd 8, 1887. 

Edward Wooi>b, Esq, Pres. Inst C-E, K^tuger uid Vico-Preudent, 

in the Chair. 

David Gill, LL,D. F.B.S. 

nx ■AJUTT'v AVtMO^omm at tbb du's or coop bofl 

rA« Jj?pfi>a/k>iu of Pkotogmpkf in AMtnmomjf^ 

Little more thoD m year ago Mr, Aiostie Commcra deliTered a leotnre 
in this pUco on the subject of " Photography as on aid tn AHtronony." 
GiTQQ by ono wfao is a conamnmate moBtor of tfae art of oelostial 
photography, that lectore (complete as to history and fall of BDggee- 
tion aa it vu) would, under ordinary oircomatanoeB, havo preolodad 
farther referonco to the sabject in these Friday oveoing lactorefl tot 
some year* to come. 

Bat the past year has witnessed aach derelopments of the rahjoot, 
aad the importaoco of photography in BstroDomy haa beea ao much 
advanced by the coDclnsioDS of the recent A8tn>pbotographia GongKe^ 
as to afford a reaaonable apoiogy for the proacnt lecture. 

Oti the 16th of April hwt there waa beld at Paria a Congnwa 
attended by upwarda of fifty a&trononi«ra atid phyaioiats, representiDg 
ncat-iy every cirilisod natioD in the world. It was convened for the 
purpose of coosidering a Bchome of international co-operation in the 
work of charting the sky on a large scale. Or, rather, its object waa 
to obtain a series of pictures, which, taken within a oomparatively 
limited period of time, and with the necessary precanttons, woold 
enable astrooomors of the present day to hand down to future genera- 
tions a coniplcbe record of the positions and magnitndcfl of all the 
stars in the heavens to a given order of magnitude- The labonn of 
that Conference are now concladod, certain important TeeulntioQH have 
been adopted, and the way haa boon so &r cleared for giving these 
rosolutiona practical effect. 

It seems of importance therefore to lay before the membera of the 
Royal Institution soixie account of the history of this remarkable 
Ooogrcss, to illuatrate aud explain the grounds of the conclnsiona 
which it has arrived at, and otherwise to briog the history of photo- 
graphic astronomy upto thepreseutdate. I pass over the already well 
told early history of celestial photography , except in so far as it relates 
to star charting. It was AVarren do la Ituo who first called attention 
to the means famished by photography for charting groups of atars. 
In Lie Report to the British Asaociatiou at Manchester in 1861 on 
the progress of cclcst'a] photography, he indicates a photographic 



tB87.] «* dM jifj^VdlHVU (/ Ph>k'^raptt9 in Attrottimg. 15'> 

oljiti gUan oC «boH Ibooft m the tiutnune&l bMt mittt] for ilio 
fWfyc, Mid b« «laCM tbftt, bj laomUiitf moh k I«nA and ountin nn 
M ofofttorial steed jiroTido^l ynih docKiror>, 1i« W phot«>|crAph«d 
watSi groapH of flAiw ut Il)0 Ptfniid<«. tito Hiiiif diQciiiUj baiiug wd ti> 
fti tb« laa^es of tbi* Mam. but to diiitingtiiith thciu fruni tho ipecka 
wliich w fotiiid on tJM- pUU« ur nttiof in the oollodion. 

In 1864 RntlM^dnil ti Ncv York ocHnpUtod n tolc«o(>po of 1 1} 
bote* opcrtiuv and 14 fc«l f<>ul ko^tli^ »i«elAllj oowtrockd fur 
ealortial pbolopRphy, ttml ohuiiuil tRa pIvitngmptiH of v^n bi th« 
9tli onbr of BMgnitnda.. Bii; rvmatk*, ndthotigh qnotod in Hr. 
OoBMtton'a loelva ImI jvut liavo woli iiapcprlonoo on tbo i^oacat 
■qktiocl tUl 1 ^rmtfot W rpp«al Ibom. 

** Xibc jboiror b> oliain inisgMt of tho OLh aift|[nIh^ilo xbuv witli fli> 
modmlc an aportitrc promim to doralap and ini^rnw tlir; ftppTitntion 
dCpLok^napkr to tbo mafipinf; of tLo indorttal LoaTuns knJ in Bomo 
BBBnor lo roajiaa UiO Itopwa irhioh luirc eo Iutl;: boon dofcrrod und 

** It vonld oot bp dtfflcnlt to nmn^ a miuim-ljirt, cn^nUi: of 
«cmufi a tnriacia anC<*cait to obtain a mkp of Ivg dogrvaa aqnaio, 
aaa «iUi iaalmnoEiCa vi latgv ftpcrium it& uiaj hopo to nnob mnob 
laHar alan lLa» I bavo jui lakoi^ TUaro la also evciy pculMbilitj^ 
dttl tha cltMnifAiy of pbolo^^p^/ viil be T<arj nii»^ iiQ}inf7u;l And 
■oTv aenAtifo n«4bod« dfivucd." 

Jlr. ConoMii vaJJ rMMrbs tk^t in th« liglit irf rcoont w^rk thccta 
worda mm kliooal |ifopbotiA> 

But itoUiocfoiM did ugt akfi bero. In ibo vyra uf uu iL«tnirjon3iT 
a fbclvn> of Man laofeiHnpamlJTfitjr little ifnpnrtuico nnl^sn it ia 
«apal4v of accnnU DeuaromcEnt Rccocniiing tbiv impvrLmt futtiro 
oftlMOaaiN Bdlkorf^iid dotted a auiUmo bpitJiratuOt wfaich L« Ap- 
pljiad k> iba KMMurottirul i-f two of bi« [dK>Uj;:tu|i1if^ uf Uui Tklikdca. 
TbMa niMmum battnp bivti jmt kto iba ban<U of Th. GoeiIi^ thnt 
astreviMatr «oad|ttm1 tbctt nitSi tho«a of tbo lamo ffroup of ilnra 
Bkda bx ^'■'■v^ *>^ ^i' ocJiobnIod b(jliciaoi*r, uad fennel » sati*- 
brtor}- acoorbtm.* 

IbicoKinfpvl by lbcn» roicnitii, Dr. Goiild^ vhon bo qrnat b> tlio 
Amialiiii Bfpablic in 1870 to fiMibd ibe Cordntia OhHTTntnry, tvhirti 
bM ^Bea boon rcDduri.^] jo fnmoiu by bi« Uluun, took Uutlivrtord'a 
lakawi^ frkli hiuk. L'nfortmatvlj ono nf ibo ioiwn wom brvkou iu 
tCttHMirla aad ancb duby mw iAcorrod tu rcjibtiTiuie il, iLi»l ttiiT |;in>* 
fOMdrakaMiU not bn bi^^nn till 1873. lint Ibniiku li> (1ki rlcnr 
ifcii of Onrdnha. and ^w marvoUuiM bctivily of the- tiljM<-rTAt<Ty trnder 
Dr. {Toold*^ dimtioa, l^'^O ]>ljok>gittflii vcro i>bUiv<Hj in v^ciraM nS a 
fifv TiAre, oofitaiulag n|«««crfit«tiiiDa of nil tfc« iinut^^pAl »Ur-<daflOM 
af tto aoallMan Maiiplran^ boddoa n apockl urica of pliiUw Ukoti 
br Ibn pniynaa ed dtftomuninc th» pandbu (or dislnniMi) of >aT«9«l 
cC Iha mm rmatkablo acara ia th^ aouiberu b«iiii»ph«To. 




Thufioe aenas of pictitpaft ui now Vnnffmilimitkd tomoMnrotittuii 
hf Dr. GmdJ, and Um iu«lU w auaiiol wiih tbfi gtivbul intamtj 

Th* fltit of Dr. Oonld* plfttrm woro Ukoa iviUi Uio oU wvl 
ftoUodioa prooo**, bat tke work vwi «fi<in^rd)t f^Allj f»eiLil*l«d bj 
canplojnnuiit of tfad mora MtuilJTif uxidcnj ilry p1l;<^a. 

It «M^ In fad. tho intrri^urlioD rif the g»btin>< (1r^ plftb) procoM 
in lt?T$, wbieb r<«lJf [Avod th« wftf tor th» npUl rUttil'ipnatMit rf 
.«ilc*ti«l pluAognpliy, Tho ctmnnkDoo (it tho muilpnlAtioQ aimI lh» 
gr«ftt kicrouo of KHutirciiOM of ibo pUUa at nncc placed ■ no« 
pf>w4Tr in tbc IimhiIh of aMnMUunaTV. Draper pl]Dtogn|i1ieil IIm victnila 
of Orina in 1S8CJ; aad aflor triflJi^ oonn#noitig in IST^, ComiDOii 
#n«eMd<id Id oMaiaiog Iho «D|aaiiila photti^rapJin of Uiixt object wbioh 
Imvo b«e» «ibfl)iUd mote than oiico ui thin Ihi^tn^. 

In 1883 «Lpp(KrnI tbi? BiilraiJid iMtiiiut cif that yna; At thn 

Boja] ObMTvatdry. O^pr; of Gr^'xl H'^i|x.\ wo U7<r« not at tbo Hmo 

\iMMn<l in photocnpAic oporatif^DA, S«vot*l pholoffnpbov* ia 

nfco Oipe Colonj fonibl it pombk to obUin iinpT<i«voui imT Um 

noBMi, but thoy inm? imnhto ti> poauro pictHTtn of ndcjitido va}iu^ 

Tinf nan thoj yrvn uiipruTiderl nritb ineann to f>l]<iw tho dismal 

motion. I had no availablo cm»«t« b»1oTiging to tho obtfrfaiofT, 

ajid DO oxp«Honco in tlic devolopmotit of molioFD dry platoa. jn 

tlL<«^ virctuimLujcfv, I ftppliofl to Hr. Allin, o (<kilfiil pliotoiEr«ipfaor 

in my nri^UbourLiKKl, ^hu imgurlj ixiuiH'iit4ii.l ij vo-cipurmto with ma 

in tbo vork. I armnged mrAiiK to MtAoh liR chtti^ta tu t)io ctand trf 

an «<qitat»rinl Icilfi^c^po, nnd tbo totnucopA ittiilf vug I'liinUr^l tj> 

ftillow tho iiui^lcujt iif lh« niDiot noccratolf dcmTiE thn nb»lc; Imio cif 

«ipoi«iirfl Xij tlic aid cf tbu driiiug chick ntul with nuall aoiroctioui 

gitin bj lintid. Tha luTift VEitphijred )iAd nn a|wrtiire <if mily i iDdtM, 

and a fuoul Lt^ngth of H iiicha« ; hnt tlifi nunll aoa a corioa of 

pictoros, otiu of whichj obtaiood after an oTpOBOrcof two bmu^ ia 

nuw .,u Uio K']«OU- 

Thfi plKitrjRmph ■Jicm-a u Viiry utiicractury Juliut*t?yu of tho Uil 

tfkttd envelope of the C4JI1|t.*C, 

Important and Urtoful 06 llooo rcfliiltn wfsro, llinro wtu another 
feature uf ibu pl<;tnif« wliioH Hcmod to Kic ntUl mnro no. fa 
fitrviMtMuii ottpioN nf tliuso photHit^phw tf tlio ICuynl AHlronoinicn] 
Sooicity of Ijonilon and to tlio Piirip A(Mi1r>ETij vf Sc^iitniWA, 1 dn>w 
partictilar bttuntion ta tho lar^ niinibur of hUth tliowa opon tbn 
pbtCT. and iiiAiaUd npon th^ iniportonco of ttjo ineanH thim nfl^m] b> 
|»butugrjip!i uoE III ibTftti rely Irtrgo nrcaa of tho akj ftJid thuH mptily 
mnkii f'JuuiN of thft frntir-fl huaveuA. 

Tbo omo a(«p wftoting v*t ti^v proylfM, und tho nttv ami irv^ra 
Acnt^tivo dry ]i1nto r^udor^d Iho former enggoatiaiw of do la Bn^i 
aiid Rulht^rford now valQablt^ and practicable. 

Fcjrmurljr tbo old c<jllodJon n-ot plntoa rotiuireJ targo iiulrauoat* 
(nitb (^innll field) and Lmg npwiiru tii dt-piot Klnr4 (.^ri<n to tho 9th 
ma^-t^itn^lo* and «etronoui«re trufit«d onttrely tki tho aoonrAoy of thdf 


oa £4* Apfiifaii^f^i c/ Pkt^i'^graphy in A/troTiom^. 


MTngdoGiat wlticb oonlil not fallow u nUr wiUt p^rf'^ot ^wuncj 
«briag»loDg vipotonb Now lb« mcdcm mjili] Ut^ jiUius ieicuii-' 
fgootiott Willi Ibo luvs £ctlil« of Ibe {iTiotogr«^ia objective orer^ATno 
\bA firot of th«M dinooUtioaf uad ibo plua of ocaployu^t a gniding 
lck«copo OToramo Ibo Mootid. 

Tbe hm «f • nldktg |i^««oope wm ui>1 ov«u n uow Jutici^ &>r it 
hwl twfift ^mfilojrttA lonff bflfoiw hf H&iinnp nnd nthf^ni, vho. in thf^ir 
o*Hj ftttmifiU to phoitognpli tha moon, leapt tbo uoBifo of ft lunar 

rb^bftiKl ixpm thf>«rontvu<Mi>f tlio Sudor of UtotoloMOpodnnQK 
EeocoxpooonM theo neooaiofj. 

Them VOB Ui«a Dolliin^; n«IIj nnw olthor fn my siiggeatfoa or in 
ifa* Midkf opfftfSifi, otj]y the rwnh ifm a fartuitaUi nnc, for Ntr 

^^bo pow of pboloinphj for the purpouc of Htar-oWtltt};/' " ■^^'i 

^Mlioins flml dimetod liU nUAntinn nnd thbt fi the brothi^nt H'>tiry 
ftk tbo afplkatioD of pho^^rbphf to tha work of etar-chortin^, whioh 
htd tar umiij jt«n been cairic^ cb nt I'u^ by tho oMcr EnnthodA of 

Oomion wu aiaoiigit thft ftnt tt» Uko op Lho work in ^ti^ltmA, 
md Imm on fli* •ciwiq tit otw i^f hin phoiogntpliB whTi a 4-iiioU 
ham, ^xoonlod is Dnoombor 18SS- But b^ing ea^^ngcd in (>Ujor 
Oommoa nudo no altcm|-t to oonunciooo n aTBtonuibio 

Rohortf^ fit lATfcrjtoci}, w%n %\an mrly At work In llj't flATriA 
ftiU, and ofbcr preliminary cxpcrimaaCi] ho oc^umK) a |HiniiTful 
UcMope, with vhioh ko bo^ui » oyatcnutio •ortDj of tlio noithorn 

It n^nlral «omo l£m« to fii^il tie n^^ctwdiry m«iiufl muI uipaAtLii 
to bij^ tbo ToaliMion of try idnu at tU^ CApo, bat at last iLo vork 
«it ahirtoJ in tho hcjfijinin^ of l^A <in the fbllowirtg d^Hnitc pian> 
Hl to ocanplctc tbc fortograpliy of tba boaraui fh:^ 20^ noiitb cf 
lk« Equalor lo tfao fiouiU Pulu> uud oo aa oerlftiul/ to iuclndo all 
An to tho l^th ma^iUiK 

Tbo roMOno to tho idcftEon of Ihid pUn ivero tho fol]owjn;e :— 
Tbt oolototcd aMronomor Arfjcloodcr charted the hoaTcnji on 
fidi oeolo tnm iho Korih Tub to tho Htjnator, aiul the work ha* 
foenlly boMi ftttuDd«il Co HO' ^.^uth of the l^uator hy Suh^nfald. tlia 
popQ OM ■no w —or of Ajgoloodor. 

AfyrlotJcr'o Dw^skmuUnm-j, u it io cftllod, hao ramtiihoti, owr 

linoo Uid 4MtfO of tta pab1ic*iioiit tbc nonjcELclAtiiro of all the fainter 

itelwnplojBd lit tbeoAily oponUiouH cif utruiutiny ; it hu fiimiitliud 

voridw onUlc^«fl nkiob 4f« ■wcptial for tho more oinot d«tor- 

MlioQ of 1^ pl^M of ill tb«0O oton ; it hM ^ivcti qs tUo fir«t 

<ioto fSoT dct^^miQing tbo difltribatioD of tho ^tors acci>rdiiis 

Id BignltDdo uid apparent poaLtion iu tha hoivcina, and ia tho Tint 

* ' Pnc- Ror*! lultulfan/ rut lU- part iiL p 734. 
XIL (No, SI.) 


ib-. Iknid thU 


Lor iff 

iolid eii«liA(c buU far fotrndina aiij tboorj o« to tbo oODatitutioo of 
tbo atolltf immirM. To octrnpiek tho Doirdiiaiuterang tor tbo ro- 
OftkLitiA portion of iLe bittv«aui vtA tlii-r«foft the tiio«c pnwuig nAod 
of noAm utronom^, I oomaieaoad (I19 work f n I88G by tbe ud of 
nhoto^pbj. 1 bo|)o in tvo or tiiroo fcai^ if 1 \t%rt th« honoor of 
loottinrtg AMftiu In tluit titfotrOi I •bftU then l>c mIiIc to tdl jua tltol Ibo 

I »liouIJ Li*ni 4«ipU]u thixt mere pfof.iir«« of tho atui >n> of 
|«ndL<rcJj LiLtlo ^Df , or rathf>r of ft1>t>nt t]i« (wma v&J<]« to ^a ulr^ 
HomoTM ft Mri<e<>f ciihrtA-^f pnrtAof tlio wi>r]cl woiild bo tua BftUor T 
tfaors WL^n? 110 liQf-iK of UUtudc at longitmlc mukfti ujMtTi tUiini. 

giTma; thd pooitioDs uxd mftgoitoJa cf ftil tLe 4Un«. Tlmt woifc ia 
npidJjr ftdnnoiag m tho huuls of luy ftblo ftud (rTjthu^oAtio fiiokdl, 
Irofi^sor Sftptcyn of Ommngon, whi^ nitli tlii; ftid of lliree 
HNiiiitiitiU* bpxff ttiidcrUkuu U' duxt^Ui Hir. or mx y<ACt of I1U llfn to iha 
iafiuar«mait of the C»]to p1toUigrq>1ia ATtd tiie oomputMion of tlio 

Wlion tLI« bD« boco done, an I Tentnn^ to tiiiik tt utll le viUjin 
^TO 70ftr*> iwtrouoiuera will ha Eu jMppee&sioD of that imdiniirAry 
■DTTOj cf tbo wliok lienrniH ulii<1i is n*>."i'ssiiry far tim mora rdtii«d 
■ad flkbonto MMWCbi.^ wliich mu£l rolIt>«f as resiillM of U» Fkm 

Bui to retorn Ui tho vtmV lUnt wui nkCAuwLllc boiog done La Fat. 
by tlir Pftiil und rnwju^r Hfinrj-, 

Thcwi utrononicra Imd IxmL'D tuffngod linoo 1871 in tbo oonMruo* 
tion of cliartii of tho t.vtiptio bj tho otdw prooottoa of obMamlMfl, 
bub whi-u llioy rtAclicd tlmt puTltutJ of tbo b<«YCiiH vlifjro tbo Hilkj 
Way <ircii4M<iA tlm Kcdiptd:. tbo number of utAM br<ihrijrt *u irvririrbolniiiig 
Ibftt th^^ inak of riiartliig Bt^aoiud alraoxt too ^fcut fir hutnon ]iatl#iitA 
tLnd skill But fortanftloly tbo limj lind oomo whtin diy pliito ^kboto- 
grapbjr could be called iu 1<> ^d| &ud tbis aid woa in tbu boDda of looa 
eiugulnrly coiopi^t^tNt t^i dovulop oucb au opportunity Iv tbe fnllnl 
^lUfit. The hruthors Henry bud Irni^ njqiircd to hn nnt only dift- 
tiiigiiishcd praolic^al ustroDomcrs. but, fcUowiug tho troditioiu of 
TloyghcDa ftiid tho Horno hols, they <l«air[>d also W bo tbo artutu of 
tboiruwuopUcnl luoftas* BijeiuiI lo;^>lLur by ntroug; biutbcrly affection 
and cirniTEio)] tii^toA, gifttsd aliki: ivilb |>ractii:-al Utonl«i>f a bfgti order, 
aud with an ooor^ aod dotormin^tiou of cbnnLctor that p«nnll no 
obatodo to 6DOCOSB, thr^ Qion tbua bappilj ntiitcd hftvo doTOtod tbo 
spftTo honraof their btiey ftHiionomicaldntionat Ibc Pari^ ObKrralory, 
firvt to tbo stcdy of optiuH. uad ^flor^tiidb U> tbo ^liudiug aud puIiAb* 
irjg of loiiBefl and ^eciila, wbioh hi^vn wnn for th<^]u a now world-inde 
rcputatirin aa optioiaDB of tbo hipboft rank, 

I bad Iho plonnuro, n fow wcvks ago. of visiting tho mod««t work* 
shop attochod to tboit bouBv al Mui]Ltoug<?. nud T aball uvi hood 
forgfyt i1jat visit, nor tb(t niuriy Iobhuub moral m woll ils practical 
wbioU I leATuoil- 



^tajf dotiJl of tbeir pN«*« of urarkinff bu boon orolvod br 

^Mfla ftftd |inotiCAl ia a dvgra nhkb I C4Zi otUj cofUHiro ivitk iIm 
iiB|k1* and frMcHcd chanetor of ibe meo vbi> dea^ned it. 

Soeb ««v« tkfi auD abofo all oHuvra en doi^lop tb« apfJicntiaa of 
libotogtMbv to IIm durtinff of tbo btfanoiiy Tk«y t^d hj|;h Appn- 
dabott of tbo Who oI ibo irDck nhkh thoj trtio about to uuilvrtako. 
tktj had tlia foUeat kuovleJru of Uiq n^autmmalji of the cttivt, nii^l 
Ikof bad Uto prarlfcal flViH fiileli cmaMrd t^nn to p«TfiDCit Iho ooom- 
MTj anuatiia. Tlwir lint illcnpta voio niado witb a lakaoopo of 
ttz MM afcttmo (tbo ol^eot-clas being ffpeciAlly lEround fiir, 
pholDgimpUe work), idd die tabe «ai tempomilj a^Uptod to 
ditfiag f ^ in at orial iland. 

Wfui an mosoi* of fertf-fifv inii>nt^, piotoMi of vtan 
nldrittiii l» tJb« l9fi) OMffutodo, ia vbicb the st^r dtwa vrara qniio 
iMBd Oftd ibaiplf de6]iod, 

FiHj afprocnUag tbo bmittj uf iHia roiall, luifl imung [ 
InortaAot^ A4»tml HmiohM bo]<flj fMMnl manj odniiiiftiati 
weB|ll«it>ad «M*fit«d apjthovt ddi^ Ibo pnpoMlfl of tlif} lirdhi^rrt 
IT«H7 to oottsmct an obJoct-^UM of ibiitoon iacliot ai>oriun< aud 
abatt dovod UtX fboal Icmglli, a» vdl oji Lbn otTcx ttt Tkf. 3*niier to 
mimt Uw HBO oa a tirilablo itaAcl. Thf nfm initromont wu 
■MJimluJ la Maj i885> A pbotogmjph uf tbo (^oiapLot« instrnmoct ia 
now on tb«iBCToecL 

Bolk 6^iit) an optiokl m itgII oji m laooJiuiicAl (luml of rinw^ Iha 
•«w JMim«ieiit vru admirablj adaptnl far tts intrndn) nvirt. and 
lb« rvfolu obtained bf tbo brotbon Uocij, uid rapidlj pnbhiiJii 
aad dircnUtod hj Admiral Honofad, at nnoo oatouiibod aad d 
ISfjblfid llio attronoinka] irotld. 

I mom iftww a iov of t}io mnro mmarkablo of Uio«o star i^otniva 

After Bscb rtaaltn u tbcao tliaro «nd no 1o»^r rrviai for doiibt 
or dolaj. Tbo exauutito pnoclnun cf tboae pioltircB* the iborpDcM 
toil inoDduMa of toa iiaaftf of tbo alar»v *ud tlm rL-au1fai of utnal 
MMOVoafctnt on tbo phtM^ provod that all nconcsHr; «,ocuiaoj bid 

T^A nwaaa of rapuUy oLtainiitg tbc data for an ooonrato iinrTC^ 
tl ^ bwifgDa oo a Tcr; krgo Muo woo now viUjia tbo rcacJi of 
MtnBaBmraad tba tlow for dodttva Action hiul BTrired. 

Tbo voH:, bo«<Df«r, vta too OKlaiHtvo to b« tmdertakeo aI a 
iJAI^o obA0rtaiaF7, or ovon by & AJnglo cotmtrj, and il waa Agmd 
« all bMili tltfd inktDAtit]>aal o^-^rpAratiOD vat OAAoniial fur ila 
^ftfirtt™T in a Aaflotmlly iburt Apaoo of tima. 

I BMd not «ii1«r tuio ibe doUilA of p^limmnry ooiuru] tfttion or 
AORiipoadanot, bot at la«t a Iib* was tU^^l, *ml iuTLtiitii>u[i u-rrc 
ImaI bj AdairA] Hoocbofl, Ditedior of tbo pAria Ob«<rtnuiry« uudci 
ibo aili|ilOM of Iha Pajia Acndony of Rdtmom, for aix InutmattcinU 
OoafTAAA of AAtTOttomoffi to be held at Pan'a. 

It 3 


[/one 3, 

A pTttlimiEUiy eoniiQilt*e btyintf ftrruigii>4 thA gwwil eader of 
InuiftCM, tho Cot)jp««i w«H ^pcrno4 on Iho iGtK April, mmA iU 
thoroughly rcpmcbUtivo clurmclot nill bo nndcrnUKid from ibo 
follovring niAtemeiit of the DPktiMulitiH of Uiu neimben priMinilk 

Bngknil «Dd Oolonh* 8 

OcniiBiit .. .. G 

UiMk 8 

HolLod 3 

Aii<tr1« 2 

6Tv4rn 2 

Dtuuuuk .... 2 

Btlflios 1 

lUlj 1 

Sp&in I 

finlUerlud .... t 

Biuil I 

Argvalino Bopoblio I 

Before ihe ConfBmieii, n m^t imij pcio|iV T rill nnt ny 
utronABieni, li«M that tta* 6hf«f ohjoot vu Ia phnt>gnph m mwjj 
«IA» M |>oaaibk^ ftod sunplj pr ^wg w Umpo f LlIm or imho photo- 
gnphio copiM of then, wo M*i Mtronoflaon of ibo futnro, by moftl; 
oompftritig uiio of ll«w urigiDfthor oopiw wfiU b biuiilu' |jb(]bi|^*nLph 
of tho «ftTii« fftrl rtf the alty Uken 50 or 1^0 ymni limr-^i*', vrnrtlil find 
ont vhftt tUn ha4 ob(uig«ii id poiitioa or mognitddo, or «hotL«r wy 
DO" Mftr hnd nppcarcH. 

TUam IB ao dnubl tliui sras iUti ricw of the pctpuUit wrriior*— it in 
vnrjr ciki^ily ittnlcniUKHl. n)iil it Hppr-hU v'^ry ilirf^^tW tii lh« ttnaf^Dft- 
liuti- Such <L privji>ot bIouo voqIJ no dr>i[bt hnvf^ IlikI aty^l iiup^ir- 
lAiii;r> (Ltid wonlii probably m the fuluro have Lrougbt ta li^bt a i;;rv«t 
roftoy Yurj iatercnticig itolatoi] fAcbs. 

Bu; iov the Ijrcjodrt and mvire refiued purpusPB cf Mtnmomj, for 
th0 diMOBfiion of Ba<Ji gT««1 qriAttir-tns Ks ib^ Bir«lii>n *\f tbu «1mr 

Et«ia in spa.O«, th« oomuiOQ loovomon: of krge groniw of Ataiu. 
ftccurkte dotcnai&ftlion of prooesston, uid the gctionl roftnomcah 
of ■striiuitm/ of iirccjgiciD. these tiiure picttire« WDald hftvo no T«1oa. 

It was e««c]itiid f(ir thoit^ Iiirger nitJ rnttro ponunoQlIy inip^rtatit 
etidB that bJI dftt4 «hould be provid&l for tho most fvliuivl diitor- 
minatloa of tli« attaoluit pofliticm of aay star upon aay pinto. This 
vtvw ua« crnilontOil by tho Ocingresa. 

The ohjt^cta cif til" nunroy of tho he*VBaa to be carriol oat wcfrm 
defined vltfmntoly tlms — ■'To iiinlcr> n pbotograpbic c>i»rt of tho tkj 
for tho prv^tout opoob, nod to obUio tho <Lttta for cletormiiiitug; tho 
poHiliuTiis mil] mn^i]ttnd{« of a11 the £t&rB to the lltb mftgiu1o4lo," ia 
ibftt tuagmtiiElc is at proAaitt cUtfinoil la Fiwioe. 

At prnfi^nl thf^r^ ^ra no exnf*t detcnnmatioTifi ofEtelltr magmntdft 
to thaX order of fnuitnoBs^ and tho <?oiLKJdf rflUoni^ which KftUf evUod 
ibo CVicferoQGci -n-eiv, tbat stHTS which ato called I4tb majcmlnio m 
|]L<^log^flpln^l by tbo IRiuryt* witb un eiFfifiiira of About Itf tuiliulvii cif 
tirae. With such an etpoBHre the litnc tvfiiiin^l fir tho work oon- 
tornplnted by the Oongr^tft uruuld not 1>a too grcckt^ but to domaud 
\oag Giposartsd would Icod to the loan of miLTjy jdutos by lutorrDptioQl 
from cloudfi. &c., luid ivouM oiitluly pfvlcuff Iho timu ivquiceJ fur 
compltitiiDt of tint wlioltv >vorh. Ah it Is, tho number of Mian pbot<>- 
gnipbod to 14th nuxgnJtiiilo will omiiber about 20 miUionfi. 

It vos Borioualy tirgtHi thfrt stars to tho 15th or ovon IGth 



r.] M the A]iplif€ivn9 o/ PiM<ogtt>phy in AatroTtomf. 


tiu|^tt»do aud lu|;h«r hIkjuU b« iibutu^rvt^Ltil, 1>ut il vru felt Qukt 
Hinnt wtM ttmX Juignr of foiliim m An nttiTiript ti> do too much- 
It tu> donbt prodaoQ* a itroag ofaot ou tha imafiinatitin to Ixt toU 
tliAt MtfODcaaer* v« la b« ccigi^^ 9ti mokiiif; cbotta of iho fky 
^hkk wUl oonlain 60 «ff lOO millioDB of alorti, or pht^tugimpUiug 
ilan GO ifaelijiktea vhicli oumol be »evjj at aU in tTifi iuohI pivit^rfiil 
tri—rrpoi lli«f# u thnna atn>ngUiiQpUtioiL toyidd ii-t ihrndtimiLiid 
for paaifctioti, to pvodiuo it few fuiouiiijuag pbtc» vith tbc lono of 
nach pmdiM* tliQie, uid lo bdctlBco tho rco) progr^a of nvlroQ^m j 
li> Ibo iuvo of Uia muTvUuuiL Utnidfis^ uliut are juu kj dci wiUi 
|riotaM« of 100 laillioiu of alara irliAii yon luva gi>t thoin ? What 
wo«ld tm tbo nao of piotoriw of oil thoMo eiaxe, anlow at Aonnd 
fabm tinio a <tiSci<TDt tiiunbct cf uttimamora wero to ojiio to 
cottpars nmilat iilioio|;r«p1ifl, Ukcui, eay one lundrcd yuu« 
bMkn, with the fhotognjjw 1»k<'n fn ^nr ilny? 1 Arri hujipy 
to tltuLk Uttt t^a numbof of mtm -aho d->v<>W iL4Eoeh>lvv« to th« 
puttdt •! Mtronomy in on thc^ incrawos bnt I haic no donro tbfli 
Iho Btnaber of men in Omt Ddtain vho occupy tbemvolrM cxclo- 
iLTatj «Tlh utrottomj vitl «v«f oorr««ipoud witli ihni in tho flo&tiDg 
Un4 of I,Apula^ ■« ihwrHbed bj D^tn Switt» vhcro all thd i»«ik 
vare axeJnnroJj onruriixl with aAtronoEoy, nud bojl in bo tiAjifind on 
tbe bc^ nth litUe blad<icni ci:ii]lai(uajc porcbod pea* ti> arouM tlieiu 
fram Ibtttr atnttnet occapitJruiK. And jct, unlnut ihmTiL-tldiig of thia 
■nrt hftppMii; I aM tio aafriimi^ i>ru*po4.l gf tbu utiliimtiuii of pictnntg 
«< 100 luiUiMka of atan. 

l1io Coaicrtaa, thcrdorc, ^vrj viadj limited thoir chart pUtca to 
dn 14th luagcituda BaU im wu witU mviiI hy M. Bomjuat do 
W QrjD, it mia not iUH.i«Ary 1u vnmrDon fifty or nitty oHtrunouierq to 
tOiD^IMalOaimQgafotUJting mur*« pholograi>hi« ^f tUxn — a auiubur 
«f pbologtMihtfta provided ^ith LnitnuiiL^ut« liho tho llotirya ooutj 
Utc Jccic all tliftt vtitlmiit a coDjcraM. li wuk* Tory sUoujfly fdt thut 
llic tmr rcifon d* Mrr of tlto Oniifniwiino wac tn lawiim aHtrr>i]nm]nkl 
dala^ prtciM and cburt aa iha opi^rmtiotia of a^troDO]u<.'n aUould bo. 
XeoontjUgly they r«Bolvt«i that — 

*In adJilJoii Ur Oia dnJIcala ae^iea of plaka pTUig oil tLv atan 
la the 14th uA^iLadoi tham ahnuld tm a tnninfi tit it&U-ft nT ritcirlvir 
a ipoa uT P Ifl iiwara a grohtar aodtitacj iti the miontrnt'tric mcDatira- 
wani atf ibo ataoilarJ aiais, and to rondor tbo oouatrui^tioD of a oata- 
loKVO pOMMbJe. Tho plates inlandud for tho fonnntion of th« cabo- 
loffnc «ball D(iutatu all ihu »laj« t^ tliu lltti luapiiluOc lucIuhIvu." 
Tlial U Ifi ivy, it van ff^ tnnniiirjl in mtnli^ic th^ aUnolutr plLirnH of 
abn to tha lilb mafniitiido. 

list no pbotognpbio plalo of ibalf ^voa ua any information aboai 
te abaololo |da««B of aUn. ihoogh il ^iTcx the a}eaD< to dal«Riiuw 
IhanfaUtfa poritknia of tha flam on thti limiteil arwof cfeob plata; 
ynnillnttlloUiaoU'fuhifinnd moHcIii^n oWmtionv todaiormlna 
Ifca alwairtB plaata of tho brif;btor 0l*r« on coob plato.a&d ihc£ moa- 
■n Ibe poaiiioc of tbc f&iijbctf atata raUtira to iheae aLojidivcd flbara^ 


JITr I/arid cm 



Not if ft pltiic i« oijHMod long caob^eIa (» icot MiL^laciorj picturvs 
nf dnrft tu Um} Mth mpgiiitiidr, liir inuigcKortJiuHUDdftfilvtenicif tbo 
7tl^ 6Ui and l^lL luftgiumdo will oat lwr« tb« LigL«t porfDCiLiuD. ftud 
DOikMqoootlj Uiv plftor^ t)f tlio dmUv- ttus ooimot be uxATOivd nUUr^ 
lo Iko illniolliMiJ sUudJU^l »laA wlUi tbo ItiicLtttt pfDCitfioii. 

niiU vIU Ihi rivji3i:[il if w« ftxaniiM tctuiJ pLu(og|i4jlj>L 

Oiw iUuKlnia a cltort cupovan, the otbor ft long oxjKwtiro. Tlw 
ftbort o^KXoro girc« fthuip dVioiliao vf Uiu brii*blar atari, th^ loog 
rapOiOre bria^ ink) Ti«ir a latjuli ^rc&tiT ijuiulxir of otans tut tho 
•Mrp ikfitiltiuJi at tliu bri^bkr hIuiv j» cnULjfluUiy Ijftt. TWeCurc, 
If wo trlflh to have ^otormiiutUtuft of 0£«afaC«' piMtkioBfi, wo cftimot 
hnnc long expocanu, 

Tbu QttMiiug of tlic aono« of pUtee of >horl ex^uro, ftud eboiv^ 

iug »lulB VI1I7 to Ulf) lull XDH^Ull^ ift U&IU OipUllMll^ 

Of nlorit Ut lUTi umgriklmln thnrft artt wtmiiA 1} fnillimiN Ift tliA 
nkj, ftn^ ft cnUbguo oouUiDicg ftll tbcflo bUtk inajr bn cauuilarvd 
ooinplcto for tbi? p;^ tioikl parpoEcit of ABbuncnLy, iKcnoso tliat tsof^iii- 
tftJo 10 tlio fiunUftt -nrbicb Gfta be muvtoral wilb ncoEracj U iLc Urger 
ubuM uf tii|Uuli>riHlH tiHiiAlljr fEu^iltijrwt x\\ vrvi'liiu^ ubwrtnturiii^. 

) tie«3 Dot onUr into tktail nbont ih(i UwhnKial mcAQA wbif*^ ai^ 
to W tftkon for olixcinatiDp tbf^ Muioiia couroos of «mF, ttock on oon- 
Iraotioo of tbo |:iliotOf{mi>big £]in in cotitiki of dcrdopmcaii and •» 
forlL. All ibcflu points liftTu l>ct^i] {.-uUFudurc^ bj iLe Cungrctt^ 
ur put iiLUi tbo bftniU of dpf^EnhnU wb^u It appnanvl IliAt any 
IHLTtioiilar point rct^niroit ftirlhur Hp<ctftl liititdy, nuij ihoy atv 
too tix^httickJ to bo ontoroi upon btm. The obart of ntftrv to 
the Hth luitguiludo wUt Lc of unpurlftiicc fcit mucj truiposoB, 
ftuoli TiA 1J}(? K4«r4.'1i fur tiUikKK, Hud thv tnitjH'Nupr,iiiir&u 
plftlMt, f>r Tnrinblv itAra, and f~*r dulo m I*^ the Iaw of dutribiititju '>f 
itftM of tho bi^IioT order of iaaf{m<i]<W. But I dc net hc>aitftto to any 
that the Vfork whicb oatronomctH »;-f futui-c gcnar*ti7iia will be m™it 
^mtuful fcir> utid xvUlub viiW nmsX. |>uwerf;jtly o^i^ducKt lu tbc; prjgrua 
of aklT^iTn.^nj , will n'ii bo L)in obnrt hut tb^ cubdo^nri, 

Aiid ni>vv, Lftiltofi juiil Qi^iitUimin, I havn iimfzj<^ yon tluough 
what 1 foftr bo/i o^ far bocn a ^ctkjy ac<M>aiitf to DiH&g you to Ui 
upparttilly vory oumturtnlmg c^-nclnsiuu. 

QitikltigauK HTid ftj^iir^H ATL' [lot [natu^n; of mnc'li pipulnr iiit»r«0t, 
«itd ^^i from eunli lutiTJvithig mril^iriul boa ti^du biiLlt □{» t]i« Cftir 
etrootura of tbo oxnct (utroiioniy of tbo firoAonl day ; oud out of ffuoh 
nkatoriftln bavc bi:on oTolTod tbo foiclA wldch ajipcftl »o atroogly to 
tbfi niindfl of umn, juul muxt sLnruglyiiu bi^eiiuKii uiioi ktiow that 
till' ooucltitfioni rwt uot on more uuugmuigv oloui^, but on tolid fuota 
aud fi^unn aUo. 

ttul now M to iLo prftcLicftl elocution of llu« QMfd work. After 
nil tlio jJTultmiuju'y duiftils of tbo (r|}vnkli»iiM Iiavc trLvu fully dii^ 
ciifiRed — w^Kiu the iiiittrtiTnGTilK hatn boon dcidgnnl Mid mhd«. and 
Xhv (luido of Morkiu^ and tlio mathoja of mooHEiromoiit itud n>JuotiOD 
biLTu l;c«ji dcYii^, tbtj prftctiuol cxocutiOD of ih'j vt<jxk boiAomcB ono 


om Ik* Appficoli«ttt c/ Phatofnphy in AitronQv^y^ 


kpu toottd of totatnw Ubnnr, nv^mring nkJllnfl arjI cmvfitl nporlo* 
ttOMDM it IB Imo, bat Klill tculiao vfntk iff a very trying ch&r&olor. 

&Mh mck iNFTCr h»a bun, Aod dcvct \nU bo. the occ(i^ti>>n of 

lh» — ■ *■ « cot iiagltt-ltftCKJLxl ualruui^cuui. S^Hjiid&I ns dUiJi wurk fi 

to lb» HOgllM cs ■■tronoiJkjr, il oati unly bu t^iiH-ulHtl ut rvgnTiLr 

GofOflUMnk MftbUibnuiiU, a&d thm^fom tho rcnrfiLvioiis of tho 

vill k^TO (o be mibinittAd k» tbo raricjiut UoTt^rnEQcatf^ and 

oooeoauj roim of moncT mast bo BKorod, Pfpnoc hw already 

J MUwlHJUed ill* fuuJa fur f jur jjliuUi;^rujrliic L<1tfbC(ijHB of tiji) 

vrlusii Uio Canf«v«iLOft b^^ ^Ijw^iflfil ti (ii]ri|it fkr Ihi^ w<'rk. Aur) 

W9 mmot donbt that tho modoAt cUinu vhich will Ikj mn^b on 

£agl>Dd'a troMniry fgr ber sbwo in tliie gr<][it n-ork Tvill bo libo»IIy 


But time an otLer applloatiuna of jiTitrlogrftjib^ tu natruuoTuy 
vblck liATD » dflilf urowing unporUnoo- It nofi desLmblo Ikat tbo 
CiMifarcaoo cbevld roeogoiec tbio irDrlt, and osUbliah relatignd ntUi 
iLcae eogftfvd opon it. 

Acmdmglj ibe luUuniu^ rai>IuLiuii vu passer] : — 
** Tb« CDBgMV «3E|iFMw< the dwimbllity of thmo hiding ft wft^t^hl 
r?— "***** vbJch cboll oot^apy LUdf vitb tlio applionltL'nfl of i^holo- 
gnfibj to Mlrcaoxnx, oLbcr Uidji tbo ooofiUtictioa of tbo ohcirt. It 
reoDguttv tbe iniDortiujco uf tbcvc apjrlicatiL^tui uu4 Uie^ rdatatma 
TMin it 1# dcstnftilfi lo n8LAh|iu^ hi^lw^n ililTfr^TLi bimU of work, 
ThftC^gfiii foqncflt MoEKTA CoQUnon and JaQfiecn to aiiderloko the 
nMlintinm of thi* pfopontioiL." 

Al find «i^it tlii nuj appcM* a «otacwbAt bur^a recQlution — bnt 

hr^T^ Il M njot fo^ Il TJiiihl 1)0 r«]i)vmbt^ri.-<l tbit tbo Cungro8H waa 

^^MMfttd for llw pnrpoM <if diu^iiMiiitg a Hpeuial object, it b^d 

^^^^^BU ■! ^f^jf'*** Miucluicnt^ end roconunundotiouEi in ooun(i<'tioa 

^HpH^bai o^ioUf ami it vaa folt Ibat to yo boyttiid that objet^t mJ^bt 

^^n^crJl tlie Mlo|iticm uf iIa nHumiiuniulutiuiui by tlie vmioutt Govern^ 

Bni in tb« Lands of m(«i liko Common and JonBoon tbo ro«oliitiozi 
d Uk« Conlbakoo m not iikol/ to bo a borrcG one, indocd it iu ocf- 
bus that it will iwt bo po, for Uioy «rt} aJjtwly tiikiuj^ tttops k> unite 
laUov-wovlBaoi in tfaiA fteU. 

TImIt OonndltM viU onooiate ilaelf t^th thoao wbo aro uugagod 
^Vl tibo Ovarii, and vili follow np in doUiil aad nith apoctnl itiet^u- 
■iato Mid tncthods tbo milrjcota of intcrcdt wbiub from tknu to tioio 
win 1a enetmatwed bj tbu muLittu vrork^nt^ 

So vonotMile boa bMo tbf> progreoe of tha misoellADooTifi appli- 
«BtiDn of fibotogr^lr^ to utronoioy witbin the post ;c<ar, tliat ftomi> 
■MMOEil of it il c— e n fi ai to bnug the hiitorj of tic subjoct up to dato. 

For «»unp]<v «o luifo iho rocvnt work of TiofutBuf Tnluhju^^ cf 

Ho hu applied pbotograpby during ih<i pajit yoar to tbo ntci«1 
nfimBl ofid Tbffi^uU problom cf rntuticAl oatroai>my, vie. tbo doio^ 
of the a&nnol pualloi (u€, lb« diatvicol of tbu ISxtd Btan* 


Mt, Ihml QUI 


H^ bae aol««4c^ for ox|wnxiaotit th« lAtetoettng ^ouMe atnr SI Cnp^'- 
Ouuuf lUo orijciiifti ut^btivi.?of lloa«ri<i UooiroaiUiL' ^:rTru. Tlia 

prcpor motioQ, oa tbd mo«t vmbUe vUr for htB fint ci:pcHaiflal. It 
VM probnblc, beo&iiM ita Utqo tppftro&t motion SHiuoiifr llic stan wiu 
HO Kroat. ito rwl difliiLM ftom u wvH bo Icsa iLnu tl^t ^f sUra of 
IfiM ftppatmit mntlnn. BMnd'n otiaimmttiinfl with thn Kr'iRf|;«turg 
lioliom«tcf prowd tbU to bo tha oa^, o-nd bi« dUiniuicn of tbdso 
obMrration* firrt ooQTinood [utr(Mi<>mcra lliAt Uio m^imrcsiioat of 
iobcntelUr epacea w>fl a probliiiti ut^b ctitirvlj- bcjond tLukr mKL^ 

ycnr, »nil witliiu a few diji be f rniniiuv] that w^ ehftll ha™ itm r«iill4 
of iiii moMnnniotit of tho plntot. II trill bo i>f grciU inturci* lo 
oomnro hit nAtllH intb proviijuct ind^ponJcr^t dctoricicatio'ju of tho 
|>Anil]fti of tbo Buu(.i blnr umd« by uilivr AttruuLim^nt witli diflbrtiul 
mnuiH, liiLl i\ nil! ho Btill moie iul€rcsi.iDgf>r (h(?fi]turr nf luiln^nnni j 
to comjmxt tho amoont of ac^^iirmey wbic*h the [ibotcgraphic ia«tbod 
ofTovdii, u ooiQjjiLrDd with tbo oldur Qtidtiiig tuutliiHLh Ftum pr^ 
limiunry riaulLa publiBht^d hy Yt\>i. PntcLard w« are lui tv oX|)cici 
a liny Ijtj^h itn^iinu'^ fniii IIid tif^v pn>r:e#ui, 

So far, biiwnvcir, a* prcnont ciporitiice gi>H«, wc sbttH tint bo able 
to apply ibifl now method to Uie numeurtmuut of tbe punkllm of vory 
bngbt Btiois bciAUfic, ^lif;ii thu pUloa baro boon ospoood Jong cuoa^ 
to t^btnLa fuoturefl of cbu fitiiit ouupaHMn Btan^ the Jibus uf lbs 
tHgfihT t.Xar% bocomri uio lar^ am) ni-HloAnncl ftcr ntiir^ rnnatnnoWU. 
It mtLy bo that thifi ubfiUclc n'Ul yet bo croroomi?. but At pNMBt it 
boe still to be ffttcd- 

Ou tLo (juv^elluu of tbo €oni]>BTaLlvu monle of refnictora aad ro- 
ilWitiirK »L-H LliJ |iLii|Hr iniHLriiimiitU f »r pln»t<fgrfl|ihi<" 11H>\ vo^ ^IhboTata 
OOinpArisoQ Lit^ bucii ij^stttuted, and tanab diseassiam fa«« bom 

From tbo mmp]« facte, ibtit tbo best work yti done hfw boon Jono 
iu atullar pLotognipby by rcfnittuiv, aad E'hjkL ibuy am m mauy vaya 
TiLL^ro couveiDicMl aod fiimjilo in ubo tliun ni6ccttjig tJ^t«f<ii>jieif Ilia 
Paris Congroae ananlii^outly ndoptod tbu r«friictor M tbo inalnUMBl 
to be adopted for tko iutctnatioiuLl (4ai thiuts. Utit boro ia a mry 
remarkiiblo pidturo tako& with tba Oift^rd rtfl«clur, ivhJcb abuwi rtar 
iliacit vtiry bf jup mul v^^ry round over a vnry birgo £eM uf vieir, vis. 
eighty nnnutca of mdnu. 

Iu tho photography of epedal objoota, eooh oa star oltuten Mid 
Lcbulfp, moch has hcoti douo, 

Coiuhiou'b viiiuiHLto pEiotogripb uf tbo gJxnt uobnla uf Orion you 
bav« fi^u befiire m thie tbt«tre, (uid for EXi^aitiite l>eftuty <ff ilfrlau jt 
baa Dover boen oxooUod. But of this vo may bi3 onro Uiat« if 
Mt. Common b spurod in hoaltb and stn^ugth to ccmphto tbo creat 
n]fl<j<jtor ui five fcvt npisrturo upou «biob lio ie iiow ciigagiNit Ibot 
phuto|rm)ib. bLihiHtfn] hh it in, will Ihj fur NM]'|iiiHHt)i1. Mt'ti) » 
uTiolboi- photograph of tbo suae ohji^ct t^ Mr. ftvb^rl*- S>o abort is 

to focta of liifl Idcffoopo. «o Mtuntiie uo the rUtc« he baa Dicpky«^« 
iLfti tlio dctaA of tb« fari^^itor livte bia Iweu oumpletely burut oat, 
b«t a grvAt df»l «f now fbnod datftjl is brocght ti> HgLL 

U<rrv ift anoihur pfcotogmph of thd auuo objoct by Frofcfleor 
PWktQDgt Ukuu wtlfa m rcmr kiiB objootiTtt cf cighl inclica ajxitiiro 
isd Mj aLwI focua, and iiicladtug a fleM of 5 dugrccti ttc^uarc. 
bponm 8S viiL tW shows ttbftt can be dono witL eoch 4 oom* 

la ltjS( Uio l««i>th«« Hcnrr, ph^tofcnphing tbf Plemde* on Notcm- 
l«r 16tlii discoTcred & new &ebm>« i;c4Lt tho bright star Hiua ia the 
gnnOb I]«ra ou Ike Kr««n ie ri copy of tb<j ori^*iiw] iU'(,'uliTe by 
vUon ll» Jiwe tf tfl ij vu nudd. Vou olHerve the uebiUji libe 11 filmy 
y nj aattao fo» oat of tho ftorr. 

Aftar Ui* — tnili hftd been diMovorod by pbologrvpliy it niu found 
Id b* tUVIa Lu iLo graU feTnuupu uf 30 uioIihh uiwtturu hI Pulkoivn. 
Bvt lo^dnntfr U nna thing, 10 Aeo afUT (li»ci>viiiy in nnnlh^r, 

Strmagolj onongh thu n^v nobnU was maily photfffLftphird a 
Ibffta^ht bofani ita diMOTorj kt Pons, by I'n^fuisot l^okoriiif; at 
GbAbnd^ io Anerm. In ciiLibiibf; the pliutu^r^pU tg thuNulional 
Aahd«Diy of 8ei«D0M fire dh}> lHifc<r<» H--firy'» diK<-nvtir}'. ProfiiAH<>r 
Pickamg poialed oni tbe " wbig '* ■icacbod t> thi> »Ur, iiti thuro viui 
oalj OQd pUtO ibowD, tbo im|>rQiwta& «tas tLat tho nuub iv&s duo to a 
il«lirt in iLo gcUtiiiG fiim. 

BttTv, huwmri ia uiuthor pitluru uf tLc Plciiulua (ukou kI Oiuu* 

witb tfa* MDOa liutrnmi^nt &nd tin cipitiiro k>f i^ighCy-tw<i 

wbidi dkows iMbntofiity about laoro than <>no Uur of Ihg 

Ani lion ifl ft vm t4 a DogaiiTo by Mi. Ituborte. of LWvniool, 
ispontn M Ibne Iiouta. Th« et&r dJ»io« uro of ecjurnt^ krgtt 
in doiiud ^ bat th« qanntiiy of nobnlo, invisible to tb« oje in the 
leloMopdS* U qdito laryinsin^. 

pbo4cgmphj» Appear to proro conolnmroly that the ncbuU 
■1^ Ifao otan iu lluA gToop uv oiM Bystcm ; tlio ductrmo of t^LuitouN 
tMndsra it nlmoil an fmpfimbnEly in finppfju) thcit Eiirh n Ayramttri^al 
O^H^pVMnt of nijbTiloaii imittcr inlh ruapcct to tlio nturs coiild oiist 
br ******j if iho nUn vitc projootcd iu front ^ a for dibtoat back- 
pvsad of ubaluufl Euitu', 

Uan Ifl fe pliMogTMpb uf Ibo «tan mu-roiiiidlng the c^lubralod 

MffkbU $Ua 9 Axgns, lAk<n at tbo Ca[>o with tho tcbEiicapo of 9 Incboa 

•MlB«t KDOOftMMy firccoDki to mo for ouch w^rk b^ Mi. JiiiD(« 

■MMjtb. Tbo ncbuU ourmunding thia ntor in Vfilj faint <;uiu]jHrt.^ 

>iA uo OHon nvbuloi Aud it wwuih lu bt di^duut in tu^timc ruy^, uud 

Uw toU«wp« U lutfiodod f^i- aultn-r pboio^phy by iu Inim 

laDgtb,4Ad not for nobalnj, v^hiob to^ulfo n aiiortor proportional 

t^i c^ tactn utXnjmtMj brilliant imu^ 

Still Uienr U tLe tivbulu, and J bvlii^vu IIjeb in thu ujly cmting 

|4ala^tmpb *>f tlm nSjurl Th«» t'VfVHrtrti whh 'Jj biiLiiH* (fcod yd 

thbcu^ Ibo oHginal ucgatiru boA boon uilurund ^ur diunvt«ri tb« 



Mr. i>.tnJ GiU 


pUr Aincit nomam well lUdliiiilr llitt cormApondlac n«giAn of ihfi e^ 
u Uw itan the mooiiB apparcaiUiftnietar, A&d of l£o UAay ti»^^fy»<* 
cf oUrc Tisillc on tho f>b(jtogj«pli not * singlo odo m rinblA to Iho 
HiImmI «jro, Tliu aiat k) Ar|;iiii wa» in ldl3 ueul/ Uia brigLkst dar 
in iKie fic«viiiL«; in fitc^t, mx^ihI only to SiriuA. U b umr twtinwu 
tbc 7th anil fit1i mn^ito^lD. 

Horc is ft Ettu- cluwr in ArgiUv The vtu di«o« ii^ not tfa vliorply 
dc&uod, tut thrt origiant iicg&LiTe W been mac^ OLtLgBificid to biiag 
out Lbu ftlur (Ibcft^ 

H«M U a pliriiogmpb, alsn tAkrai nt tho Oapn, of tbe wonderfal 
«tnr diutor v ConlauH. It u tha fi&cct fstabular clootor in tlto 
luorcoa, aai 1 ^o uot kaovi thikt 1 have ercr vccn tLo acpu^ion of 
tlic i-v-uirji] nUtm au diatiDcilj witli tlw ujro u thuy «ro »boKii io UiU 
|>biiti.i^THj>]). Purlitpa It7jj}iijl(ign4]il)iri^ ww »liall luarn wliul motioiu 
ovt'ur ill oftcib clo»ti>r. TItk uo^ttTo has b«oo OLUvgod ftmr dift- 
motcria froui tho original. 

Iloro in a pbotognph of the well^kcowu cltutor Ln Horoillotf, 
takcu bjr Ur, EuWt«. udT Livtrr^tx)!. uod a tlil) mom wondcrfal tMM 
hy xht Hvitrys, of Parin- Thv/ miut bo mnguified moro liigUj to 
gi\c usj iJ>^« of tJioir qudity. 

WIjcu tL« obJ4^c^t« arc bright, aueh 06 bright dunblo et»r«, or 
plaiiuU, or iLo nicitiu, wc cuvn enhtrgc Iho iuifrgo jiruduM^ by (ho 
l4j1utr>opi.\ by «iil of a vwuiiitary mngiiilW, 

l3vcDUiH] uf Ujc ctsiiti>r RiKo of tho orij^nal picturu tbiu pix^doood, 
tbo ^ruiiilaliun i/f Lho {jhittoi^raphic tllui intt^rforcs to * lass «sletil 
wUh lliu ■Ii;^tihLl (if Uio (jicLurc. Of cuuino. thiN AdvAaUjcc ia |nir* 
ohui^l at tho Di«t of tt liiugt^r L^t|Hw]in^ btvaiiiHf th<i miiin mmoUUt ot 
light u ipraad OTar t larger arvn of Ibo «ensitiv4> plutu^ and con* 
B«)iu'iiilj' tltu a»TUO ixroa <( tho film rocoivca Icas inltjtLt<j b^'ht. With 
Tery bright (>hjuct«, fioch as tho sua, moon, auI pJauotA* IhU U of 
liltli: <:i>iibtr|(iviK^i), iiii<1 ijlilj bo mu advautage. as pomtittiiig moro 
»counite rvgiilfttLOD of llio «i|ioAar«>. 

lltrv is a pioturo L/f Ut** dtiii photographed by K. JinMen at 
Ucudon, u«ar FaneH Tho d-poflnrc ie biu thiui 1; 1000th of a eocooid 
of t]iiii\ Ami lieru i« aa (Jilargecl |>Lotug£Hph i>f Um nuiur Hjiiit> 
vlkOKingan omuTmt of detail tthkh no artist could coavoy by band 
and eyo, &or ooold ho omulato iLo abiulutv ncconioy of tho photo- 

Hvra aic suiDo ]ihok>fTapbB of the jdaiicl Jupitor» Lalten at Parinv 
the original iniLge luniLg inagiiiiiei] 1^ timru, 

nord is ADutiiuT ehou-iiig the TcuuE-lcabk rod Apot — von CToq hava 
bofon> your oyoe crid<iiicc uf tb« rot^tioti of Jupit««- oc ita axiA by tka 
ohange tu tho poflitiou cf tho epot during tho boido <itc4U1ik. 

ThiB s]K)t iip|)fukr:)<l ill IHTM HTid iiKWiunial ftbout SOj^OO inUoi in 
length by TOOO milefl in hrondth- It brciunci of a dei^p rod oolour iu 
1871*, ftod for iha thrco fuUov'ing yuar^ tvos a moat fttrikio^ foatnra 
in tho pincct. It olinoflt £adcd ontircly i& ISi^ bat hat «giHD 
hetunie Qoarly as briglt an it wtm ia 1882. 






IB8T,j Hi the AppiieaHoaM of P^oti^aphy in AUrirttotuff. 171 

JtiM Clvrko tolU tLo Btarj mc«l adniLmhly and 0O||^tiTt:lv ia 
Aa lirt edilioik of bor 'tliatoijcf Afttmijom// to wliiuh troA I 
*siU refer llw«o of tnj^ li^artni in whouitboDc boAUlifnl pLotognpL« 
■^etritoa mffidudt {nl«rwl 

T« vQbnr iMj into iLo matter vrotild denuDd ft J«4}tu»> to iUolf — 
tad tbc bisiiIa bind of ILaI inotombk dook mniB mo ihikt I uiut 

Bon areicmofliotagnuibiof ^tnrn,n-1i)ch iHuKtrntuthr rmnhrk- 
Mm nrOp^M or o«MtiiJ iJiolognLnbj. 

TiMt 4ro ftome jibotognpLa of donbU sUit ; ono of tlicct^, & photo- 
p^b of V Yuctui*, Uk<iQ bt GrooawicL, U probaliljr tJiti fijUBt 
dholqpKpli of A doablo «tAr in oiUtoDOo. The «tar diw8 Di«M«te 
Imi tbui ]" in diuDflCiw 

I^«t of all I oom* lo tbe looAt rooont rOT«1atioii« of tbo power of 
pftoiognphj M Its «id to Mtroiioib3^, Dr. Uuury Druj>ur, iu 1ST2. 
WM Um uM 1o pliotogm|Ji tho linm lu tLu vpt-vtJuiit uf u bUr. but Iiih 
■a*fcff*U- unrwiicalkKU mo tnti^rnipti^d by di^ith In lfiA-2. Jn 
IMS, !■• wiAoir'jlAOvd In tbo haadu of Proft«*& Piclrfirin^, of 
Uornrd OoUogo Ouorvotorj, tn Amc^ca, not only un amtitti sum of 
»ai»7 fur tbo purobAM of ooatty af p*nliit. hiit iUhu uiikIu a liboru] 
pro««v for QajTyiBg ua iLn uotk fif j)ljf/Ui^'m|i]im H]KHUrirMvi|h> art a 
VOBoriaJ lo facr hiuli&iitl. Ha tiMc- a gift, utaX ihc noculloji nf 
■a pioM ft poipovo, iwulil acit havo hwn pU««d in ftbl«r or mone 
adi-iB buidak 

WLikiu tlae jfftftl few wi.Mikd ui> liaTu tvujuvvl tLu £ihl-fruiU uf Uiu 
B«nrT nrmtwr Bli>iiukr{Al Fuml. 

Wbcfi 1 bogftB pfOfftiftlioA of thio LooCuic, I cabk^l to ProfiiARor 
KAofinc ft roqnovt & aooo ^ftM oopico cf bU oH^H'U no^atiTon, 
Eto biinJTjr <oaii|Ji4>d. acJ thuy anivL^d tbis tui^ruiii^. Timo aiily 

Bnggfato'a locCnroA on ntalbkr fi>actra io tbid tlwUro, will rooogiiiaa 
Aft *sctfiDO'iu iinporiaiiDo of ducli pichircii u tbono. 

Tbo iagdtnily of tbo iu1o|rlc4l luotbodB, tbc cxtrftonlmary cucrchi 
ftltfttnrd, tbo prvmbw uf nt:b biLrvcBl. wcwdiitg uur liigliLutC prcTiikiiM 
vpatfaftiooo, vhicb tb« n^ulu aAbnt, tav ihvame iijuxi wli[cb ouo 
vaM diUto for hoars. 

Bcro wo bare tbo apootra of ibo &tant otant vhctto ACtiiJil diaca 
«* can neivcr bopo to wxv niguloriiiu iu tboBu rtiytbtnianJ Lluon thu 
4u«y ii ibctr Gvtiatilulioa and t0TJj|itrut()r<s witb an tici^'iiraiiy an4 
ptociaftOtt wlidi not aauy joan ago wi> should bavo boon glad to 
oMiio ift Ibo viaoorda of Iho tptobum of our ovn >un. 

And tlua >o not all ; not oaly haVQ wo aucb rcaolu fi:«' a fow aUn, 
lit «B Km prui&iatit " tliut tliu ociiiiplii^lu wurk will iiiuludu n^kLbjj^uu 
«f Ibft ^icctrB of ftU tbo Btftfi cf loo Gth roagaitud« and brightnT, a 
Mm octeaoiT* oabalona of apootn of «tflr>i brj|ihur (baa iLu 8tb 
ft«pit»lib ftod a dcUiTod atmly nf tbo apcotro of ibo brigbt Htan." 
llHaari Pruf- rickmDg'i uwo vrorda- 

Wbal Prof. rich<<rfoK prcinUca, wo knour from Ion|{ oatpdnaneo. 

172 Mk D, QiU OB Oie Ajiplioatum* tf FXoiogre^t da [June fl, 

that be wiU perlbnn. We may ilso wdl ^^y with him, that " a field of 
work and promise ia open, and there Beenu to bo an opportnnttj to 
erect to the name of Dr. Henry Draper a memorial anch aa heretofore 

no oAtronomer has received." 

There is in England wealth enough and to spare. Many a lioh 
m&n dies puzsled bow to diepoae of hie money ; and there is many a 
living ipan who voiild gladly give for snch an object if he know how 
to do so. There is field enough in astronomy, and there are men 
enough in England to do the work. Let ns hope they will receive 
aid ench as rroi. Pickering hsa receiTed ; and haTing done so, they 
will give an equally good acconnt of their alewardship. 

The miBcellaneous applications of photography to astrcHiomy oflei 
a field so full of promise, so certain of immediate reward to thoae who 
are posscBsed of the necessary origiDslity and the means to carry ont 
their ideas, that there ia more hope of private enterprise in that 
direction than in the more rontine work of Btar-charting. 

But tempting as these fields are, brilliant and intereeting ai an 
the discoveries to be fomid in them, there is in the work inati- 
tuted by the Paris Congress an element that cannot be OTerlooked 
and which compels attention— it jb this : the question of the lapaa 
of time. Every year which paaeea after that work hu been oarnad 
out, increases its value and importance; every year that we necdoel 
in doing it will be a reproach to the astroiKaners of the day. Into 
all the great problems which that work is deatmed to solve, the 
element of time entere — and time lost now in such wod can nerer bo 

Of the Con^H'eBB itself I would say a few last words^ Itg prcH 
ceedinge were characterised by an earnest spirit of work and entire 
absence of international jealousy. Onr reception by the French w«c 
cordial and hospitable in the highest degree, the decimons of the 
Congress were umost unanimous, and were marked by a moderation 
and judgment which mast render them aooeptablo to the respoojibla 
authorities of the various Govemmente. 

Lastly, I would add that the good will which pervaded the 
moetings, the general success of the Congress as a whole, wem in no 
small degree due to the genial influence of the single-hearted^ "fm^t- 
minded man who convened it^ Admiral Monohez. 


OtmwU M^JUjf K^imf. 




Sit FotxMK, "Ettq, Trtmnm ud Vic«-PT«ai4«ttt, In tK« Cb«fr, 

Joka Ifowleim Bart. l>q. 
JuNV SlaalB FotUvs Esq. 
Hngh GoTtlrvi, Kflij. B.A. Oi-^. 

Jo^ Imu Hionijcroft, ^f^. &1. fnmt. C.E. 
fledevi Uenibnv of Uio IkjU Iii«liitJtia(i. 

Tlw fbtlowitig Adilren fo the Qumc ^oa mul ^ad npproTiHli 
ttl MElboriMid to b« ttlgnctl bj Hifl Graeo Tlie Prf Ai«i«nt nii U<hrilf of 

AEtt Hovr OMdcm Humitt Tilt Qtos. Pamniof tbft Bdjid [nfUintLcn 

Ihl* otr timtfl of bomtirit uid o^iiifrniDlkilin nn tbr <vtU4loi of Kit 

mmoMtad^ytMtgttUhvd tvt Lbe imcvurnL:L-uii.-iA Aud ulTHuucuinil of Lbs 
Ibr v>o pnma>lw& <f irbrcdi tblacur li^aLiuimN wu f^uaJAfl- 
r, il la «* tA^DVit iMiivand fvnvnt ynjvr Ihnf y<iur Bl4j«vEjr*j iwign 



■ ■■■ *■ Mtuni thAiUfhimt Lbn 


wuiab wn nlTcgidJii^ I't ymit 

llid UtftDkH of tL« Mmubani rvtrimol for Uie um«, tIk. :— > 

()/ IToiirnf— Mulru UthclUa Clri:lD ObKfMvticut. 13ti2» l«r>3, laiH. 
Ilik. 1»^7. 

CtaiMM Jm UUfiMiiTft du KoL Fkr J. Ggiffnr. Tqdid It llo. IKST. 
UtOm dv CkrdtiMl Bbvtin. Par A, Ch^rwl. Tomi' tV. 4Ed. \iiin, 

imigmia dri Uaori^ Aiulf. Rf>mn--Alti, Qmia QubtIji; [kiiilirgi^ti, VgL IXL 
Ptn(L7. »*& Ift« 7, 

itfteArtlaiL^MCifyi/— A»?hiulc0a, Vol. L Fnrt I. 4IA. l^WT. 
AMI A<«^ •/ ilnmP^ininiiil, VoL. JJII. P«n % Mil i : Vol. LV. rut 2, 
I, 8«iL 16&M. 

MM;K».10; 1387, X<i.l. 8tp. 
r,JI»9or<atf»i£r«wh)^^rDM,Vnl.XXT.Vo«.a.4. ftro. ]Ba6L 
JH^. Avoi— HonUily XotiJ^^Vnl, XI.VIL Xa H, HvOl IBK7, 
l^ifan, fiHnrHef r)^oaru1. V<>l, Vlll P>irt a. Vvn, IMf7, 

C««rt«b^-IUablthil1ie&>lIndInDArDM»]mE«s]!tS3, e*iT> lAM. 
■tfj^Iial ftoU AMootia[>i^^ OUc^rmtiaiiik VaL Vl. I«up, aaa V«l TIL 

174 Oeneral Mtmikljf Mwtmg^ [Jane 6, 

Chemicol &vt>fy— Jonmal Tor Haj, 1887. 8vo. 

Dawton, O. AT Etq. F.Q.S. {the JlulAor)— yote on the OoomTQiioe of Jads in 

Briaah CQlumbV Svo. 1S87- 
Dare, P. Edward, Etq. (fAtf ^uUor)— FaUio BfghU in XaTigabte BiTen. Sfo. 

Efut India Attca'atitm — jDornoU VoL XIX. Nh. 8, 4. Sto. 1887. 
i'diVon— Ameriena JourmJ of Bcienca for Mbj, 1B87- 8to, 

AdsIjbI Tor BItLT, 1887. 8ro. 

Ath(>Dteuin for Miiy, 18S7. 4to. 

Chcniical Newa for May, If^&l^ 4ta 

CfuDitst and Dniggist for Mnf, 18S7. 8to, 

ICn^'ineer for Mar. 1887. foJ. 

Ea^neering for May, 1837. fol, 

Horol4~»gical Juomo] for Bfaj. 1887' 8to. 

IndimtricB for May, 1887. foL 

Iron forMiij-. 1887. 4to. 

Nature for Mav,18S7. 4to. 

BflTue Scientiiquo for May, 1B87. 4to. 

edcuUflo NowB for Haj, 1887. 4to. 

Telegraphic Journal for Uay, 1887. 8vo, 

Zoophilist for May. 1887. 4to. 
FrarJcUn iM^'/uea— Journal, No. 737. 8to. 1887. 
Gtcgraphicat Society. Royal — Proceadinga, New BeriBV, Vol. IX. No. 0. Srx 

Otdogical Snoiety— Quarterly Journal. No. 170. 8vo. 1887. 
Gordon. Suraeon-Generat C. A. M.D. C^, (Iht ^lOhcH-)— loooolAtian Tor Babin 

and Hydrophobia. 8to. 1887- 
BotpitaU Anaociatitm — FrooeodiDgs, Vol. Ill, 8to. 1887. 
JohmJInpliinaUHiweity — Amprican Chemical JoumaljYol, IX. No. 2. Sto, IB87- 

&tadi<.'B in Historical aad Political Soionce, Fifth &enoe,Noa. 5, B. Bra. 1887. 

Univereity Circular, No. 57. 4to. 1887. 
Madrid Boyai Academy of .^unm— Uomoiiaa, Tome XL 4to. 1S87' 

Rovhta : Tome XXlI. Nob. 2. 3. 8vo. 1SB7- 
Mediail and Chirur^coH Soei^y, Royal — Prooeedingi, No. 15. Sto. 1887. 

Catalogue of Libmtr, 1885. Suppfemtat V. Ato. 1887. 
MttcoTologixil 0#M— Hourly Kaadinffs. 1884, Part S- 4lo. I88«-7, 
Naiional lA/e-hoat Inaitution, .Rrwil— Armoal Beport, 1887. Sn- 
H&nteman North Atlantic E^peditiffn, Editorial Gmmittee — DaniolMm, D. O. 

Aloyotiida. fol. Ghnatbuia* I8S7. 
rJv/rmacad'cal Society of Great Bftta in-— Journal, May, 1887. Bro. 
FJtoiOffraphic £<7cier]/--JouruaK Nev Beriea, Tol, XI, No. 7. Bro. 1887. 
FTeuaitche Akadmua der ITufeiw^/Zen— SitzunnberiohteL-XVlO. Sto. 1887. 
RiehardMon. B. W. MD. F,R£. {ike ^uMor)— m A»la^ad, ToL IT. No. 14. 

8iro. 1887. 
Ihyal Society of London— Froeoedin^a, No. 353. Sva 1S87. 
Baxoa Society of Seiencety Royal — PhilolDghnh-hiHtoriacilieClaBae: AbhAndloDnn, 
BandX. No. 3. 4to. 18ST. 

Berichte, iSSe, No- 2. Sto. 1887. 
Bevmoivgioal Society of Jawm — Tmuaotloni, YoL X. 8Ta 1887. 
Society of Arti— Journal, May, 1887, 8to. 
St. FiflerAourg, Aradtfmie det Sbr'mnf— M^moiiei, Tome XXXIT. Not. 12, 13 ; 

Tomo XXXV. No. 1, 4to- 1886-7. 
Teiegraph Engineert, Soeuty a/— Joomal, No. 6€. 8to. 1887- 
United Sermoe IiutituHon. JTouoI— JoujiuU, No. 136. 8ro. 1S87. 
Vnivernty of Zionffon— Calondnr, 1887, 8^0. 

VpKl (/ftiwriffj^— Bulletin Monanei, Vol. XVIIL 1886. Svo. 1B86-7. 
Vereifu xar Seflirderung d^ 0«ioerhfM»ta in Prfuwm — VerliaDdlangeD, ]&S7>' 

Heft 4. ito. 
VidoT^ Jni/jfiilfl' Journal, No. 80. 8*0. 1887. 

Of AuUr Jfl noif a llttlfl vilUgp, "r niUi*>r a rlwuUr tjf littlo 
ftt lli« h«&A «f thA Adriatic^, just TJtbin tha AQkiriau frontlor. 

^^^1 WEEiav EvnxiNO ueetixo, 

^BP FH^y, Jimo 10, 1S8T- 

[ &DaT roLLOCS, E>q. Tr<iimir«r Katl Vicc-Vrwidcat, la the Cbair, 

^k Tboku HoDiinv. £]«i. D.C.L. 

^^^^K&, or 

nivitk ft popoUtjoD of aboat 2000. Bni it wiid lit tho timo of tho 
Cbktkn cm odc of Ui^ tJucf dtioa of tbo Einjiiru, coTfriiif- on htga 

hm hmm lew tbm 100,000, o&d m&y faaro ^atly rxcralod that 

n VM Ibnadei] an « Roman colony 131 n.c.| iri order to koqi tUi» 
fl— TmIi IriboM DpoD tbu nortb^ffuft frouiicr uf iLalj iu i^liiiok urid U> 
frvtml 111* <Uii|;fr ctf kii iiUinT)r:A lictluAtn tlii^m himI tli'' Ikuhliln king 
rf MModonuL Tbo tbroo ComntUufinDrii (Tririmviri) fiir tlio sattln- 
MMl of Ao CK>km J woto Pnblin* Soipio Nouoa^ ilaivn t'kiaiuinn. oi^d 
Lvcfall Uuiliiu AcMliuu. The tomtorj' aUottod to tho acv Coionia 
wm 180 Mqwe BiiW in nltiut wiil ft vru uiTujiioil 1i/ SfJOO f*>iA^ 
vl£«n kod MOM cataIi^ nhoHo fiumhnrfl nro not alAtnd. Tl^o f Wo 
ffcova (br tlM ttiiy wa* abont ■atoh milDH fram ttic nnftf nn thti baiika 
of ike nFor NiAuo, irbicb ha^, hon^c^^r, amca cliangcd itn courno uid 
doa Bnl iww aow noikr b> tLo ruma of thu cilv. 

TIm mio of tbe naur oitj wiu dfiriiv^l tiiitii^r from ilio north ^nnd 
(Ai|«UdJ, or iMerdlDg ti> anolhor Jiixoiml, from lut on^lti, ^vtiir^h on 
tbo dajr of ^^° in«iffviratiazi of tlio oolrjTtj wm hofin oivldonly to dy 
|Mi ib* ri|[Iil Ituul of t)]o ihtfttuo of Jtipitcr, a nmeX vt*\ilo'\nttt% *aa*i\i* 

Sonowficru Ami SIIt yuLn fr<iiii tho foucdiLtian (if tho f!ii!any ita 
womrilj wu cnnnDunu^ iDoroMod by lb# dii«covery of goM minoa 
m no o9imti7 of tbo Tftariedi 4t abort di»UDo« (o tli« north of it. 
ft^nilili Buy Ikn^ W ccoindoroj t«« in ft motmoy tbo Moibourjio of tlio 
loua Rtfttn. fWlnt too in tho rcatTD of a vwt nrt^n't^rk of mfidi, 
iha Wft blmiralily adiiplod to bo thu <itlrfp6l of tbu o^iiiniarK^o cf 
IlftiT Aftd lUyricimii <il Ibo Ailriattc, eidlE tho rmm wLif?b Qmr into 
ibe Dam^Wk Oo Iboivtai «lio wm cobuoctor] witb V(irouu iiciil IVlrij;- 
Ob tba Borlll Iho two puvw of tlio Poiitolittu nn4 tbtt Fcvilll vom- 
avttkaiNi wifli tfao Tyrol ftnd CftHnthiiL Eaittnnircl thu i^at roftdii 
to Lwtftdi OAd to Tri««to n«nt foHb to tbo long valley of tiii» B^ro 
IhI tbe Mlftoa- bordered pcnintntlii of latrin, 
A^jQUM wftn Louourud in tho yimr 



2fr. 7%ma$ Bodfkin 

[Jqbo jo, 

lmli^'tT]]i4fiJ ifroviiico iff PbiLui^ma, uml llio Eiu|runir l<Hik tip bin 
hi^«i]-}ivirt^rK m thn j^rmi city hj Uio XatJuo in f>rJitr tn guattl tijoir 
liiic# of commnaicatirji] ncd ^oEdkon tbo safply of broviuomii taui 
mnnitioiifi of irsr- to tbcir logiooSi Be wu Afoomputied by bm nifW 
Iim*> wlio puttUA b) liuvtr bo^u uitmnnl j urlml lu tbiH p4ii of Italy, 
ftitil wbrj littrihiitiwl }i"r liitig llfi'i ti> li«<r ImfiJtiml mm tit thir fitl1-U>licd 
■'Pncino" vi&o which wm pmdaood from tbo yisioytad of Ui« 

At till* Tiait of Augnirttw to AqnilcU ho wm mcl bj Herod ibo 
Grt«kl. vrlm JimiVil to i>1:iUin l\w IiiijHiHttl miHifjii to thrf eKAMtliufi 
of A1aT«i>d4ir flnd Ariatfibnlns ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ Aniuidwn priootw 
U&riun^o. Tbcj dofcndud tiiamMlirctt, howovnr. mtcocaMily, from 
lh« rluLrffO of omupiTing a;^iQDt tbcnr iitbor> lifi\ nod th« domoitio 
foud v&i fur A tunc, hub ouljr for & tiaue. compowHl bjr the iuflocnce of 

Under th« KmpirOt AtioiUh) woe obijfly fanttme for tho nombsr of 
Ricgoe vhich it undorwoat. uid (until the lofit of Iho aoricfl vu 
mchod) nhich it Bacccufoll/ rruai^d. The MftroooiftTmi wero 
rt-puleni frnrn bi^for^ iU w&IIa aKiuC thu year 16T. UAxtmiu, iho 
baVbftriar Emperor of Rtifno, who hsid hooQ dcpcsed by the SmaIo, 
bloekkdoil th& city for Aomo tioso, but vui elam hy biA mntiDC'iii 
«io]dirEnt(f33S) bofarc h« hod Bncooodcd in itn oixptares During lhi« 
niDgD thu Iwlitfi uf AqiiiU'iiL out ufT llitir hair in onicr Ut ttn^pX^ tho 
defioi«<Dt tiU>n*i of rrtpea fi>r working the roilEl&r; engfuM, Thoir 
pAJriotiAm VIM Oi>inmomoral«d «ft«T tho fitnio of the Sie^ by the 
dodUAtinn of n t^mpk " to tUo b«ld'hcfldcd Yotttui." 

Ill ^51. JuliAU bcsiogcil tlxc dty, whiub wqa Oofbodcd by the 
trttopit of OiifiifbLTitlaji. Tb'i iWtli of t\w Intt^r DiTi|iurur, which 
oociirrod vhU^ the ffogc t<a£ nt^U pending, (a>ded the wiir. 

In Sd8, ThooineinH piironod bin iof^tcd riTal Mnxir^ms tn tha 
gllttotcrf AqLiUuiiL Tlio city wofl prftclically nndoft'iidrd, ALd Ujui- 
mnfl, dngged ibrth to tliir rBtii|> of ilin aiuc^uoror »t Uio third milutune 
flom th« oity, WAS tb«ro fiiit ta de^th. 

JjMtly, in tho year tn^, AtEit&, nith bJa t«rnbJe horde of QobOi 
dmg^irig ih'} chief Tentoutc nntioaA <>{ KiLro]>e in their Ir&in, crowrd 
tho Jiihfiii A\[n. hnd mmlo his apiimrrxncL- before AquIhTia, Tho 
inhabitiintH rt^alt^il with the energy of impair, and Attila, aftrr s 
long hluc^kiuli^, wax uboat ttt ntvuidoD the EiL^^vvhun (ivocordiug to 
o >toll'hitowii Jo^nd) lo i'Hikor] up aod bow tb<r etorkft p^*plxriog to 
abkudoB ibo d'Xjmod city. Skilfully (mitiog the Datiiral OQicu to 
ncfnnnt, be ndliad hh &iddior»^ fcir niiolhpr rutd a dcnpfimlo ftwnlt. 
which wtfl Muocc^sfith Td hi« barborous fnry &I the tenacity of the 
dufonoe he pot all tbo iubobitaiiteT umr\, women, and c^bildren, to the 
svton1| and (heo gftvo thoir city to th« ^n-aitt^. According to it loeat 
legend, a grmt monud at the uei|;hbaiu'ing cdty ft Udino vi'oa rained 
by th<T lIunB in cn^cr thnt tliair king niight frmn tho top of it llitf 
botl^T bobold the burning of Aquileia' 


o« J^*fA4, tks Pftt9r9or of Veok^ 


a of Vcmoc. From Ct>DO«nliA. Albinnm, PnUTiiim, ftud all 
ti>» twVA and Tillagcri akiiig Uie Ai^rijUtr thf>rD tJie inlikljituDlH fled 
ia pa&o to tU« ttjgttKie«,iuid fbvra b«tvMii •«« uTid Akx, u|>oti tlio little 
litelt vlddb olnlor ronod tbo Eitdio, Iboj fou&d«<l Uioir u«w witlo- 
mmI vU(b WM <mo d$.j to 

k** Ml iht fWtKcooB OMt i& tott 
And bo tiiA ategVLnl oC lh« n vL" 
Aqoilcn acrsr r«gKiii«t dtW her connncrdnl or jmlitifBl impurt 
m. E^lMiMtipOkUj, however, flh» «m 11111 h«Id in bonoor, end 

bar Alhftrdk wae for ooqIotim <akO of Uio moot povifrful spintnal 
fuktv ui Iko north of Itftlj. A iobd of rir^ patnarcbato wm 
iadttcd ftobluihcJ nt Gndo on iho «c& cout^ undor tbo proU^tiLru i>r 
llie BjMiitiiio EmjiMvni, whiltr tlio LombArdA on ihts tniLiTilAnd 
pwlt rt «d Iho Ptttrwoh of A(raiJ«ifl, but m tho ood A^nileU proT&ilod. 
na oalbodnil of A^iulcno, micb wm roincii in the toQtli oonliirj, b a 
vbUt baDding in tlur Ifomuuaqno tijhy v>itli «i>mo cIamjcoI coluimui, 
noWbl/ talsaQ inwi n bulht^ ttttople, with n grunping of »miH toe 
Mbofa uid prMbftoro romict the P*triu^h, xom^tbiug lika ttiAt 
v^ich b POitu ftt Ti^tvolio, viUi n cr^t iTt vrhich i« tho tomti of St, 
BcrMi«|[OMi. Iho 6nt biahon of AqatloA and Ulcifoi oontcmnoniry of 
Ihi Aportia*, And wiiU « hiuii gu1jleH:niw:itid c^ampanilu dc^UdiuJ fruin 
Ihoftdnhodjr of IhArliTirrii. 

Tho TillaffOf or t^ «p«Ak moio accitrttcdj, ihtt tbro^> villagofl whicli 
te^ttKa:^ tho niiiifl t>i Aqxiilfia, ore of a luoftn am! aqimlid njipcor- 
IBB^ iftd M WB* vud &L tbu WgmuiBg of tliiji j«i>or| c«jut*in in'ijbably 
Hlfla nwre Ihvi n LuuJKdih <;f Iho pupuUliuu cif Qio auciuut city. 

IT. m\ 

Via. XII. (No. 8LJ 


0^%tf4ii M^vtUily JfrfCJAf. 



UoniUy, JuV 4, 1897. 

Hkhhv PoLtoOB, B«q, Troaeuror and Vioc-ProBident. in tito Clwc 

Harry Ttiil^ert GrtiliUD, E»q. 
VQTQ «kctod MomboM of tho Royal luAlitulioo, 

The foUovin^ LeLUr cvu rMl:— 

"I Lava biiJ t'ifl lloinir l» Iav btfin' Tim QiKim EIik f'lml luitl Jultfiil 
■^Addre^ At Ihc I'mj^jml nnd ^lemUrfl nf llir ll^^'V^I infitftuLnti of Gnftt 
"UriUih (^n tUo •■fcivniin nf Jl^r Miij4<ity aUninirkg tlit FifNnth ¥(«* of Usp 
" Rn^ifn ;— And 1 hftvn I^ inlOrm jum ifi«t H^r Hiijiwtj wu pIpMOri bo notktp 

" tljo unia Tcry (Tuciuiuljr. 

~ I bare thv llrrnnr la bc\ 8(r. 

"* Vuur «UiliaDl 8cmut« 

TLc Spwt&l Tliiuikfl uf tliu MumlMn wore rebiu'Einil fur tLe ful- 
lowiDg DoikftticiD (o Ibe yinirl for tlie PnimcitioTk of KtpBrlniPiiUJ 
RoBQft»]i: — 

LiiitwiK Mend, Eeq. £100. 

Tlio FuReKKTe received einoo tho liuit McAtiog ircru Jud on ibo 
lablos oEid tliij ilukukfl of t)v> Mtiiabura n^tunivd for iha aAEoo, rit. : — 

r^fl Goimrof-i^'tf'io'al */ /nffi<t— Gcologioil Butvoj of tiiiLa ; Kcoord*, VoL XX. 
T^r Sferrtiiry a/ ftinti' for Itaha—Otml Tflgnnftmotr|«J Snrvj of ladJK, 

Vol. IV, A. 4t*». use, 

^Frian'cin A/^ttt/ny of AtU aniJ S^ervift — MoiD'fin) Vi?L, XI. I'ftrt 4, Ko. 5, fto^ 

f MUJb 

Pmrmtlnpi. Vol, XX[[. Tirt I. Hto. ISH7. 
AtPrririin AtmMrmtivn/ffr fkr AdiytnixiiuritvftitnthB^^^l'lWVKAiutfM, Vol».XXXlV. 

Atiaii^ So^viif. Jtotjol (^htnnUsff Bnifu*h}-^finntiil^ Vu[. XVIII- dim Xuiabtf, 

IWH-Ii. Kv-o, UtS-7, 
-<*rmftOflirf/rt: Jvn-^f ry, /^oj/fl J —Mnntlily Notice-*, V<>l. Xl-TII. Nn, 7. «vra, ItBj. 

^IrtnA^rji. In'iitntfl ^Z-^uurQEiI. Vul. VIIL PiljI U, Hto. IKbT^ 

B'-niifO'a /rj''£^';;''n<dd4'#0rhi'ii>N— ]ijtp»ilif^PcQuaFt<»rly Cur LomlouKml Hobitrbi, 

K*. I. iWK I*.i7. 
nnfuA Ir'Air'r'i, Rtijui lutlituir n/— FrowrilillfA, 1AniV-7. Ni>. IIT. Un 

O^Hfrat JfoftfA/y Mrtiinf^ 


Joiiiwtl of 8al«i» fif JuTk^ I MT. Stn 

AOMMmforJaiMs)^' <>o- 
Ch^iniy««ilDvjBD^ IMT. 4ul 
OcaM And IttVfgM far Jma, Ism BTO. 
^Hmv ftir Jvu 107. Ciil- 
■^hinirij. for J«u*> Uer. fbl 
Oorolagk*] Joonal fcr Jqba. ItflT. ^Tt^ 

Iriq (nr JoTxv IKKI, 4tA 

Uarmj'm MaeuJCD Am Jm^, 1M7. 9m. 

tofttc BciPPHflque to Jwncy 1867, Ito, 

mniiinn rmiTii Tiiiiii. iffr 4t& 

Titw»pbfa JfiOBkl fttf Jurt^ IM. «t«. 

ZoDtiflM ftr JoDf, IfUO, 4l>i 
%*t«T*w. AMar (/— Oiblv Dr Bvpv Tnothn. Bt J. B, Sioitlj. 4to. 1887. 
fVi^ W l W il W fl JfajJftMb a»rra;e— LoligtiEQ^ Num. 3t, X, Sto. 1^7. 
ft ii H i Jm*<M» Jowmal, »<i 79ft Kro. ]8tf7. 
HiiMJfg<lJferiJ» iff^vJ— P»C«*dl4ig>. Now borUu, Vol. IX. Xo. 6 fm 

Itiriah dior^i^ Udlnwlitim iCm iErJmnnt— Anrljlvis KtWiUu^lHiWA. Tcimu XXI> 

Kblmfauilif* VdluituUiDiinn, ndv Vm, Bc«l IV. 4^o gtok. Ito. lABT. 
/iA«i irv|ilfl'ii>Tii^f«r^iy^AiiK-ricqD JouobI of Pblblogf, Vol. VUI. Ko. 1 

Vff« IJOC. 
IkUry *f rUklA* fTvAai. /rnw-^ltofmU dd OitqJd (:|fL^ ^rln QnlDtA> 

Vol, LXO.& eta. AadDiHviL ful, 1997, 
MmmmUfkKm Omumtmrm ikr EutwtMifn fJra^mfWftfiKr— Gvod^tiKh* ArlKitoa, 
i£a&. 4Ul 1SV7. 
Vil>iamid«rt<*rii«toa»r, Ban 4. 4(n iftfT. 

WffaMfi ' aJ £0Acrf nf Qnea Britain— Joan*}, Juuc^ 1667. fira 
fb««*MftAHMr-^wnu].Vr>l, Xt SVfl. gtCL IB^. 
flpWvTtfMiMjr ^ £«ilon^P»«Ddiii|-i. Vol, VIEJ. Fori 4, Svo. 18S7. 
A^A<rM»y CiwAtft— PmoMlLp^ Nni £>|, ?h^:i Sm I1^A7, 
MJMlAMtte— 1H^|jgu«.V<J, nr^ftnL 11-ia 4(o. IdM-T. 
PretMd^pi^ Vol V. Pxb B-^ 9r» I^^^T. 
f'tttn^v^ A<Q^tmi0 impiHaU d40 Atinr^-BaHctin, Tome XXXt. Vo,4. 

m «>M* 0/ Aiemea, Awot— PhUfilofflwhl^iitorlKha CLaw: Atihuidlun^ 

HalUnAUach'pbTWMbeCliW*: Abluudlui^gfii, Il4iid XIII. Nnf. 8. &. Bra. 

ttoL lias. 

ISO OmmU Jtftml^ M^ng. [Jul/ 4, 

Socidv of Artt-^maal, Jtnift, 1887. Sto. 

ToMJoama, Ro^td Sovidy of—Ymn md Frooeedlnp for IflSfi. 8¥0. 186T. 

XMiUd 8trvic9 InttU^im^ Jtoyol— Jaumil, No. 139. Bvo- 1687- 

VftHed Staiex Qtoiogiad ^my— Uooogrmpli X. 4ta. 1SS6. 

Fer9('n» mr fi^ffltviarBnjy d«t Ottotrhflettte* in PrtM*Mii*-Vorb»iidInngwi, 1887: 

Heft 5, 4to. 
Fu^^orid Jiu^'liUd— Joaruat oT TntjautiooA, No, 81. 8fo. 18S7- 
Tale Univcrtitu, Nett Haven, U.S.'—TmatBtunui of the Ajtnmomical ObacTTmlorT, 

Vol, I. Part 1. 4to. 18S7. 
Zoologiedl Soeiely of Xmdcn— Proeeedingf, 1887, Fart 1. 8vo. 

O mura X JlMf% Mtiimg. 



Elmund GcHsc, E^q. M,A. 
F. H. LuwiH. Ettq. 

mvltcM Komlian of tlio Rujal TDfttltaMon. 

IV MtfMgnra rwikfirWtfl tbat t1i>^y Iind (ubTiittnl Mr, Hfirlwrt 
^ifiiit tM KU Anoiuil SnbMribor of the Rojal InstitutliiEi. 

n* fl|ifirUl ThfLTiln tif ihn ^lumhant wata rRlnmed to Mr. 
MMm of Orion, tho pfocwrtr of hia Uto fjvthcr* Mr. Chorion 

1^ Bp^'^ Tbuikfl of the Hombarv wem tttnmcd to Mr. 
niiMi Ami— If I, }f^.L fur Lib prvsDut of a Duulilu Aotiiig HigL 

Tlw SpoeUl Tluiik^ uf llitj Muiubors went rrfturnnl in tlEu Ro?. 
ithn Ifwomdil, 3f.AJl for bl« proMiit of £50 for IniprOTomouU in 

n« PftliSKTt rocolvoj rincfl l}i(t ImM M««1[ng ir«r« buil on lb« 
HUl^ and tb« IbAuks of tbo McmborE icttiznod for U^o 8Ckm<s vit. i— 

tiwi<iwiA gp<ctia>«pM *»! l'tifttoBr*plJ>< Itnalta. ]»(A. 4lo. IKtf7. 

ITnMVted Lnn IteZT- By 0[r O. ft. Airy 4tn. IHHti. 

avi«tcB0faRnidtnB«ribiTrui]dtofV(-nu:^l»i2v n>L IfJST. 

Jir/nj -f *^" — ' '^'-'' . T.T.ji. *_jj.>_ . i>, 1 > 1,^^^ twtl. Sn, 

-lijajrrfn Jt* '' — ", *—'-_ ^'— *■*■■ ' "- CIluac at HaiiiiBii Iktursli, ^bjriolio 
arilolW^b*--ll«rl««*, Vol, ILlVrrn^'. 4Ur. ]KWi>7. 

r«B.i.t,a. Br», is>r. 

TWUnb]g|«BdlaUon<i4UH>XmilfrU3u^ nfi4LRl«<r. I*v{>, iSnr. 
jUtMeSeei^Mtifii-~»maA. Vol. XIX, r^i 4. Rvo. im. 
tgihifnilulrfirf/ ffn/Tf TimmTl. V ! 1 '^T Pctt I ^h 1 8rx 1887- 

tSe*i^^ /te^fOkimoBran^) — JoaniAl* Vcl XXL NoiL3r6. flva I4ML 

16a Qenenl JfoiOiUf MMting, [Not. 7, 

Atuiralian MuKum— Report fbr 1BS7, fol- 1887^ 

Saker. Benjamin, Eto. M- Irai, C.E. M.R.J, (tht ^ufJhrr)— Bridnng tlifl Firth of 
ForttL With UJuetratUuLi. [Lecture deliTcrod ftt the Bo;al InBtitatkn.] 
4l'>. 1867, 
Baiikfn, Infti/utf ti/—J<mTBaij VoL Till. Part 7. Svo. 1887. 
flflrarfun Academy o/$ci«aee4 — Abhindlungen, Bond XVL Abtheilong 1- AirK 
BitzuDgsbcrichte. 1886, Haft 1-3; ISST.HaTtl; InhAltiTeneiohDlM, ISTl-^fi. 

8m 1836-7, 
Oedbchtaiarede auf J. vod Fnanhofsr. 4ta. 18S7- 
Bfiiiiqai^. Aonddfaff dn Seienfa, Ac. — HtfmoiTM. Tome XLVI. 4lo. 1886. 
AiviDoin-BOourontK^Tom^XLTILXLVIIL 4to. 1866, ToUMi SXXTl. 

XX XV! 1 1. XXXIX. 8m 1886. 
Bulletins, a* Sorie. Tomea IX.-XIII. &vo. 1885-7- 
AnnuiLirfts Ifcl^fi and iSfiT. 16lo. 
Nolit^ Bingraphiqnca, ke. 1886. 16to, 1887. 
CatflLogus doa LiTrca do la tiihUolh^quo, Pnrtie 1^ 2- 8to, 1881-7. 
Brituh Architfcta, Ratfol IngtUvXt o/— P™ooedin«, 188ft-7, No*. 17, 18; 1887-8L 
No, 1- ito. 
Knlealar, 1887-8, 8vo. 
Srymiifr, UouoLu, £m, (jlrchictiJ) — Report oa Canfediaa ArchiTflS, 188& 8to. 

Caaada MeteortHogirnd S^vUe^'^^n^ 1884. 8to- 1837. 
Chfmicai Socttf^if— -Jonnial for July-Oct. 1887, 8ro. 
Chur^ill, Matn. /. and .i. (fu PuAJiih«r#) — Joomml tft LaryDgolog]' M>d 

BhiDglofty, Nos. 7-10. 8to. 1887. 
aty of London CW/^^e— C*lend«, 1887-8, 8m 1887, 

Civil Enginare' Itutitviion— MiaiLiiB otTpxeodiogAtYoh. I^XXIX, XO. 9ro. 
Lint of Memben. 8vo. 1887. 
CUaical Society- Tn^uaac^ona. Vol. XX, 8to. 1887. 
ComffciU Polfftef^nie Society. Ifoyal^Annfiml Report, 1888. Bto. 1887- 
Cri$p, Frank. E^. LL^. F.L£. ^c. M.RL (the Editor) -JaoTDBl of tlu Ronl 

Slirnweopiqai Sftciutv, 1887, Parla 4, 5. Ato. 
Dai. Sociitg df liordti^^uWvMa, 2^ S«ria, Dooxi^e Ann^ Trimeatn 3*. 9vtx. 

Eait Ifulia AetodaL-on^oamtA, VoL XIS, No*. 5, 6, 7, 8to. 1SS7. 
Editort — AmerioHo Jauraal of Soimce fbr Joly-Oot- 1887. Sro. 
Analyst for July-Oct- 1887. 8vo. 
Atlitnreum for Julj-Oct. 1887. 4to. 
ClU'micfll NfWH for July-Oot. 1887. 4to. 
CLcraiat siid DrugeiPt fot Jnly-Oot. 1887. 8»o. 
En^neer for July-Ott, 1887. fol, 
EngiDc^ring for Jnly-Ool lii87. t(A. 
Horological Journal for July-Oet 1887. Svft 
InduHlrioB for July-Oct- 1S«7. fol. 
Iron for July-Oct. 1887. 4to, 
Miirrajr^B Magazine for Jnly-Ocl. 1887- Sto. 
Nature for July-Oet, 1887. 4to. 
Kovue Soitntiflquo for Jnly-Oct. 1887. 4to. 
^LcnliflaNowifor July-Oct 1887. 4to. 
Ttlotiraphic Journal for July-Oet. 1887. 8v(K 
ZoophiiifltforJuly-Oot.lS87. 4to, 
^' Eiiginffrin^J' Editor o/— The Mfltallur^ of BiWor, Oold» and Hetcnn ia th< 

United States, By T. Egle^lon. Vol. L Svo. 1887. 
Florence. Bit>lioteoa NaxionaU Cmfrvfe— Bnlletino. Num. S6-12. Sto, 1837. 

Codici I'Hlatini, Vol- I- Fobc. 6. 8»o. 1S87. 
Foniffn Office — Catalogue of Printed Booka in the Library, 31 Deo. 1885> iUf. 

<^«v«/ JBfiifJUy JTMf I'sf > 


CJ^gM gag<«y^ Jltoyl-P^OMrdiflffh Kffir fecriw, Vol, PL So^ 7-^10. tro. 
flilfcjfarf fAAti^ Ji^frt^. FiMu-^ftEjrfmch, Il4n<t XXXVII. U«ft K ffro. 

GmtmSi i . Jhali Jjai<i^-A».. Vi>l. IX, ^up- : Vol X, Uup, 1, a, «t<L iSSit 7. 

fmaUa»li-4if>il«— Jcnnul.iaa7.K<L J. 6to, 

AW iMw EUtAWy— AiMdttB Jovuit of Fbikaogr. VoL Tm. Kl S; 
««n. IBRT. 

ftwTfaM OMttkal JnomiL VM ix Vm. 5h «. f>- Hfa- IR^. 

MvHMtnHtottvHalftnd rcHtl.>lAcii.(ihr-,F3riiiS<riN^KM,»^fk, »roL IMT. 



JfNMr— JcarML Ko«. U?. mi. 1VA l^kA l^9. Svo. iSflT. 
nvMAlDn^ E^eJfigT Vol. IV. l^ru 1 ULd 3 . JbUUT VoL IL Futa 9-14, 

Pr«ModuNC<.K«-l£«3^JuM>lfle7. 8te. i68e-T 

JmLWiitk.zxx.-xi,nr. 8to, i^i-r. 

fttfWp>| fiwM^-IHiuiLotiou*. VoL SIX IWn ft-10. ^o. ISST. 
JTifwfiHW lU Js>*, r««f— DiMuno pof B. P. K. R VdASqqca * UvUv. 

HvUWAkrf riiinnAMl niaJVtt— TftnimctlMUi, IfiMT. Kro. 
a AvAMO^JJwMvlftrA— rraw«dbe>. J't^T. X<r ^. 8ru. 
lUbri««ddyFW«4M]aMW«, Amr--Prooc«dmn,X(>. L«. Srw. IS«7. 

T>HA0li(m Vol! LXX. «ta I^T- 
Mtrn'tiajtrd ftfU-Boarty HMJingiy 1891, Part 4. 4to, IS»T. 

Knvtkrr WmOMtf KfMt lir Dh. I7*M IIal 

QMrtttiT WMlfaetlUiwirUtHnLriutl; laT^.TSrll. tto. 1887. 

ir«Uj VMbtrBapoH*. V(4, [VhK»12-^. I(o. lEflZ 
ii^tWffcaf gfln'A, Bayuf -tJTtartfjlr JcmmnL Km. flV> 6a. Sra. 1887, 

MiAMiniwkal ll*x>nl, Sol ii-SC gv<i. IBtfT. 

HIM* 10 Vib^milnfftaiJ OTiftimtni. Bjr W. Mi^irkU. ftvn. tAM7 
JhUn ^ PaUlr Trcjrti, Rcmw— QbrDBlc t]i:l Ovtiio atUv. 8orlu QuiutftL 

Mk«|JUCUB«^wM^'of^'.-JaiirQ4l,Vp|, i.:ifl,3. Ik. ]«^7. 
Kw|b«a iTflk* GotvTTXr^r ¥«tf Book «r Now >k>iitt^ Wdot. ]St7. »<tu, 

Vdi. XXXVl. ra«u:L4. 8t.i. 1B97. 
'ml\mti fliilili rhiiniiiiiDanT rminiil. lA^, I'l^tn 1. £. 8ttj. I6e7> 
WililiffLJ SmM «/ OrMrf iMiar<»-Tr>D.aoticriu. Vol. XIX, So. ». Xo^r 

lvl«i. Cm Im. 
hhf, bvL It X ^.irX lU' jlMfAorWRmnllt of M#tAnvnlngi<*A| nfirl MdbwUl^kI 

r»itM**u. 1BW6. lam ]«nT. 

rWmjtf]' uf Juii'llu v/Chtnl Diitaiii — JooTikkl. Juty-Oot. l!^£7. Sfo. 
rW«j4KA>aUy-Joanial Vol Xt. Vj.O; V0LXII.X0. t. Bvo. HdT. 
*"iiiit) iriilmri ihi rViirini^iT^Tiii frilninciUiinlili "I" '"'Tl*! 8r<\ 

iiUM'okmitffff— BuloltA ObpprratiouR fiiT 18A4. ftvn, 18^, 
«»4fA>or^C>Wr(^vy-iU>riil«,K«.^G.V,S. Vtv. 181(7. 

184 QenettU MDmOdp MteHmg, [Nor. 7, 1887. 

Roya! CvUf^ of BaryeoMM of Emgland—CaAaoAax, 1887- 8to. 
Roi/al .'^oettlj, of Gijiadd— PrMe«diDg> wid Tr«B>*DtMiu, VoL IV. 4to, 1887. 
Ffj^il St^ly o/LoA^foH— Pmc««diiiA« Nol Z5G, 257, 258. 8m 1887. 
^lu^n SocUlff of ScUnoea, Boj/at — PJiiloloKiKh-hulcaliohe CIaam: AhhawJIm^ 
gen. Band X. Ni>. 5. 8to. 1SS7. 
Rrifhle. lS87,Sos.l^3, Sro. 1887- 

iUibtmatuwh-phfoiBche Clane: AUundlonecD, Bud XIV. Noi. 1-4. 8*0. 
Smith, BoMiI Woodd. E»q.— UiddJcMx Condtj Boxuda, VoL IL Edited 

bf J. C. JnLSi¥«a. Std. 1887. 
tsmfthmniaji iTUlilutioR — Bcifotifio Wrilingf of JoKph Honrj. StoU- 4ta. 1886. 
AnDoal Report for 1885. Purt 1, giro. 1S86. 

SniilhooDJaD BlkHeilaDeooa Colleatioii^ Voli, XXVIIL ZZIX. XJUL BVK 
Smttij of ^rfi— Journal, Jnly-Oot 18S7. Bto. 
fytatirtical &ciWy— Journal VoL L- Part a BtO- 1887. 
T^tjraph /rjigi>j«rB, Boriety u/— JflumBl, No. 67. Svo. 1887. 
rfcfi/. CAar^ Meymott, Erq. SS.B. F.C-8. M.U.I. {O^ .ivlWir)— Hmodbook of 

Simlem Chemiairy. Inor^^aDia and Orcuiifl. find td. Std. 1887k 
Vnitwl Scrciof LuiittUioat Royal — JoomalT No, 140. 8to. 1887. 
Uuile't Sfafrv GetAvpicat >$iirn^— Ballctins, Noo. 34-B9. Sva I88fi-7. 
Fffiif=pjf^i, Om^uf yor— CorreBpondeuoG between ttiB VenemelAD Gorvniiwat ud 

U.B.U.'a Gi'veinment. fol. 1887. 
VtreinK itiT BfJ^rdtntng del G«iHrt.deu«u in Pmuv* — Vflrbandlimgeik, 1887: 

Heft (J, 7- 4lo, 
I'fW'rWd JqW'Vbft^— JoqthaI of TraiuutioEu, No. 82. Sto. 1887. 
irnjiwrFrie Jiiaf/VHtfo/&i>iiee,PSr7(»A;pAKi— Tf«iiawitioTi«,Vol.L finx 1887. 
Yvrkthire Arckxehgiml and TWigniDJttoai ^oocufton — JomDBL Put 88. Stol 

ZwAogi&il Society of London — Procwding^ 1887, Puts 2, S. 8to. 

~.f >. 

KtfS^l fitstitattQn of Great Sntain. 

;ej%ebal MoyruLT vbktikg, 

M LA Bo, E«). BLA. D.OX. F.a& Yiot-FtmJigtL 

Violor Hml^. &q. P.B^ F JLC^ 

Itn. Ykrbir Hot«l«T. 

Gm^ Linaaj' J^moq, Ee>]. UB. MM T.^&JXS. 

■meleelsi Ucnbon of tlw Sojil Im Umi wu 

n« apteU Tbitila of Oo V«Ab«a« wm rslVMa to Sv llBatT 
EkcLTna, H3.L fitf luH ynmtat of Two '^DoBbott'' Flnylvo. 

TW faflowiag LootdJo AnMig«mw>*» wtra Miaoiaod :— 

i&BoUKT IIVAVtU B4U,LUUrJ£AIBMti AMwo^g rf lirfwil 
«i IiatiMwi («lutad lo a Javnito Avlitflrr) «a AanascMfr: UN «^ 
ftii. riMXi. Oonciw ni am*. On l>fd7 (TWvrfqrX E»m mn, l»7; 

*ivo« AW» Avfiv DAKvtn^" On fWHioA Jab. IT ioll«i^ K 

Uvm UMO«n,]^ JUL AJUL sUila ITifiMar •€ OT^ Art U tb* 
CUpiBrtV itf Oiftid^'nm Udtmrm on TW^iii. Jak. H^ Tn W^un 

fa«M ^ Ju. A Ml Vum iv Ab^4C4; Wt. S. An Ercatiu>, 

C UiavT H, r^ktT, >>(i. U-A. Pra0MM oT HwlcU I£i«lai7 aDd Com- 
N««A *t Ite 8«;«1 OiOltto el lCnd«.-Fk>« UMvm od Kuut &weu« 


JlM, Low fiUTUtu; KA. UCL. LL,tX PES. JLAX^Snoi 
OQ KmnniKKTU, QRub <il|iutnt«d bv Kl«ln> Llghiy On 
, JAtltolUiebl 
WtU4*M AaoEMK Ea|-«-lbr«e Lecimrta <xi Tu Ucjdjoji Duma ; Froicti, 
T^tHiiTiin Trnitrnr'f^ On S^a r J ^^ Haicb 10. 17. «- 

ttib, And Um» Ihuki of tho UtsabvMnWiiod&r thoMnw, vu.^— 

n- <.'««#ni«r-<;Aural <^ J«4to*Gwk«1«U ttomy ot India : K«oo(d«, Toi XX, 

»lU>«luH8a 0bL IS97. ^ 

ia»|i«faM£AM^£nCha>M<--Att|, fittioQiMria: BcaJiMtJ. Tol. III. 

J^t^inl ftopi^f nS fiK'O"^ ibit/al-Jmtniml, ^(MOnd SoHh^ Vol. XXUt 
rWi 1. RtD. 1437. 

Ax^tei^-Af^nkKia, Vol. L. ?k^ 3, lli^ im. 
£MrfKiE>V>l-lloolbWNcli<«..VoLXLVILND,a SroL 1S8T. 
XuMWi*^-Joanal,V«L VJU, IWtO. %\^s 1887. 


186 Gcnsral l^onihly MeeUng, [De 

Brili^ Arthiitfit, Rayal Institute a/— PmccediuES. 1887-8, Not S, S. 4ta 
Co'fil'ri'h'i Phihi'^-tihi'al ;>oriV^ j—l'mcoedingB, Vol. VI. Purt 2. fi*o. 1S87. 
C/reni>ml AVh/^— Jstumol for Novein>>pt, 1887. Svo. 
ChnrrhiU, JUcMr*. J. ami A. {the FuUitheni) — Journal of lArjitgologj 

Uliinol"Sy. Nn, II. g^o. I8S7, 
Dcii'}i*hire Atforintiott for the Adpatiftmeat of Saience^ Liltratttre, owf i 
lEoT^rt jinJ TmiiAciinna, Vol XIX, 8to. 1887. 

Tl.« Dt-vnnBliiro Dnnipctday, Pnrt 4. 8vo, 1887, 
E'tit'-ri — AmtTi&in Jourun! of Science for Noveiuber^ 1887- ito. 

Analy,-«t fur N'ovembor, 11^87. 8to. 

Arrhiii-cti' It4?gister, Svo, 1HH7. 

Atliuiifl^um for NoTember, 1887. 4to. 

CliL-micul tiwi for NavenilH'r, IS87- 4tr>, 

Cli+^Eni:at untl Itnigpiftt for N'f?embcr, ISS7, Sfo. 

KMi:iTi(*er for Novembi-r, 1887. iol- 

Kii^tiireriiLg for NovembiT, 1887. foL 

llnrolciKicul Journal for Xowmber. ItW", 8vo, 

ladustheH for NoTLiaber. 1887. foL 

Iron for Novcniber^ ISS7. 4to. 

Miirrny'fl Unpaiina for Norembof» 1887. Svo. 

Nolan' ti'T November, 1887. 4to. 

Eovucr Sci^ntiflque for No7omber« 1887- 4ta 

Jjvieiitifio Nowa for Novtmlior. 1887. 4to. 

Toloempbic Journal for November, 1887- 8to. 

Zimftbilifll for Novembor, 1887- 4to. 
Fi'Mvure, BiUtntara NarimaU Cfnirnfc— Bolktinn, Sum, 4-4, 45. 8to. 188 
Fr<niJfliu lull Hate— JnumttU No. 743. 8to, 1887, 

GtoijnitfJii'^ Skfci'ti/, Rtiyal — Procenlinga,NcwS^Hriee,Tol. IX. No, 11. 8»o. 
<il'i*^,-ir I'h'lmvtphifil Stycifly — Procct^iincfl, VoL XVIII. 870. 1887. 
lliKtt'ricil So'.-i'-l^, lioi^at — AJt^laml and Napnlmn in 1805: De^mtchefl of 

^Vhitwortli jinii iitlivn. Edited b^ Okot Browning. 8to. 1887. 
Lte. Jli-urtj, Ek'I- M-IiJ. (th*i Aiifh*fr}—OD tlie TApftum Lncidum a&d iha I 

tion of tbc Fourth Pair of Nerros- 8vo. 1SS7. 
Mii'frai Gopfninunf. Crifral t^uaeam — Report, 1886-7. fol. 
Mpl'-ori'loiikal OJice — Hourly Biadin^i, 1885, Part 1. 4to. 
^.r) guj.rtr'riy W&.thLT R.-jwrl. 1879, Part 2. 4to. 

JUid'Jl' rtx Xuturtil UittOTff and Scii-nee Sitci*4\f — Tnusactionfl, I8SG-7. Svo^ 
Miiii^Tij 0/ PuMh Wtirku, JfoMc— Rioruftle del Gouxo Civile, Serie Qt 

Vol. LNoa. D, 10. 8vo, And Diai'gni. fol 1887. 
rfiiirimiajU'/'"f AjcVCw of Gniit Brtlaiit — Journal, November, 18S7. Rto. 
Itadel'fe Lit/rorif^Ch-fQrfl — CiiIiiIo-;ut' of tlie Tramtactiyua of Societies, Period 

jiml Moni'iirri. iili EiL 8vo. 1887^ 
Jiichiinltf^n. li. W. MJ>. >'.R.A'. {the AMthor)—Tho Aaelepiad, Vert. IV. Ni 

Sin. 18K7. 
Hio ih J'ti^ini OU' rm/on/— Rovista. No. 10. Svo, 1887- 
fit. F''ttrtf'"nrg, Aroilemtn JinjjcWafe dot Sciencet — Mcmoirw, Tome XJ 

Nob. 2, :i. 4ta I8S7. 
SojoH Suriiti/ 0/ S/'ten^^'fii. /i''j^"J~l'lii1ologiBch-LiBtoriiicbe GLuwe: Abhani 

^'U. Itithd X. No. 6, 8vo. lsS7. 
Sof-i'tif oT.'lrt^— Jounittl, N"veniln'r, 1887. Svo. 
T.^ihvJU'itema. W-mr^eir*— Ari'hJvi^ Sir. II. Vol. HI- P Partic, 4to. 1887 

I 'i<tAlr>;;ur di* Ll l^ibliotljoipio, Liv. 5, C. 4to. ]88l>. 
r,,ilrd .'vTv/'v JutstifiUiof,, J/oj/o/" Journal, No. 141. Svo. 1887. 

lii-J<\t»-Ioimial, V^ilrt, XXI.-XXX. Hvo. 1887, 

Jtrirf HisUtv i.nhc Ini^lihJliiin. lly ('apt. J\. huf^ea. Rto, I8B7. 
I'lii/'-./ >iliit'S fwt'J'Hiir'il ^iin-' ij—Fitf-i Atnniitl Hi-pi^rL 4to. 1880. 
rfinif. Hf^alSf^-rrlfft-fAi^H'tn -Noua Acta, Sir. III. Vol. XIII, FasC. 2. 4to. 
Vfr-'ti" zftr II' /'"fitruiiii lUs (isi^rhfkufu Ih Preiitttn — VeriiaadluQgea, ] 
nat^. 4to. 

XorJ JImj/iagk m Dt^raeti^ *tf SmuhL 


WiuiAv llocoixs^ Es^. 1>.CL. LLD. F.ILa VtccKlVtviacot, 

lUglt HoiL locD RATLDofl. SLA. D.CX. LU1> F.B.S, JV.fiJ. 
pHrBHH » utnuL munnT. lx 

of iLn nlilMt vbfnii t pmpnut b< TiHng b0fi)n yon ibU 
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tf oar teboob oul tui[t«rdt{«« o»n VJI ^llhl^ nil \\\i\vil ii; yet tluv 
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MnilBly njcdoJ tbc wnro Uluifj of tight c>ii tho ^iMLiiiil lliut 
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to do. TlKt fact iJiat this diffioiilty i^ooaiut tu Nc^ou k> be 
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loMB ago U QO difficnllj Tiunr. It ii veil buowii ttiat llio ^TiL^fdioii 
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v^Tc^lcn^tb of C in tho middJi: of the mtLMcchl eccib i^ abral 1 fuit, 
H« vaT^]cc|;lL uf tl}V li^bl nitti ivLioIj nu bre iifiuuUy 4v>iii>nm(^j), 
Aa Ugbt Inv^nU iTia ii)llillf» i>f thn fi|irH^lnim, U AU:)tit ttiu forty- 
HottoOiltb of oA ioch. TIjo remit is thut an nh^tiu^lif ivliicih ih 
MuMoly Urge f(Jt bifht tQiLy bo i<ry fitooii f<Jt voniid. aijU ^vtjl 
Ihf ogj r u Wb*vn in a diSbrcot Lonuucr. 

That lighb«tiu1om an Hhorr la n ftknttlUr ftwl, bnt hh 1 cmi prove 

it A t mumont I viU Jo «o^ Wn hnvn hirro Hi^ht fnini tbo oJuotrio 

D* IbtoVB ««L 1]|« umion : nnd if 1 hnitl ui^ nxy hj^itil tli[]A w« 1iat« a 

te]> ohodow ol any uoiilcmto disUnoci, vrhich shad^rw ciin )■? ujikIc 

Q 2 


Lor^ Haj^igh 

[Jut. SO, 

J hftvo nid, ftro iu>t oftf D shnrp ; bat I baliovo thai tlic/ tru ibarptr 
tKiLTi ia wuiillj luppHod, Uio PcAton bdug tbat nhoD v« pMn into » 
pijijtu]*9l]Ali>w— witiu. for exftmplc^ w* poM luto lb« hLiuIu of a Ifergt 
oLsImIc, Midi ui a bnibling — It rotoirw aomo little timo to eflbci im 
tr«AiJti<ai, and tho oana«i|iiai:LOo U tb&t wo oannot make a tof^ tml^j 
oompftrifOD botwccc tho iulcntitv of tbo aouqcI bofcio wo ^ntor ood m 
dinuDnttoa MftctirjvrdB. M'bcQ tbo oomp&ruroa U rnulo uailer nun 
faT»[trml>1c ooudiliuus, Uiu luult Us ofLeu bcUcr llisjl woubl lufO bwu 
r<i|iiv-t<1. Jl ifl. cif rouTw, InipnAiibU^ t/i prform ccipftHnMiitt wllh 
BQcb iibfltAoUg bofoM ft& andionoOf o&d tho fJiodcrm wbiob 1 bpopoM 
to mhav y<M h>mg^i an <m h mnob ntuJ.lcr ncolo. I abm t^ko 
mdnutafc-c of tUr? nciiBitirciiioM nt % £Umc vucb db i'raGsaMr ^l^rndaU 

80 ttcooMtiugly tiLf^li ui to be iitftndibk to tbo bcmou otv. Li ftrt, 
•11 ttbfr sounds with vlticb I nbAlL donl to-ntKbt irill bo inAodiblo to 
tbc ntidivEuo. I hope ibitt no q»ibb]t?r will o'^>jc<:t th^t thoy (vrc tbcrt* 
fora Dili nnincln : tJiey ktti in every mpccl uuiJoguiiH U> thn ribnUiotxi 
whiob pndnoo tbe cffdiuLr^ fwnaliopfl cf hoiriiig. 

I will noir etui Ibe Mnsitiro flftiao. Wo tDut ^jiut tt to 
MMosoUo d«(7oe of MDatiTCDOM. I itood »c«rooh «ipUin ihk 
iiHxsbunimiL of tboaa tloraoii, wbicb ^n know atd feil from & 8p«cU 
guboMur ttup|iIyiog gne Ht a bigh preeeuru. When tko prctmro u 
toe bi^h, tbu fknii; CLurue an it« own noooitiit (as tbiu otm U douig 
iif>vv), i»jTop<iu(tootlf of ciiL<:nib] d>uiid. Wbfii tbo i«r-:ttiUTo ba aoioe- 
wlint ()ij£tiii]«bwl, but uot U)0 much eo — wbou tbo Huiiio " bluidft oB 
tbo brink nf tho prf^aipipo," wete, T tbiok, TyniJair* votdn — tba 
Hounit putfbot it ovor, ^mt oliisoa it to flare; irheraaa, in tbo ftbMOoa 
of eiioh wuiili rcmioi] or«cl tux^ urJA^ctilod. Not, I bdiive, 
tbo fluiQO t6 diLriai; qqiIot ilio actiuu of a very higb icoto tbat I ttia 
prodiintni? bnm, ^hat cTkTi ho tested id a mameiii by stopping Iho 
aonnd, and iK«mg i^bethor tha fiomo tocovers or not It r«*oovomiov. 
What 1 want to sbon' joq. bcnroTcr, is ih^t tJio sound shx^o^rt tt>y 
bo Tfiry nluhm I viU put ipt boti^ bctvroua tfte flfunc and tbo none 
of MLiiirrilp kiiil ytm will mil' the tliOvr^Doe. Tbi3 Qniao in at present 
flaring ; if T prit my hihuJ bere^ Uio flame rocoTon. When the a^jii*^ 
mcint IB O'lrrcott my Land is r^ suffioiout obfitaclo to Ibroir a moflt 
ooa^piottoua ebado^. The flaTOo Li now !□ tho BboJow of inj liMid* 
anJ it rouovsrs iIa fttpiuiinof« : I miive my liaixi ii|i, thn «ii3iiil Oflirmi 
to tbe flamft RgniTt^ Aitrl it fbiroi« Wtiou tbo oondrtioiui arv At ihotr 
bolt, n Tory emftlJ otrHtiiiibj le sittUoioTil to ninbe tho ocitiro dificnnoCi 
nai a a'>i]nd ebiutoiv jaAf bo tbrcjvn ncroaa auvotsi fvct &om aa 
obslaiJe ais eiitiili (ls tho liauil. Tbo roHsoii of tbo dlvi^rg^ooo fmio 
itnlmiirj expori^iiw hara mrit wtth ia. thnt wbilo thr ha.T\t\ ia a fairly 
large ob^UfAo ia ooniparusoa witli tho wuvo-loDgtb of tbo aomid 1 am 
hot*> ui^iig, it wciuld uot bo dl AufUviontLy birgc obfitaolu ia compariBi>Ti 
yith tbo wavQ-lui^thd wibL whidi wo bttre ta do in onliiiary lilW 


•ft DigwAion of Stmn^ 


Aon tQnm npin tliA qn^slinn vd tlm tm^m-trn^h. 
wBv^eogUi of ttc pMtnd tbat I am astnf( oocv ifi aliont biUf ikQ 
Id^. Tbftt U iiA compldte IcD^'th, und it oorrcBpoEKlji to a note tbat 

«f obUle G bidbg f^MU* fwt, Itio C one or.lav« hUliu tliat in twu T'^l ; 
two ocUTii ftboi!^ OUd foot ; thrfl« ootar^s flbovti, nii Innhn^; f>iir 
octftvcc, tiiroo ifioko* ; flro c«tATO«, ono uid a boif inch ; ds 
vctoTce, throo-qottien «! on inch ; bcUreca tint aihI Uto next ocUro, 
tiiai IB to mj^ iKiwwm «jx md ■»vo ucUtiu nbuvo tuiiMlu C, in thd 
fiiAfi of tlte tfH» tkftt t wiB Jofft nov ni£ns- Tli^re U ti4> itiflit-ulty 
m d«tiRiua£og whfti tbo mTo-lonfElb ia. Tbo motbod di»pou4« vpoa 
a« projMrtiM «f «bAl ftr» ksowD m BUliooivT wmoroD* w&tm as 
«f|M>ftd lo fVOgraVTO Vftvott. If n train of prQgndwvo wut(»i am 
tfuaad to tmpinBa upon n rodoalitig wnll, tlx^m will bb kiui kir^k ur 
nAidid i& lk» feT«nD dir^otiun a Mcccd »at <■! wtvua, ftud tb« 
<tt ey—iiiMI of IhooB hro aota cf wATOi produoos odo mt or «jaIoqi of ^ 
itihcniiy wmvoit tbo ^Ustinctioa botuj^ ibftt, whor«M in ^o odo Mt 
A* ploooo of ncatat oonulcininMati am mritinuan^ cfauigittg uid' 
■■•Ag tliTOlljp •T«V7 poinl, in tbo vUtianjvy w«td« tboro aro 
Mdlo pofalla for Um Moom ijf grcftUvl ocmdeDMtLoa fnudM), luid 
other difltifict uid doftotlv flooptt) £tjr tbo pUcoA of (OwIvhI i^iotiou. 
Ttm pWc« nf gnoloit Tftriatlon of d«ik«ily uxt tljit pliu^'A of ufi 
BOtMD: tfao pU^ of grootait motion aro plu^cc cf no ^nnKtiot] cf 
dtOBtj. Bj tbo opontioQ of ft rodx^Ut, ouob ild tbii buiLrd, wo 
ajptcm of BUtiDtiarT HBVcB, i& ^rblall tho Qodoa lUid Ivupo 

'mi niU obBOTvn tb^l v I bold tbo hm^rd at ditTi^ront diatflTic^ 
lidiiinl, tlio flftoie rueo uid EiUa — 1 cclq bftT\I]7 bold it itU] occ^ugfa. 
1m obo pocilioa tbo flAtno Hue*, fiirUjcr cff it f^tt bgniii ; and u I 
BOtv ifao board b«dc tbo Aaiuo pMBoa conlmuUly from tlio poaiUua 
of iho aode — tho piMO of no moiJoti — to X\m loitp '^r jilac^ti t.f ^^n^tfXKt 
BOtioB AAd no T&ml)oc of ptoMaro. A» 1 ini>vo back iho iLfl|>w:t <kf 
th« ^Mno fihirnTn - ikod ^1 tbo«o obaS|(Ofl atc diicr to tho roli^ti-in of 
Iho ooiaDd^fEBTCp hy tlio roflcotor wbic^ 1 uax boiling. Tbc fl^iuo 
■lltfTwUij ilncks uii] riwa, iu beLkTicmr ilci|irMii1ing EifHiu tlio 
IMitfUt lOlioii C'ftbe uod«« &iid loops. Tbo nod(<« mm^ut 4Lt JtctimtuB 
Ann tbo vvdootLUg uaJI, wbicb M-a or&u i&itUiplo« of ibo f^ubrtut 
of • mTO-bogtbi tba loopn arc, oq tbo otW hatid, aI dlMiLUcua 
bpmtho nflaecnr which ara rdd maltiploa. tiimRtini;; tbnrviforii tho 
noMtiona betvoen tho hMp«. I will iu>ir nbow ytm tbnl u vor^r flight 
M^x >■ cofftblo of utine M a rufluotor. Tlii* in a Bcrtxm &f tiwue 
poper, nnd tbo r^fTcot ml bo opwoot whoa it is buid bcLiTid tbo 
flom o&d Hiv diHiJUNAB an oanMil to T&ry. Tbtt Hhitio }f.\«.^ \\\\ biul 
ioOT^dioyipg thRt ft oantidoi^blo proportion nfthn Hin'>rc»qH tntooiitf. 
IwMonI npo«i Ifao papar «cpooq k rvdooUd back upon Uic flomo;^ 
[rthoririM Ibo oxboi icBitioa nf tho Tcl{c«tor wtwld bo of no mitmcae. 
1 hav* bvo, hoAVti?, ■ diftrunt wirt uf ratln^tor* Tbui id & glrum 
flalo 1 QBO glaai t/d Uiftt tboM behiud luaj aoo tbrough lI — ivd it 


190 Lord BayhHgl [JtD. 20, 

will elide npodb & aUnd hore arranged for it. Whfm pnt in tliit 
poBitioa tbe flame is very little affected ; the place ia vrhai I eali a 
node — A place wbero there in great preeenre TariatEon, bat do vibra- 
toi7 Tclooity. If I moTe tbe glasa back, the flame becomes Tigeitraalj 
OKoited; that position ia a loop. Uuve it back Atill more and the 
flatno becomos fairly quiet ; bat yon aee that oa the plate trarelfl gradn^ 
ally along, the flame goee through these evolutiona as it oecDpies in 
aiiccession the position of a node or the position of a loop. The 
interest of this experiment for onr present purpose dcpenda upon thia 
— that the distances through which the glass plate, acting aa a 
reflector, mnat be HuccessiTely moved in order to paaa the flame from 
a loop to the next loop, or from a node to the conaocutive node, ii in 
each case half the wave length; so that by measuring tbe qiaae 
throngb which tbo plate is tboa withdrawn one baa at once a meaaiiT^ 
metjt of the nave length, and conseqoently of the pitch of the aonnd, 
tUongh one cannot bear it. 

Tho qneetion of whether tbe flame is exdted at the nodes or at 
tbe loops, — whether at the places where tho pressnre varies most or 
at those wboro there is no variation of presanre, but considerable 
motion of air — ia one of oonaiderable intereat from tbe point of view 
of the theory of those flames. The experiment conid be made well 
enough with aucb a aource of aonnd as I am now using ; but it iamade 
rather better by using Bounds of a lower pitch and therefore of greater 
wavo-lcngth, the discrimiuatiou being then moro easy. Here is a 
table of the distaocDs which the screen must be irom the flame in 
order to give the maximum and the minimum effect, the minimnm 
being practically nothing at alU 

Table or MAXtMA and Mivde&. 
Ifu. Hin. 









The distance between successive maxima or successive minima ia 
very nearly 3 (contims), and this is accordingly half the length of the 

But there is a further qncstion behind- Is it at the loope or ia 
it at the nodes that the flame is most excited? Tho table ahowfl 
wliflt the answer must bCt bocauso the nodes occur at distanccfl from 
the ficrecn which are even multiples, and the loops at distanoes 
which ai'c od<l multiples; and the numbers in tbe table can bo 
explained in only one way — that tho flame is oicited at the loopi 


011 Digf^trtm 4>/ Scnad. 


tug lo tbo C1VE1 tijullipJn*. Till* rcMaU U eHnuuiollj 

h fba flXftctiy c>fipc|iito ranwir, liting oitHod oi 1^ nodcn and 

kilflit (BO ottil of vliiob ia jpltoal b tho car, wIuIq iio othrr in 
Md «ldM to tbe bttrwif. it In tfacti ftMiiul tlio mr l« cvoitotl tbo 
tooit «fa« tltft fluM k 0X6it«d IcMtr and ivm rvr«<t Tto tcnalt cf 
ft« ttpariBent alMvi^ nuHVorer, Hut tlM> muuier in nhicb llio Buao 
iididcikgiitolBiidflrthoftoticmofMiuidiaiiot, utnighcbc o(]toot«d, 
^■Bialrlcal fn reguO lo the nils of tho fiuoo. If U iratu ^rmmDlHcn], 
M«onIdb*BK)alwoM4diy Ibo tTinntotHoaJcfliiw, iuidaIj, tli^nriG* 
4m «f iv«imo, Tlio &ct boin^ >b&t it i« moit «xoitoi1 at Uto loop, 
«bn tarn k IL« gtoaU^t riVntory vctooi^, aliowa that tUo i>k<4lic>J 
^tfinati^nitiixi in uimriiuii«bi«J, tnevi^ooity IwIngadirccUttqEtnti- 
ll^. In tbavoipectlMtbooiy of then flames k diObtftQt fou tbo 
ttiaaj «f lU mliHfitt Intwti^sttwl by Sanrt, vrhl^ neoln Unm- 
■I w lntod<4aebM di^ tmdor Iho inflnoooo of iononnu YfbrfttJao. 
TliD analogy frU* >t tlw point, nnd it bn« htxai piwod loo f«r by 
B mperiuiieoUiTa on t\u> ttabJooL AnoUior vunplo proof of ibo 
«f IbaMntllof ovit ci^orimacrliB that it miikc« nU tbo 
vhleh mj llio buucr is tamed hi respi^ol of llio lUroctlcci 
hk wUdi tlia soiixid-TaTMaro knnagiug upou it. If Ifju [jbuuiruiErEiut; 
ajruunetrictl. It would mako no dif&^i-nuon if thn flniDo n'oro 
totnd vp>o iu vorticod ftiia. But u-d find that it dixis mako 
ft At&tfvooa 'JTIiifl ifl th» w^ in vbiob 1 wu usiite thd ihaac, and 
«M aoQ tb^t it U fftrinM itrraf^j. If I uow tttm tHo biimor rouud 
ftengb a rtglit aQg)t\ tbo flame etops daHngi I liaro (Iliho notliiufl 
■Oflo thaci turn llio bdm^r rcitnid and tlio flhiec with it, tbowCog ILal 
ft* jnttBd-mifM maf iinuin^ in ceo dinctioCL wiUi Ktoflt oQeot, uid 
fa BDollicT dtrcctiDU iriib n^ c£foub. Tbe ttonvttJTcacM ocoiuv asaiD 
tbrri the IninitLT U tuinrd LLi\jui;lj ftuijLbur ngUt au^Iii; aftirr tbnw 
n^ti 1 Exnglea llier* li anntb^r plnrn rif no clT^t ■ and after A oomploto 
WWUtluO of tbd flomo tLn ori^nd ttanoitivunOM tooon. Ho tltat if 
4hB laiM ven stationary, luid Uio »oaiid-Trafc« ctonOi iay, fi-oui tL? 
MOfili tn* KFUtb, tbo idicnioDaeiaa wonld bo cxbiLflU^I ; IjLit If tboy cftme 
ftm Iha cajt or wwt. tb« flima wmM rnalr« iiu nvpuiiNo. 

Tbi« Itf cf «ufir<iiieii«t In axpeHmmtfng, bocauao, bj himinfr tbo 
bvBOr rQ«ud, I duko tb« flnao aJoort kiacciuttTc to & pi^und, luid I 
sa DOW fn» to «Low Uio cfToot oSmaj Knnid Ibal mjvy Lv bmugbt tu 
iltn tb« [tfV|iiitLdic(itar diruetum* I am |[ning tii imr n vrjy nvntAl 
nfl<in>or'a«eudl piocfiof IcokinMlua. Wood nould do uvoll; 
bH luoVing-gbiM bldlilalu ihn a^nMmmls booamm mj awiiit&ul, bj 
mtshfS 1^ rill^tloDt will bo able to toO BW vrhtai I am boldiug It lii 
Aft best mi«Lt(oi). Now, tbo nonnd is being rcdIfxHwl frnm llio bit of 
I^Mi^ >iid U canting tbo flun^ &> dar^, thougb t)io miiia Hoarid, trard- 
faf a aborto diitaneo ond inipinf^ngiu onotbcr dircGtion, i« iikCO»i'< 
fmmi lo protliioo tbo rooult f Fi^v 1^ 


Lent AafJr^iL 


I am now roid;t I^ '^^'^^ ^^ roflocioir to uiil fro Blonif tbe Bne 
pcrpfojiliciiIcLr to tbkt joining tliu ACnit<i> ood lh« boraor. all tLc vbilo 
maJHtoiftirig tho adiustnKmtk BO thai fivm dio poflitioB cf Um acttroe of 
BOtmd (he ftmige of tlio Ihino b H»cni [n tho ooutra of t^ mError* 
from t)ie 4ni]rc<^ it i* »b11 aa mntrml iw bofora, bat tl hJU loct 1ib 
ftod 00 1 lauTo it io uid fru 1 produce oyolos of effect ftod no 

Fm. r 



What ia the coum of this? The <|ncfltK>u diipotul* upva 
ifng JjfTorent froiti w^jut I Imvo \totiu afmitkiiig trf Iiitlutrto: 
tho eiptauitioii ie. Uxjit wo nrx^ boro doding with adilfnotiA 
pHBoDQADOD. Tho mirror i^ & EiaaU odd, and tho tfaiUid-^ftToK wliici 
it nfloolB ftTo Bol big cnoqgb to ttct in Itc normal monnor. We tf* 
mttjrdoiliiigwitb thiiuuiu fiuttof [ibuuumoua oa srimr in optica wfaeo 
wavMApull lun^ijr.iloe fir t)ie entruiit^n of mir light It i^ not wij 
eofiy to mnko tb^ <^]:]>orimi^fit io tho proMmt form ifiuto eiiaploi bMMM 
tho mirrnT would h^re Ut ho withdr*wii, all the whilo nsmutAJiiliig ft 
*onjoffJiat cx>iuplicated adjuatiuoat. lu order to raisu tluT i|Tii.Mti<)L of 
dilTrite-tEcin in itii eimpl^gt sbafi^H vte Kiost bar«i a ilirwt uQurso for tbo 
wmiid hvtw<^H its origiij aii'\ lUi- plnco of ubMmvtiou, luid intcrpOM 
in thu path a ecreou p«rftirfttod wiLh euoli boloa oh wo dutiro to Uy, 

TLo acrocQ I proivjoe tt> nee is of gloNan It la ■ fintLlicnIh- 
frarfocl 'ibstiLdD far aiicb •nunds as wo arc defllinj; with ; but it u 
pnrfrimt-^<l Lere with a hoJg (*J0 cm- diiiinotcjr), rondi-rod iaor«0Tidont 
t<» thoEo ftC a distnucc by menna of u virolo of paper pooled round it. 
Tbo odgo of tho bole i^fJtrcBpuiidH to Uio imiur oiruiiUifbtuiuxj of tJu> 
pfijHir. Wonholl thfi« 1>o ftVilo tu tr^ tho rfTort offlllTureut atz^ sp«- 
Inn^ all tho other circumfltaucos romaiuiag uncbaug^d, TJiu oxptfl- 


Di/rtff A£m e/ SmmI. 


Imfk, At proactit i^ mudiI J« imwng ttiroogh tLi« c<im|NumtfTe1jr 
lny^bolo in tba glua acnsBii, nu! w pri^iii?ing, tut yon (h«, BCf^rcd^ 
19 Aot upon tb« ftuEi4 dtnatoi] oppcKuto to Itn ooatJCb Ifnt if 
ffi|,9) 1 dumtiisb tbo am of ttc bolu bj- haldiog thU circLo of niia 
wrftnkod viUk It huJo 14 cm. iu diouiDUij in frutil of iL, it m mmq 
M,ftllliDiigh t>K> bola k Ntnallor. w ^»i n Tai gr«at«<r olluoL libit 



ii » bwdttmoiklAl pheooowioii in diSraotfoti. Now I retipcD lhi> Lkrifor 
hola, ftnd thn (Uiuie btcoiuM i^uiot 8u tlut il u c^viduut llmt in tliin 
tlie BuitiKl |irti(1tint« ft ^rnaUr rfftwtt in jtntoAitg tUroagL n ciitiiU 
thmn in fM^AQg tbroaj^b u lotpcr mno. Tho iiK|H<riJAout luu^ bu 
Id BikOlu«r vftft by obcilructiiig tbc aontml in plbco *ji tLo mni- 
flBBlnjtortlioB|iarlaruiii the glawk WIca I bi>ld tLigunimrffinit^l 
oiiB <q viiM» (14 cm. In diaiuatvr) iwutricnl] j in frotil, va gut ll {^&tof 
Ac4 tluyi »ll«A tk« tounci la atlrtvixl t> pi^M Lht^tl^L botb partd ct 
lltt kpartWCL Tb« fluno i« naw Bju-injc Ti,;or<MiMly utjcIit IIk? M'tdt>ti 
«l Un kuuitfvuf "ATo* Montig the murffiiiftl piLrt c>f tbu «pr-rtuns 
■Wtan 11 *tll ivmrHil; nut; »t «11 luiii-r t)io action of watch |uiMdag 
■hfooith boLb tLo lOArdiiKl «iul lb<> j^OTjtrnl holon 

nia U • point whioh L «lii>iil<l lilio to dwell upon ft littlo, tor II 
Uen ftt Ura itMit of llio vhoto iDAttor. Tbo priuGi|>1o npou wliicb it 
dcpetftlft Ift cit>e ibftt vrw first fminalatod by Iltiy^nrtiiH miii of tlio 
Wuntf BUDBft id tbo diiTDlopmeiit a( tbo timluUtfiry tbw^y of li^bt. 
I* lU* duftnok {Fifi< 3) is rDpr<ttDDt»l in Hoctiun ihu JiJirruut fitta 
nt^m otifcftclr rvpvoonte tbu bourt;« uf Etountl, B iv|irui»cutB Uhi 


Lord Ba^lagk 

[Ju. 20, 

flune,aRd APQiathescroen* If wecboiMO » poiDt F on tfaie ecreen, 
eo tbnt thu wbola distance from B to Ct recEoned through F, tIb, 
B P C, exceeds the fihortafit diBtoneo B A C by exftctl j half the vavo- 
length of the Honud, thenthecircqlarureat whoso rftdiuBia AF, Utbe 
first zone. Wo take next uiother point, Q^ bo thu whole diatance B Q G 
eirooda the previous one by hftlf ft vave-longth, Thna ire get ti^e 

ficcond zone reprcacntod hy P Q- In Itko mannor. by t&king differeot 
points in eacceflsion ench that the htat diatanoG taken exceods thft 
proTions one ovcry timo by half a wavo-lengtb, wo m&y map ont tki 
whole of the obetmcting ectcon into a Bcrioa of zones cfllh?d Hnygeo^ 
EonoB- I have hero a ntatorial ombodimont of that notion, in irfiioh 
the znnes are octnally cat out of % piece of zino. It is ewy to prove 
thnt the offccta of the parts of the wave traversing the alternate zones 
are opposed, that whatever may be the effect of thefiist zone, AP,tbe 
exact oppoBite will bo the effect of P Q, koA so on. Thtu, if 
A F and F Q are both allowed to operate, while all beyond Q is ciU 
ofT, the waves will nentralieo one another, and the effect will be 
immcoflely leu than if A F or P Q operated alone. And that is what 
you saw jnet now. When I used the inner aperture only, a oom- 
paratively load sound acted upon the flame- When I added to that 
inner apertoro the additional aperture P Q, tho sound disappeared, 
showing that the effect of the latter was equal and oppoeito to that 
of A P, and that tho two neutralised each other. 

[If AC = ff, AB = fc, AT = a, wave-length = X, the value of s 
for tho oxtemal radius of the nth zone is 

or, if a = 5, 



Df/nvlAM tsf j^nif , 


Wtlh libe »pcrtQi«« i»od «bcie, dr* • 49 for a = 1 ; (r' = 100, for 

A«^ 100, 

■ ■■■■M«iMm b«i&9 Id cMtinetrat: lliiA p^vra tbo snitaUo 
wbottAlskson, [a lh« iiMMt eaM A = Mo ^ 83.] 

CkMtlj ooftMeAwl villi tli* tbci^ tf uuither nrj laUmtin^ 
dl^WBl, wltidi QUI gmIj bo Irieu], uid whioh boji idui ati Ini' 
|w*<iil o|idc«] oaftlogjr. I iD«ttn tba vapeHmont or ihb Kbw!aw 
ftrovn bj « oti««Ur <ii0e^ If ft terj Rudl •onro* of li^t bo t&koii 

w ch A Mono M wonJil V ]>rt'diinc>) hy i-crfimliug a tlim j>Lito 
ID iLa ■httttcr of flie wi&don of » iljirk niuiu uith u jtiu ftciil oftijHiiig 
ife lajv nf tho Nim ta entAr horiBiinlnJtr — luirl if ad hitf^rpnatt in 
iW pub of Uio li^t a ftnull cironUj otMiu^Ia Knd tb«D obcorro 
ft» loftfcy ikrown in Uio re«r of that obfttoclo^ a tut rcauriGabJo 
yttiHty mui&sls Uaoir. It \r> fMund Lbat in iLu cootnf of 
w •kidnw of tbo flfartftelis wbrn> thn dnrlmniv tniffht bn nxportnl 
ti k gMAtOitt, thoro U; rm the ctfuttiuyr no dnrkiioM at all. bitt a 
btsffeil epct, a opoC M bright OA if no cb«liiclo iutcTTOQ«il in tfio 
AMna or llio h^t. Tbc hivtcvy cf tki» ftubj«ct le ciinou«. Tb« 
ftct v«« Ani ofanrroJ bj rVtlUla in Ujn «ATly ]«rt of lb>i frlghLvKriCb 
■aicf y, b«t tbo <^b«fimtian foil inui ah^ivicm. Whon FnwnnI 
Up« bi> iaipoftent inveatigatioDB. Ki« mtmoir on di^ntolicoi vaa 
eoBuBsnioaled to llio Frccdi A<iv]otDir and vas i«poitod on by (be 

ri auUhttOiataciwi Puliaji]. PuiM^jri was ii^t fatuurut^y im]irwvw| 
rrpaR#ra ibonr^Ciral tiawh. I^Lk^ m<«t innt>imnaiiniiin>« itt Lbo 
4i7f be dJJ bat tako kindly to tbo wav« Iboorr; imd in hie rvpnrl <iii 
mibcra coomniE; b« xnoda tt« objection Ibat if tlic mtil^KH! wor« 
^|lkd, Aa PnaRxd buwl cot tLcn done, lu iuvatje&t<i yi\\xl tlioalil 
fafom fn the ahsidurtr of & drotilar obrtaolc, U brooglTt t^tit tbid pnn- 
imU MvtUlt that ia ILo «0Dtn> 1b«io nvnld bo B bright jmiuC. Thiii 
n« n^odttd M » redatfliM> od fi^rJfJM of tb« tboory. All tLc bxao, 
w I liaTO Bkcnlioctod, Lbn r«o<ijtl<if DrlJinlo's cbpcrraticiBs viaa lu «iibU 
«oe. Tbo raiAfka of rciiwun w^iru brciuglib kk tJio notion of Frmrtr^l, 
fa Mporfnuat vaa tricti, ajid Ibo brtgljl {lOiot wm rediBOOvnrnd, Ia 
A* pmScfttion «f Fr*ciM)l Mid tho ooDflnnation of bid Iboorctioal 
4m. I <b»i'l proposD to altcmpi tbo c|>t>i^a1 ciperEEit^ut uow, 
btl it coc <awQy bo tnod in oan'» own taUiratoij. A Kui^ rui^cn 
tr puMi^ rant ba darkened r a fourpuniiy bit may bo i;ud ao 
All ♦lolacLji itTimg up ty throo bom ulUoLod by •oftlingoira& 
WbM tliD obodow uf ibi' uusUclo 10 rooOEToi on a fjiooo of gtomid 
imit Mid examined AruBi beblud vfiUi a miii^Ejifyiiig Rhlb, tbo 
t^lkt ipat B^l bo man without tnnrh di'fH'^iiUy. lint vb^t 
I |iOpOM b> idtov yoQ ia tbo oorrovpopdicg pbouomflQon in tbo 
<■"• « ooATHi. FrcBnci'o roaaoninft U appHoiLlc^, irord for word, 
^flifi phtmoincna ws an» ojuaidurmi; jubt as ujuib ad b} thai. wMuh 
W,«* mliw rofnaon, bail (ii Hixw. llit^ dlsr (Fig. 4), vMch T nbftit 
«f tif &CIV botwotto tbo muKxr of ff^tind and thn f Jimo^ ja of glftoik 




from txtitig in tUo bright flpoL If I lank^ a nonll motioii nf titc duo 
I hIiaU uotc the bn^l sput ujd tlic nSvti will iliai^upcvr. 1 am 
punLiug ibu dUo mvBj now, and th« fl&rin^ hu Atojrped. Tlje fiwno 

r^ 4. 




kCI£Q In tho ebadow of tho diso, bat not ftt tb« ooatrv^ 1 brine i^ 
dboWJc eL|:iiiu, ftad whoQ tlic Htkvao comoa iulo bbo oouLr« iliniB 
agaia vij^irciii*Iy. Tbjit m Iho pbuar>inouoa wliinli vnu diMOTend l^ 
D«1i«le utd rt^i^TitlrtiLrHl by Ango &ud Fnmcl, but miitbomnticAllj U 
m> ngii^to) by Fcjiv^ti. 

]V>iHHrii*t» cAloulatiou relfttod onlj to Ibo T^rj cfrbtral poiut in tbo 
ftiiH uf ihu diM\ Moro r«OQXilly tbo tLccJij ^f thi» ti)*iTiuit:iil, hut^ boeo 
^TTy thomiLRMyrinioinwl by u 0<irnuin miithflTiinlii^-inn. rjrjrnmi^l ; ^ud 
1 bftVB fubibilfid horci one uf tbu curv« ^Wcn hj him embodying tL« 
:tcauLU of bifl oAlcubitiouti <m Um aubji^ct {i^'ii^, £^ 

Tliv iibiKuiuL\ lULMuurud burL£'»u lolly, rcprc«vEil (lifdancc* dfawD 
cutWATxU fruuj l^ji.i t^)tiiTv (jf tlir ulublowO; lIioonliimUM ni<«Hiiru tbs 
inbJnditj of thft li^^tt Dl tHa varicnis pniau. Tho lurvxifiknin iniA&iity 
O A in at tbo ooDtrcN A littlo v%y outwvda at B tbo inknisitj f&lu 
ftlmoHt, bat aot qoite. ti> sar^. At C tboro ia a roTiviJ of lutvuttty. 
iiidi[;iktii]g n brigbt riog ; and ftirtbi^r utiL lb«r» in u HttfVMwifoii nf 
«ub(*riIiiAtd duotiiktioim. Tfao cumi nn llie rithnr «i(le ci O A vould 
<d oourso bo similar. This oott'o ooam^ppi^ndn to Uio di8Uiic<M wtd 
|iTn|^orttciQji indicated, a ifi tha dislruico octwoon tho vonrofi uf ftonnd 
Ditd tbu (lira; b is tbo dUtouce betwut^u tUo diitc and tho dftiiwi, tlio 
plnfvi wtora tba iuteneily i)4 nWrv^^il. Tbo Duiubun giviTU mm tAkan 
EBrctCD tbo nrjt«e of jlh bt\iQriiQ6Tit Tvbioh wont itoll- If v« cau n4 our 
Aiuuo Ui tbo rigUL point cd* ^cnsitizt^noAfl wo cunj enccool iu bringing 
liiiflj viow not ouly tbu central spot, but tLtf rcviynd mruiul wuir.b 
ficriirs *fl<ir yi>u bnvii got nway from Uht c^csntml poini Mid Jinin punnt 
tbrqugL tbi3 ring <jf rCuh^o. Tboru in Xhti luiid <;<'titra1 poiitjt. If I 
patsii tbu diDu A IittJuwc djtor tic riiij? of Htluuc<J U;' * little fortlicrt 
nud ibrj iliLUig Harw Agaii>, bdu^ Oi>w ftt C 


* With tbo data given aUmibu duuMlvof Cm eUi^ut onglMtwiHhUdaof 



m Dijfr^etUn cfStmnd. 


AltlwMigb W0 li»te Ibiis Eiiill*t«cl tlio (optical ciporiitioot, 1 xn^i»i 
M !•&*• jon Bn<T«*r thri Una thai wn lur vcirking niuW tliM Hma 
inaliii«in IbM nroTsil id ^iptioft. Yoti ux> the <liftni«>Eer of mf <iU4 

4iwwi*iT of BiliM miTweotiog SO vavo-W^th«uf Tiglitwinildk^dtil/ 
■btHil fQ^o« iooh. etill thfl cmiditionH m sufllci^ntly a1ik-» to got 
HWrKpoodlOfl oSecU, uui to obtoin this briffbt pciut in Iho aontrc of 

I tHll naw nuke u expfiriuiuut illuAlmtiug Btill furtliur tliu iirlii- 
etpU of nill'gffii^ Kict««r nhfch 1 haT<i aln^j rni:^*My nk^^tj^hml. T 
rndkalcd tail the «0»ct cf ooistigadas Z4>n«fl n'os cifjimt dujI opjuaito, 
Hf Uwi lb* #flocl of oach of iho odd tsoilc* in cue tbiujf, and of tho 
WMi vooM llio oppoailu lliibi^. Tf wu atn ituoccud iu wo iin^jranug a 
•0MB M to fil tllB ftjnt/im cif jfiiinuK, iUlu'KJ»|j th4» OTIA Mt lo pn«H. uiiJ 

U ^0 MOW tinM iAUvwfAiog iLe othar Mt, ih«Q va «faft]l sel a gT««t 
Act At iIm ooDlnl fwlnit boemuo wc ah»U hnvo rcmorod uio»o pcjii 
vbuiib, if Ihay nnaiitc^, nouM iuTO tiOQtnilLMt) iho romnining porU* 

198 Lord BayiMgk m Dtffrwium of 8(mnd. [Jan. W, 

Such a ajstem bos been oat oat of sine, and u now hanging before 
joo. Whon the adjnstmenta are correct there vHll be produced, onder 
the action of that circular grating, an effect much greater than would 
result if the souitd-waTeB were allowed to pasi on without any obAtmty 
tiou. The only point difficnlt of eiplanatioa is ai to wh«t bappeu 
vhcD the fijBtem of zones is complete, and extends to infinity, 
viz. when there is no obstruction at alL In that ctiae it may be 
proved that the aggregate effGct of all the zones is, in ordtnaiy 
casea, half the effect that would bo prodaced by any one zone 
alone, whereas if we succeed in etopping out a nnmber of the 
alternate zones, we may expect a large multiple of tlie effect of one 
zone. The grating is now in the right position, and yon see the flame 
flanng strongly, under the actiun of the soimd-wares transieitted 
through theBO alternate zones, the action of the otber zones being 
stopped by the ioterpositien of the zinc. Bat the iutorcBt of the 
cxporimcnt is principally in thisi that the flame IB flaring more than 
it would do if the grating were removed altogether. There is now, 
without the grflting, a very trivial flaring ;* but when the grating is 
in position again — though a great part of the sound ia thereby 
stopped out — the ofTeot is far more powerful than when no obstroo- 
tiuu intervened. The gratinc acts, in fact, the port of a len& It 
concentrates the sound upon the flame, and so produces the iutonaa 
magniflcation of efibct which we hare seen. 

[The exterior radius of the nth zone being x, we have, from the 
fermnla given above; 

1,1 n\ 

BO that if a and b be the distancoB of the source and imago fr<»m the 
grating, the relation required to maintain the focus is as usual, 

where/, ih&fvcal hngth is given by; 

In the octaal grating, eight Kones (the first, third, fi^, ^) are 
occupied by metal. The radius of tho flrst zone, or central circle, is 
3 inches, so tliat^-/n = 9. Tho focal length is necessarily a fiino- 
tlou of X. In tlie present case A = ^ inch nearly, and therefero 
/ = 18 inches. If a and h ore the suue, each muHt be made equal to 
'6G iucheej 


• Vn.lcT tho befct conditiouB the amuG ia abwlutoty unafleclaL 

i/. TluBKw « lAe fojiturutvm 0/ JfoMi-LaniJ. 



FHd«j. Jtwiar^ 37, 1886. 

EUiVAiLD Wotjiia. E»|. M. IujiLC H TI«c-PneailcDt, 
m thct Cliftir 

7k< &tftorniiom </ JiTiudt-Idncf. 

, in ft *Mf iiitivJiicicry rrtnirVi. njilninoii! lloki Im <n)ljr 
fPOftt ut to try KOid «ioa^iim igi it rrflooliotx of d foH cimnkcbrwtio 
■liiiB of A£nc4n — «»ftn r ft&d to prif liiii hcarerii simo d*T<>ar uf 
Imnl La Mtvngf UdJa. Fur Uii* t'"r|iu»- lit* ^vlluld lUmw ii|Hm hi« 

M*l7'» •xptaition to Vicloria Njunu in 1S&3-4,* 

H« MOBiiicaocd hU Bkctobcd hy & dcecHfrtioii of hu fin4 nnmentoiu 
a|«ri«Doe — Ibo >lsrt Chou tho oowt, wkcu, ■Uadiiig ou tlici hjsiifl^U 
tf Bftlttt, lilt look Itk kjt look ftrouoil before Mfltinff fotth inlnnd 
li^j^ IW iisJoinsn. Rctrnvrn tlia oojun oua Ltto ^.iriterUnd of tLo 
HmAJ Uy S004r«fti7,iiainbiibitcd]iulc«. Ta cmbodj tLo <zpcncDoo« 
ii ikt vx^oAi^kta oTtj tbii tone imd givo liiii nuilicncv iHiijiu jJuu of 
k noinro cif tin? rou&ltr, Mr- 'niumwu KltuLdinl lu Hinin Ai^UiW tha 
MMi&* of » CjpiMl diij in iWr frr^^TM* tbrvugb ILiit wildontc^^^ 
fte aecBO in th« cavi^ •! ib^brwilr, Ihit nr^Ior of nuwirh. iLo naturo of 
^■bnile*Brt*lliro«jEhwbTGlilboj]iMA«d; lb»e0ect«of thobruiUuc 
mK ibo banting u^ad*^ uul tlio kSscaion of Kvtor on tho ffttigudd 
vacating in tbo tTtufurouliDQ cf their IcAdor* frona «8ger, 
oxptoron into Lftruaod «nd ilitigoiitod ■iATO-dtivorv— att 
tKptK^a of ihv iiiorcJi ^fTo okotebtnl, 4» woll aa tbo truTQll^rV 
I null niliiY vbuu, wjlb Ibc ^ouLiaiDg aaii« Lbt:y oxtltihI ul A 
, liqoid mmlbobL 
At lODffUi tbo nri^bonrfaood td tUlima Njnro nu Toicboil. \vh&Ti, 

min for cool abMW atiJ luafy UlijrrmlhA. 'Vhs t^Gtnl ujhju tlic 
inTr.llen na aa if tb«<y liiul fAKMxl fr»m a jiurgator/ Ui» pnriLiliuT. 

Tkroni^ tb* liltk African Arcodift nft Tav^iU tbo fl(H<tvkur novr 
fVBOillr ooudttoleil faia hc«f«n, pmntiD^ out Uw chanctGriBtio 
tt^wta of iti Invunaot Ttcolntion. bndbg Uicm bj AbA>lj [wUii^nja 
b boaby ghid», or cnlliug liero aoiil tbcm hi tho cijmI^ cmKoctniMid 
Uabtfwl-alfeapt"! but ttf n nadTOk H« <1r«v jt Uimpliuj^ jriuEurc gf 
TaMnftt ni^'bl, nhtut inilliovaof eioadnpipo^ fortb Iboir mulodioiu 
■ad mjrad £nAkm flicborl mekc^like athirart tbo aud 

ffi Tba^in ■ wob. «^UU*TUuij£b Ua^-UuJ; iiMpahU*L«i m IMA. 

r, Jl Thornton tm ihe ExpXoraltom of IKaiiTa'Z^W- (Ju, 27, 


tfany ^<>irwonB8 glnmol with moUov liglit, <uii luruoJ tbo d 

A/Utr Bkotobing thoir flrvi gl^^nF*" '^ Eillmn Njuo tha Hpaahar 
mpdl; MiiTOTod tot bnron rotmd tbo «oathorEi uufl vnUni kcpc<rU 
of thifl grcfti rawalajn to the bordurLuicl of Uw ULuii. Hu LoI4 tow 
tli«7 OToasod Uio Uiroeljold villi tluur liopoA at Quo ki^Wt. and lioir, 
tiw<k daja Iftl«T, Utpy f'luud it nAommry !» run nvij and rvtitm Vr 

TtTotft, Than ^4 «ipodttion was ciumpod wMU Ha oomiaaachr 
ictomod to tbo oooat for addItiL>iiAl mun and ecc<I#, doinff on ona 
oocfMn^io Without a h&lt ii«Ajtj aorooly milrra, wiLhuut & drop of irater 
*jr bit uf finjd — «u u](j_iD!Oi^lt»[ilfld foil uf Afrioa^i p«i Wtriaii istn. 

On hU rfilnm Ut TuTnta thn ftipodition <ineo mnro iwt forth lowAc 
MoBAi-Lwd vitb naabai^ cKithnniasia. Tho variamt cHankctoruptu 
iDoidcnU cf Uio morob irorc touched upon — ?nch aa bnvir tlicy «Ulkod' 
B d(niL« J in luisiako for n rbiniKWroa ; ti;e n^kllorin^ uf th<f cariLTAu 
fLirlnnH TMmi<>ir(«4^; lavn And i)(Pi^lr«>^t iift^hM into tlie air b^ 
bul&to b(iU TMnnit^a omaok |hT<i»gh thi> cftiup ; a gnra firfi throaCcA 
Ibo c^ipodttion vitb dontructtcin, and frtlinr moitkatfl, Holped olo 
kj andi pi^nnnt Tariationii io ihi^ dailj rootisc of the march, Moislf 
land wiu ourvf moru ra^bnl, nnd thvj tlicri omhorVud on a ounrvo of 
foiuauw and odTOUlDTv aufficiout to ^to tht> moAt ordout of modora 

To tlliutTaU ^e Hfv uf nn cijiloror oinong a |Vs>plR witli whom 
mnrd^ir it a jwitiran and mbT>rry an jimii^cTiioixt, yir. TbomHckn akfitchAd 
tbo ovuuU uf ■ tjpical nftcnioon in riuti|>« in uhirh oUo ho look 
ooonoion to ti>ual] up'>u tho ttmn^c uuatome of tho MoifAi- Ho ended 
Ilia auTaVivu hj uilic&tiug ihv route tokou by tho oipoditio& li> 
TI<[torla Nyanxa, ihv ui|tlnnkliii]i of tbr.* tmHTJtirol pklocuii of Motfi- 
larad nnd ihn curiniu mnnJionfti trftugb wbioTi dividea thrm. Uio Tisit 
to tto BTu>w-c]nd KouiAr the arrival at UiLTiitii^it, and aubtoqticDt march 
to VictfJtia Nrmza. with all tho fttt^^udnnt aivontiarc» 

A f<!W worded lUfllctiJ to L«1l tlici tAln uf tlj6 TL^turu^ hunt Ihrs Bpi&knr 
woii tiiRafuI niid h'>arl^ kitl6<1 by a biifTnliip niiil liOfl to \ia naTritMl tmtk 
to Baringo <-n a Htr>i£c^ar ; bo\r big Irtruhlue dirl not ond thorn, for tha 
|)eiinlty of dri^lung fjoiaimnus wntor, (Atiu^ Oinnuxbl moat* fli>ar half 
tuixod with ^iU and buHiilo 1)cvf U4 tou{;h u old booto. hitd to bo 

Enid m tlie iinuiil wny. He wtrn nttoalft^rl by dyi%enti*ry. nnd Tvoohad 
ako Nnivosba at tbu point o( death. Hero fur t»o monthi ho Uy 
iu a a:OBt oritical ooudition, till, despairing t>i improTfnnoct, hi> ooD- 
uludud lltal if ho wuH duuiuod U> diu bo hod bottor do to tryic; to 
roach tbo ooiwt. To Wb surpriaa bo began to imprcjTo, in Hpitd of 
tho lerriblo jolting in iho bu-mmock. Taking a iww route tboy panod 
through a dusort ouuutry, whorn tbo mon eu^DXcd gtoatly fcom &Biiil9> 
SiEttwu montba aftu' i\i& dopartuie from the ooOAt tbo cipoditioii oitOO 
tni^rij f lond iLj^nirHiTiiiiig thn }>abit gnivoaof Eahai» wlib tbo oarwMid 
amistica of travel lifb^d from tboir mindsv 

1M.J 049ftc4 .W^Aiy Xtdi^^ ^1 


FiAVK Uum\ K>q. LL.B. B.A. V.l'. lutd Tro^ Llun Soo. 


The Iloo. DmUej QftcipUII, 

jM«.pli Bpiiir«nTi Dnwcin, Rho. M- f nftt C8. 
Tbo Bigbt Tlon, Sir Edvatd Fry, LoM Julio« «r AppOftL, 
fMB olicttd Bfooilicn c( Uio Bojol Initttnticiii. 

Tbo 6|ieciftl Tliaiilid of tlws Mnmbon* wiiMi n liiniiKl tii Mr. P. F. 
Ol^ibvtwoliikUna far hu |lT1«l^nt cif * Tcmi Cotbi ItuAt of Sir 
Mamptrf Vmtj. 

ViMfanfiti ^MJ. for bU pfOAvnt of a Imrga Elootri^-ol Influonoo 

Tltfi IfiiM^yrwYminrlnil^ TTint nr f hrir TifrrTfn jr TtrM nn JnriiiLiry 1 Itt 
b(, tlMT AppoivtOcTMr. George Jubu i:oiuuiici], ALJL LL.D. KZt& 
f bUctiab PrvleMor of PhyMiolo£y tat Uircc jtor^ 

Tu Poieam rooniTorl dnm tha Ijmi Tll/vting n^cro laid on Uio 
hUo, «»d Ui« Uttilki of tho Hcmbon rctmucd for tlif^ l^aMH^, vU, : — 

IkmlM, vol, VUl ttA. IMTJ. 
ifcf^Al6f*^JL&^ f to— AiU. 8ctx QaitfU; n^udkoulL YollU. 

Yoi!xiL (N<t«X) f 


Omgr^ KmO^ Mft^g. 


JnulH floricff f/ fifBMl-Joanul, V»1. LtV. Ptrt 1, !if4^ 4 i %'<L LT. iWl I. 

JIfM* r4>iC»^K«fM« HfliudK borio XI T«L L K«K l-«: Vol. IL Sou, LIS. 

niui!i>r^ 7Dflljr«*>^f— J<mnial,[n-Piirt9; TflI TX-t*«Tl1. Hiw. tOTT-a. 
^omI Ii'alur/tffmktmk flr<ifli<A^ — VwhwuiJinueim, ^ta TLIi!il> Qdt t. fin, 

ibB(irHiAiloaJmif</.&/ww-BiUitTif;tl«rli'btpJS«T.IIoft^ 9vo. L8ff7. 
WmfAffAdM f A<'t0«)^i>»l ^^icfy-l'Ktfo^tnc*. Vol. V. t\itt 2. «nv ]fW-T 

Ainvii ^ JEUiHrirtoH. rJf-— Ctreiibn tif taff^ruHtlnii, Vn, I, »r:> l^tr?. 
Tba Siadjr of llbioij in Amoiibn U^illrfcci mJti tTuiivnitia- Djr IL U. Aduu. 
8f0. 1897. 
Ca>^or*i^. Vt^ifi^nttji n/— DiMniol RqiOlt, tff»<L 9to, 

Ik/ .Vnfrr^-- Jonmal for 0«v IBW. Jan, IMR. Sta. 

h^U, hUwti, J. unit X (fftf /W;£i«Arrf^>— Jtfurjiid uT t4UTngnk>£T «liil 
ftl^iijr.Toi:T, No. 12. dv». ]A»T. 

■nd UtUtkBti^ti (if ^k«wfig«, Svd Edition. Hto. 1f^7. 
Ohi^ £u{jii^ a A>/. .H.A.r.-^Aliunlnum BfonioraT UinTy auim. Bjr JL B. 
Onvlttt. ^'vu. 1^7. 


TntiiUud from Uk« Qcmma of CkrI 
i7aiMM,"£«r irinjum, KifX ilbf JufAorl— Note im Fmlt vroodn ami tUmi 


l^J^Joi-r— AiiuriMuJoBni»lor»inj«hc«f6rDf«. LH/7 uiU Jan. I88S »m» 

Atinljtt for Dml 1M^ ud Jui. 1SS4, »vo. 

Al^L-nnaETL for Dax ItfBT Mil Jml l(88h 4W. 

CUtnuifvl Savtt Jbr Bfte. lefn* uid Jiui. 1668, 4to- 

Cbciuliit iLQil Dni|Uiii1 for D<^ I Sf^ mA Joiu 1S8& &». 

Knginwr fir DooriS^ tnd Jun. I^SS. fcl 

Kniflnftfirinc fur rJ«o IKX7 aiirl .Ikti. tXIU^ fril. 

BcnjloiiiulJouniairtiit Dtio. Ir^ATBiidJui, iJ^fiS. Snx 

iJlJilttrW for Doa 18S7 «Dd Jan. ldH<L fol 

iKHi for Dm. ItfOT »na Jan. ISt^H. Ib^ 

MuM^HttUtiiiu (ur Dvt: IbtfT uid Jnit. t^S9L Bto. 

IVACOPO for Dm. IJur Aal Jilo. IHSK, 4ln, 

RHVi]Hflfl<mLtElrp<t fit Div- iP^HmlJftn. IMl^A, 4lo>«iitifi] ^vv,6 (Vit Drr- 1>187 nfid Jtizi, l^fS. -Ilu, 

ToJwmpliltf J^urBftl f^r Pw. l?^fiT uiid Jun. 1SS3, Sro. 

Z»p|ill|iit for LltN^ 18^7 aod Jflq. IH^H, Iv^. 
JCfofHiMi, ifibtiotKa ^'Ati/Mola CmlraU — LtoTloUno, M niiL 47-49. Svo^ 

Oftlld Pfclfttlnl, VbI. I. Tmo. e. *v*i, \»e7. 
FranUin ruffl&to— Jcmniftt. No*. 7-14. ^in, fvn, IRRT. 
i>«iAflflcf, Edioirt. Ek. hL.n. F.S.A, M-li.T W^ ^'j^^r>— The \^%j Wsi 
Book ot Ibc PariBh of Si. Miurfant Triitlibaij, 15T1-1CT7> Uo, If 
(Pilnloly rrlTJtdir 
Gto^fhieai Sof^j,, H"j/ia~Vtf*aadinSK Nov Sotto*, Yd. IX- No. 12; VoL X, 

No, I, fivft. IKirt'J*, 
{7(vtcJfjim2 3>icM|^— Quuttjily Juunult No. IT3- S>ru> 183T. 

Oenerai }^Aiy Mtvtinff, 

f rntemf, And— JinriMl. VuL XVIf!, Pnrt 3. Sto, 1S«T. 
ohTuJ C if. iLD. CB- arJL/. (E/'c Jii/AuT> -a^iiiiucubi BjKia 

lit. tf 91 »*«, I8ST. 
AifcrnJ dbf^rfy, Jby^— TLo TaoLfuc of Ilbtory la gahcolL Bf Ob^ 

i^iiia> Hifiartril Tt^fn^l Tnl TT Tffn IT Tnl T Tfn T 9ftK l8S7-a 
8Ml»l»UM«tc^M>iir'»t»le*iaitcQi»,FtlUie«UiwNCi* 10,11. BrvL 19197. 

&crftfr-'««»L^'-^Hf4, l^iM.V>-t. 100, iei. »r9 tSf9. 

(;«M«r&(4rty-rmnwti'in>,Vo], XIX[^riitl,lS. S^ 1897. 
V«J Ji^;^MffVfjHt(t«i<kiri-F»ar>«diJ>jr».ia^.Vo«,H,4. Sm 

BotkiM. &Mt^iMrt«ri/ Jcmuna], Uu. Oi. tivu. liiST. 
ffMrtoJUBeporUfbrltlM, ^vu. ia»T. 
J P bI*^ V J^"^-^ IT-i*^ Aum— TJi^nml'i JdI G<:ni« Civile. 9fviu QoinB»» 

Vf/. E. NaII, »fta Atyllkw^v^i fd. 1K»7. 
Kmm at^^ Vitf*! AwiJ Av4ftfy— Joviial «fi>i Pnv«H]1n|e*. VoJ. XX. |!tV«. vra 

JHWO «/ Jfcgftiaif Jmt^tti* vf Mining uml Utn^nioal fCniiiimrt—'Veapmaii'iitK 

vJL xixvn. Ptart 1. >»(>. iftST- 

r^ ^MMr'-ChnBteW vid JoimmU ti<K7, Ptrl ^, N\^, 1XV7. 
f^grfnlgrtml AfM y 0Hai AHr^iia— TnLD«v1k)ij>, Vol. XX Nm. I, ^ S. 

n^MiiLimtfrpr S^ttjf cf Gr^at Jtrtiai'tr^-Joanul. t*tc. IKBT, Jaa. IAH8. 8fO- 
/l«*M»A(^«A^r-^»TLr».l, \V>r XII. N^Ll. &va I>4r7. 
■ii Jr rtarfnr f rrgTTTf rniT r—JT'- ^~i IT IT tto. Itlt7. 

PUgHtdcal TmoMOlkiai. VoL CLX XVU. Pftrt fi. f K 1897. 
fcriiw Jwdi^ti d^tfwPt Brifaiy* -Tr^nnifftlnii^ Vol Vllt HvO. tlK7 
Ja— faiitfy <rffr**M», iZ'v'I— l']kiiQloglktliMitnrU(?hii ClhMn: AtiliuidlnQ' 

MMbg^tficb-ii^ji^jWCiM; AUtfBiJlqogoi>, B>ibl XIV> Sua, i. 0, Sro. 
grfMlwJcttf Aw^^Japait-TfonMrtirtu, Yci XL 9ro. tlW7. 

A. ^aiiAiwu ^Mirti^ JnuB^^ rid ffe ft naiw Mwafllrfti- Toma XXXT. 
fWilVBt ffwr, Et^. (Lbii ^uUi?r)— Marine Fain* of BAuacawarmn (HrdirB*)* 

rwwln fi^Nfll ThittItT TnTim-lirm H' B3. £vo, 1397, 

Ifl^dtDr. n. (A* DlpaoAny-AnulAD dcr PLmkiluoljai CoMnl-C)b«enr*tont»M, 

JhMtarinmfBrHMMtoliisl^BandX. 41a, IftffJ, ^n^i V.and Atlu. INHT. 

V 3 


Mr. WiOium lltiirf Prf**^ 


Hii Gtmo Iho Bdki or NonTnoouuavPs E^-O. D/:X. LLD. 

S^t/'Ijf r^vi^m in {k'tlicrim. 

Otf ft ficA euBunor'a day i}ia aoi) i^pondft aa avorigo of <m« hone- 
['fon«r iiu Qvurjr SO ih)niiri^ foul of tluo cartU^B eurfiicu iu Uuh Ulilndi}, 
fit 14fl0 hrnoi-pckiicT per Kf re, Tlim gmnt gift nf rj)i>r^ is QoSlber 
udliaod nor ttorcd bj miui ^t ftroBcnt, Ihaugh Nftturo prOMiili Oft 
whh ffomo oF il £□ vr&tor&lia uid flowiog atroaniA, 'l^bo rniit ibwAf 
Iaa IccD more g«4Mn>iu. AjgiM npou Bgce ft^ it sliuoa nitb mpl(a>* 
dont plorj OTk A cnuul IniuHnnt Jlnm of a nnif<tnn t>ui Aomrlcw 
<k1uMctov in a t^Unuiin worm nnd damp, Kn^lnnj fomwd Mti of ft 

■«0Htrdn«, arlllacll^c^ tvptisti^frx. rigitlanm gr«^ uid QouHnl^ciJ, mriMod 
ud fiiU !■ viAi. tu l« cuvcrtxl up by tLu fuUuvbg (nmln^^wj fnnnA' 
IIODStnd oomprWMd fnto thrun gmn^ R«niJ4 nf <u>b1 t^uit fona noiF 
flio prinOiiliLl iu>Qr^ ftt Rn^Uitd'fl ffmattnuu and voidth. If UagoiO 
bo foMil pf^try and irordn ooaJjonincd hutdry, thoa coa] oav iO 
donvcid frMoi inK'^uo or iuj&Xik {tBoiia9).vii\ imply it ITiiuTitn^cTtt ^IfL 

Tlio dm autlnmtic tuviouiit of civul di|*^ng dutm rmm tko nHigo 
of H01U7 ULt wb'^n NewcjLStI* eenl ils tirat Ofifgnoa ^*^ '^ Ixmdos. 
and thus gara thi) minrrrrkl tho oamo nf ai^4-«iH3t Eadj rmxciicJ 
iLo output iif coal arc vontiug. 

In 1700 ri nrnfi 2,^14.000 lonn. 
In 180U it wr^ lO/JOlJ^UOd tona. 
Tn 1850 it rrochcd 12,0()0,OOD bon«. 
In 1B86 ft tuwbia] 157,513,432 tona. 

A ton of oord oc<rupicc vor^ nojirly a oubto ji^rd of vpoco. 
iLi« (|iLant)tj of coal, if placed iti tTjdo Park, woulij funu a mna 
aa higli ne Suuwduti. am] il' er«.-tud lU a wnll nMHwl tho cniui-Uut* M 
Groat iSnloiu. It o^jtilil h^ C fu widrj kud 30 ft tEigb, It would foim 
a giidla round tbo world 3 fU wiilo and 13 IV liigh. Wc oxtiaci frooi 
tLa eart}] twenty timo« taoro oDf^rgy tliAii tJjc sail can puMuUy roatoio 
in it t»y tltt: gruwth cd fiprtst, aiiil wc tim f;nulii!il1y LilI siiroly tendic^ 
towards tho tiina ttlmn this sf^re of power, hrjit, and liffht, trill b« 
^KluLUfited, «L«a our busy bi^TO uf iudastry mnet aock olbor abona. 
and wtcii Eii^lJLud will i^irlmpe bcoouio n ouramot roMrtfora voaltby 
Anglo'Soiou nico ui^oupyiiij^ oLhur quurkis of IIjo q}6\k! 

P <m Safitf M^^^Pbii^ SOB 

Coil u not oalj^ lika knonlodg^ pooor, but, Likct tho prooknifl 
ii itt woJtli. ^nu ATorwo fnoQ of o»I »t blio pit's im^titb in 
UBB «» 6«. p«r ton, uki tltus ito kdal Vklnc ««« li ^000.O00^. but 
»kn vo ODDiDilcir Ibo »TiiniKe priue jmiii fcr it, wr miiHt <lmih1i>. ir 
Ml mbU^ tblB tamp nm. The nnaiUT uf cuUrHlv (j^hd wu nticiLt 
fiO0,«i4 Bbieo it otwto I0O/)iJ0/. la open i» ixilli<!r>- '2WMU d«p. 
«fcn vo lliiak of Ibo niJirftj^ ^'^ cumla. t£iu aliipH, iliu bLujifv tbv 
iMrt> ovD^lojivd for itn Inmut uttl lu diNlrlUulijiM, w^i rMt <m\y rvxi" 
tM« lltti Um cuatal ctnbarkod in thii Induitry m^tst ot^nal, if Lot 
Ibo Notioi&iU DubC 

TW biFwiitgjuid ntisuig </( coal ia UfMiiMticmatlT a dungemiu 

Ie» Gootga St^pbonnoo. CiC,000 panudut an nnptn^fid In onr ool- 
bMMj abd Ilia oatpat yar foiaoii ia UOtJ ton*. tf53 poraona ni«l 
lbeir4c*Uia in 1^^; but it iit patiBfiiotory to knair that & miocr'fi 
Ulb ia laaro tJijui tnioo lui haTc^ elciw u it wu iLirty jo&tb d^;o. 

In 1«W ^ 243 

In 1SS6 - M5 

The c.iunt«r of bnia i«Iaod per llTo lost was — 


t& Jbt« ISMOO 

Veal |im|ilc^ if aokn] vihai ntu tTm prinnlpal cvmn <if thin Tcwi of 
aaariv lOOO Utml, vottld ativcHf Dxplofiii^n of fim-dixmp, but this 
wkBU not bo troc Tbo prisoi|Al canau of acoidoat ia fall* of roof 
mJi flkdcttk Xa IddG tWa woro from — 

FkUfl of lunfAsd iid<« ., ..^ „ 4GI datthfl 

Eiploiioim 123 

TrmiLi and tnba 91 „ 

JdumelUuooOi 38i ^ 

Tbtti UUa af foof form ll jiti ocuL of the ivLulu, iLud (TtplodoDK 


Efptoriooa allraci ImmonAO ftltontioc, frum tiioit publicity and 
ihEir s|ipaUKD9 flodilfiimiH luid mrk^lDila T( ih dnudful to tukn ap 
a Kianiitig V*]wr and road of 2t>8 fellow Ercnturnft tNnf^lfoi-i u at 
AfaMCtfiia Id 18744, or 16i at Hohlidm in ISSQ ; but tbo d^ilv «ud 
loav of lif« bj ones and liy {^v^M fiilu to urt chrouiclwi, tiad 
m^tttdoA hjr wilL Llio Tury ^ivaX mujoirity ut tLo 20,000 Tiolo&t 
thai ravnr 4n tliow fftUndn ttYiry jcat, 
la or<W Uiftt yoa inajpcro kow cocil la won, and bowed, lU^'l nuBOil, 
■ dttgEcra aro luaatTcd aiid finmioimtcd. 1 will talio yoa iuto a ooal- 
■[jnc oa* of tbcOuukOck ('W« c^Uicmaof StaiToiilAkiio — bj&id 
ni a faruttifnl aariM at plioLj^^iJiH, Iji^i^il by uK^iiih of mo^uwiuni 
l^lM I7 ID7 fd^d, Mr. Arlliiir Si^j'witl^, tlio omiDont mauugei of 

^r, WiUia» Ihm^ Prt^ec 

(Feb. 10« 

1. VTe oommoiice with « mnp of Gn^l l^rfuln, tlnvbig In ■hftdel 
linos tbv dUlribdlMn of tbo wioiu ooa]-fi#ldB. 

3. A riov on tkft lunfaoa i>l lt« pit** month, ihowine ihm eo^pa^ 
fcone, ibe pLilIt^vh, fraiiuM uid ropen, nith tbcir moli'Lin up unl Atima 
iktMt r««p<irtivD tiiuttM, tbo hutkinc thftd Tor timiing tbu nij>*i) «akl 
iut> nulway in^soiv uiil outc« tb* vamoo* JvUn vitk cod, Uio 
tiDcl» kdcn vntli wood t-irt '*<x^jii^, nod timber for b«di^, 
nppurtiEig. biJil Hlruu^l]KjCiin}C, TIjih jiuUeulu' pU nuMs aUiul 
1000 UiTM in Ai^bt hnnni, and it nrojilnyA fmm ADO Ut I^OO in*Hn, 

H, ThiA a tba tcp uf tbo fthaft, tt^lh tbo caga in f osition njadf t> 
d«M«iid with ta tzmpt^ tub, Ev^j' pit hu two ab&ftfl, Uto np-cut 
BaA Iho Jiywu-caat. for wurkiDU and iroiitilation. Tfccjr tmrj fmm 
TO fivit lu '20 fmit (ii iliHi^ivkrr. Ttii^ jHtrtloiilHr jitl ia 8C0 fmt tlnp. 
bi3l Ibiirefti** M^Vfrml Jii England oTor ^iOOO f^icL Tti^ rtttoof dMMBt 
Jc 18 r«nl pcv HcooDd. or ftbont SO miloo vi hour. 

I, Till* i> thobottora of tho nboii; tho tub. Udcn witb coftLj'ut' 
bmnglit frum tltu wurLiLg fiia.\ iJw imui in tlin uA nf ranniug it on to 
tbo otgc^ i&il hitt tiftml Lii ttiit lift nf tfjgTiAlliTkg to Xhb uatfn^. 

5. An ovGrmiu/A r-^biu bt;rp-a out of tho couL, Uio ondcrrionieEJ 
nmliiii^ bie niK^t of tbo couditicu of Ibo mine nftor Uia nHJiniiii 

0L, Tho unuini^plum or 1«iel, wbich in 2000 ^ranU lono. 
hcfflccT, piko in liiuid, tuoQts Ibo nuderrio^'i^r witb bia *■ CLocnv, 
loftTTiA tbu ifUto of tlto nuaO' Th<t iriKib i« norkcd by *n cndleMll 
ru[n^. it liitr» H diiublu way, ibc IiuIcei tiil^^ iliihvvti t>j4iintfi tbt nbnfV 
ftnd tho riiipty IuTm bmnrtU tUcf workiugH. It vlII tin u?«h|i tbil 
tbo roof i» sUcDgtbon^ by imu htm iiuftuKl of the tinxbors ^i^fiunUj 

T, OUpjnug Ik iTibf> io tbo rope by mu&ud of a tbukta 
ootTiJing. Tbff urOiiiiLry t^roM t3iub«ri4 or tmra ftii) bom Khown Ropi^ 
[Hirtmg the foof. 

b. A level briuich off tbo ongino-pluto^ llotra or poiii«o iwiv 
tikko up the work nod draw thu cuipty tub tbtotigh u " ifob" ruobJ— n 
tom'l tbrougb Lbu wliuLu workiu^— Ui tbu ivorkiu^r fnnt or lonf; vnSi. 
Tboiigb a bora« in tho jni dnoe uniirot^ly oTif>-bjiJf uf tho qork of n 
horsa on tho enriWco, it livcw oA JoQ^ Tbcro uro hur«M that linfv^ 
Dcvor Mon dnjligbt for IC years, fl 

V^ A rind u^or tUo ^u; mea toetiDg iVom Ihdr worli — tnktr^ , 
tbt'ir Imnib or " jiirk b4t " 

10. The oud of ibo roftd, tbo tub txkun off tbc nuJn and dngged 
to tbo fitco. 

11 Euia 12. Tho working foor, tTmkrc?(i|.tmK ; tnking »wftj ih« 
liBftI tiiiilor-cTljiy pr«p»T»iU>rj Ut bbtwing ^f wodgitig down tho npor 
inuiuab^ut <.ioal- 

13. Pitncljiiig A holo foi bbiatiui; with iiowdor, Tho mndo 
sopportiii^ A '*gob" rood by ooj-giug ■■ vury woll nbovn in Uitil 

li, A ivtiy ond, ftbowing tbv rcsnlt ol u bliut 

IbU I 

tm Safety Ltmjm im CoOmi44- 


1ft, ^BuiDnpJ:n]g" ar hdllng ihn tnp; thn TviYLrRf: to nniniv 
ntthtff lli« ohATgu being pot in at Ibo hoWnn tnd thn cvplodion 

ii^ DrilUuc » boJo for a Umv <i4itrii]^ Tlic anoiuttl^ of UBrcg 
CUi|>a»dor vid Bkfity lun^n in Itic wtmiT pTntyr Is ilt^tntyod by Ibo 
«R <if OMStic liroe^ vbieh forfm o;it ibn roal by ibd fixpannTci cioEton 
i4v«ter oo Uie Inach 

17. T^ mak of vstericg tbo Jimo by pumping. 

IB. Tliu KvclU Uii? hlUm maX. 

19. BolUInft ft co^vaU^ft ntrong hoiiDflnry t« tfie *'gfmf*' or 
(D^«lii«b oofttttfMof iioTcAisaof th« old norbiug and ttic aub^iduiit 

9EL Book " ripping," ^Imring n iixif nliicL Iiw vub^kkd juicl ro- 
farilf ibo beVfllil of iLe vuj» iii> h>H (j> U-Hvc T\yim ftir thfl Iiotbm tr> gf> 
ikuigh tb# old vorkfo^ I'Lu i> tho laaat ibiug^rona opuntticru 

SU Sdlififf tree! or opnght timbon to injp]>orl iIlc io;;f. KnoU 
ln« V nbuusLioD hoo m op t^r lid, imd tiiny (Lt<: pliti^cd 3 fnnt 

tt Drawittg timber bj movis of 4k obiun fur ttao ftgain. fio lu to 
aDm tb« cool li> foil or ftubflido naiformI/> nuJ not to br«ak up iii 


S3w Et^miain^ a wMto fi>r gML Thin ia dono two or ihwo lime* 
ft4^ by ipccul irriDcn idtJ] tliu crdtoary aafoty lAmp. 

H. Topping old Torkiug for w&ter; a iionroc of groat trouble iu 

9ZL Trying iho rt^t 

B8. A ■ttrroying ptf^- A fault in iha ttotati u ihown in tbfo 

97. Tb« fojiMCQ UDod fjr vcnUliLtirjii. Thi» biu now bcem 
thttloBod ktr nora jt'^^ct ftnil lnn« vaflt/iful tneofiFLrLlfuiL ooQtri- 

1 httTO ftboini yov tao^i of tho oparaticinii ooTiocotod wiOx (Lo win- 
inv M^ irariing of cool ; ooma of Ibo rinkn the miiLi^r iQcur« ; tomu 
if no trunblM oriKing from put. vuUir. ntul falliug nvifK; nnd onn of 
4o modal of produdng veutilniioo — ih^ Hiior piiiti-ntton «f lUToidoat. 
_jnM|<mt minoaoodd Hto boon in duyn yjimo ly it ir4 irupoMibiti to 
^Hpetho ; DOW mechanical aiipUhOCco arc »j A^iiDirikVlo (but viMif 
^^bm am n« pcitfcctly vnntilnUnl aa our ImmcK. Thr^ i^Eiipnmtiim 
^^■lov groQSkd :a au nniforiD —tG^ Y. at fiO ftMl, arid ri«iuc; 1° ft^r uiioh 
^BIIboC — tbo roniiati«iZiB aro ho dry tliM T bavo actnnlly huard it pro- 
W Mid lo«ot»bltab a aaaatoriuia for ooaaumptivv |Mtticitt« otadotgionQd, 
I I^ie4 bf olcctriclly, and niippliod witb »/i;ry luiitrr. 

AH EUfioa ftf<nr[iqiiirfid Ui bavd tm» i(biLftft-^^tir> ihn mfditvordowilo 
vtt. tbo oUior tbo return or up-oiuti and tho wcrkiimh oro «o inler- 
bttl wiib «roj* aad roads, doom ara insortod b«ro Atvi ihoro to diroct 
ta roneut. uiomouiokn tm luod Iv ukooauro fu rjito of (Tow, tliat 
■ay nirtinary (nrmd nf ga* U cwiftly awopt away. Firo^amp, or pit 

jifr, WiliUm fftfnry Pneft 



ffutj u ouLTRb Mc (C Q,). Il oomt oat gcmUy frata tbo cxpobnl »oan, 
V flomotuact it tniNto ool UuDo^ •omo watvo irr: th 1^^ 
ffluil ut) fxUed "^UovcTV." If il bo mixed vitli air* b iho profwr- 
liua of IromA to 9 pernnil of gM, il bKViraea higTily fiif1<«£fe, B&d 

I Ift |p«lea« nunc* candkfl lUwajs haTo been uul BtUl uo nod« lial 

[in oorlj iliijw^ in fLUil iiluou, muu bad Crorjuautly to vrurk ia the dttrib, 
or to W oontoat wUh ih*^ iwh\» iMumiwakaa of the phoapboreiouD^ 
uf dooKfing fiat. It is nonftrkftblo how 0M #gM id&pts iUolf to liaiihl« 
U^ nnd in itc CimmCTiaD dojrknoM of • eoal-mnw CTCD pboapho- 

nfjacuiicohw ft iiMrfal iliaminDtlDf crflixTt. la auavj phiooi tWy und 
ihc tUtl niil^ o di«D of bIciJ ruiilif^ npiilly ■^obijct Ant, giriiig light 
bj Ihv ihu^m (if ipubi tliro«ni dovo. It u most ran&iLable tluit no 
eoi^nltfio thoucht ma cIcTotod lolhls subj^i unlil IbK. in I8I3 
Dr. CUuiiy, vr NovrcMilcv h«(l donnd % Tuy |HWr kiDp» lh« ali to 
mippori wEiii^h wvK drlnui by hpUoArn tlinm^ wnior; bill in TftIA 

I Bit llaoipliry Daiy dov9ti><l hiM ]>oqL«rfa! mud ood akilful b»nd« t« 
picIti^ tho qoretioQ, aud sptnliij luvintod in tiiie T«ty luntittitioii Lb 
imiuoitul eofctj lamp. It n a rD[ii&rk>bl« coijkUqucx? lijut in U» 

■ AuuuiuoDtli anoUior lutwif ful but \i\ti\iutr*A m\j\A, by »traug oleemtfit 

r ]M>wovv a&J pdrOEDficLaTiiojil n^iuouiiL^, l^cLd nrriwti kI Tvry Tuarij tha 
Buno nxialt; uul ctoq t:> thic da^r tlic iLfFLftioanto rcEOOtnbraiioo aAd 

* lijuiio of the ontincijt NurlLumbiuu tskJuxiuian, Ucorgo StoplidUKm, 
iH iiiutiUiueil Li>' lltu mw cf tliv *" Qoordicv" in hbi oJd home, tha 

OHvy'N «liujai«ftl paper wa« r«ad bjforo tfco Korml Sedeff, oa 
Novvubor n« 1815, and wtm entitled ^^ On the FSro Dmd]! of Cvel 
Ikfiuoa; uiJ tiu Mullioda nf Ifit^bling tbo Mltki *» tks U> Trfrvcnt 
KT^lciiiiiii." Il<» blio^'ivl tliat floiao wonTd not pmu throngh iranll ^ 
tnbM aod epoTtims, a&J liow iu uaimiarBtivi.dy altll air, howitr H 
cliLin;i>l ^rith gUf a wirii itAiiieo fturTOUuiafjc llio Hamo 00 rodaoed tflio ^ 
tt^iiiiiinkfLirv by rnilmLiipn l}i»t viplowou vraa uujioe«ibK tu^^tnvf 
iiiriuid r^fiiMiif prorlmiUnf pombtintinn nn* nvJFtiiiL IfoHbrvied that 
A 6aiiic ko prot4«tod gnva immodinU] intttDalioii of the i^roaoncc of (^ 
by buruiur; diitily, and by booomiiu aipi>«d with a bJao flanw, or 
aarctjie^ Uiat tLuugli the >nro gauo dooudu rcdJii>t» il elill rndiakod 
nwiiy Ihii hi«l itufnclontly to proTrml 1t« i>w;hiti|{ Ibfr t*Ttup«vmtara 
imiiit of csploaon. Ho aliu^ pointed oat, ivhich biut bo^i «trat>g*ly 
EkOirlDotcdf until onforiMd roooDtly by tha lioyol U^nuniHicoari o& 
\ Aeoidonlv in Mine*, tbni it failj^l to ni^t in a ciirronl of ait, bnl that 
IbiM ufli-i-'l of (juritMitB cuuld Lti diuiuiiaiicHl by idiiidding or prtitrtf^ifig 
tho till (ft of air. 

T})u iDAiti prtEidplo diccAVorod by Dnvy i9 tho hafltB of all aUiriy 
Innijm ImrnirLS oil ox npirit, bnt noToml d«par1nm id fonu hare hocn 
lir(<]iu»c(l ut iliiTuTunt Liiucd^ Thu ''Gnordtr" b iii mJity a Datj 
buup wilb n gfciH rabioUl, Tbc^ '' Jiv.*:!! " tiuiip ]« a Davy in u tin «iei. 
TI10 ''Clanuy" 1b a DtLTy lomp vilb iLu Ibuuc p<jHiuu >vrroiiAdt 

tm B^^ /fOi^M in C<^tifrie». 


vitli ft bowiet or vbidd to protoot it from cumuto of aii, Tlio 
-* Mtnaelc* " or Bc ^ an type, i« k " Clanny " vriLh » noatr&l muUUio 
soBft Mting U a Iboh^ Iu tiimaM Uut dnitght, (Uid tborafijrd Iba 
U^^ l%o ** BfAnMitr" or iLe ynmcli tjpo, ia a bonoctod or pro- 
Mod "OUany," wJIL tvo uid ihrc« gauKOtf oddwL tu incrcwo tha 
mmAjt. ^io kiibW of Iaui^ i» ]v|-iou. A iiuw iutukv ki^i^ii 
^■A CfETD"' there, a nnw lUnsctkai t/> thfr mrrmiU of dr fooling Uiq 
ftiBM^ ft dMknga io tho form or cbixructor of tic wiclr, a lode, a 
Aflbnot fonn of pridber, n nbnt^oST or «xtuif;^uihQr (nutamihtio or 
BBBodX i* i|<iilo BuCdwit to juatifj u uvw patutit nud a ti^ir tmuiv. 
IW BojkI OoomiWcn eipuziiDvuUHl uixlii 350 difTL^rout kLidd i;f 

tlio coDUuaMCAKiiit of tho jrottr li tinvF Aot luw oomo InU* 
$mtm ttaAem£ il luUwfid to ubu tho pIuQ '^ VnTj,"" *^ SUiphcnvio,*' 
NT ■'OkBiir* Uwp in EuiuLvi uLcre tULfi^ty Iuiu[h ure tii.-(xnuiry. 
TWjr t&Ml be Bhiftbierl, uitl gT«at unmlion aT*i Mftg (y>Tiv(iitr*<l fTit> 
bwiritd ^ JkUrttuifl "" vid ** HQ(w«l«ni." Thoy uk a.lm buLnj- oou- 
rtrwM lo baro tho be^l nijpjUblo ciL (npc or ooIxa), !■> whteh ciuo> 
iJbbtl Biiotfal oil u addod, ft« rocommoiidcd Iff tLo BoyjU 0>atiuiiuii^ii, 
to iImpimi tho ]jght-«iving powur uf tlio luap, Tbiw ci>nviirU>d 
Ihbm bftv* kttffted uL Mt«ttiptit t> iipludu Ui«m in currvutH cf 
dqiMVO 0»aet of T0T7 big;h T«]vcity» um uatd«r tlio moet rIciJ toaM. 
Than m «oTct«l objcctJooa (u tuoso oQ l4aa|)0. Tltoy tcu out, or 
«o ptti ottt whiiL (Ijixtf^r riii4.4; th<iy rr-fidnr iTiat luiiHt Lm|itirUnt 
nd tfM&tttI dul/i cxnmiiiftttcm of ttu roof, difficult iLud iiivufl^c'Eoiit. 
If UmJ l>ocX<iiO CnlilKgiliBbed bj ucddoiit or (Ltwdt^tJ, tu(i<:h tiuii! i» 
PMnMtfily WAct<d En goUiD); ihvm nili^^htud. uii ujriniLiuEj tLitt uiuat 
b» ilnbe wl or iii«r tliu Miafi, purlt^hiM twu iiitl{;i4 nivik^ friiEu tiju work- 
lag ftce^ wul whicJi thoroforo tcjiucdk itc autpat a{ cn&l and tho 
auvlajE* of Ibo ocdJicr. The li^ht tb«y giro, ctcq at Ibo Lost, ia 
TtfTj—n — nhmit ODC-tliird to LaLf of & caixdli:. 

^Iicn ve MfvcnJ dui^uni pruBuuL. TLu fiurul Comuiiasiira 

tad:— '"Th* aoiiTcvi at Tfffht wltTiin tti^ lAinp nhfrnli! I«^ unAlilrf im^kir 
«aj circuuiAlaxLOCi, %t iJl likol; to oooor in workinic coni to ouueo tho 
i^aiLkia uf un i a Aixntimltlo nuxiuro of firr-dmrip and ur, even vrKoa 
IW i« Mvdog at a bi^ vuluoitT/* Hut i^Ijuaoji httxX by wakr, 
bmtt Wlin^ ocaI, axul Mx^donL JoinlH got luww und bod ttmn tfbuii 
pfelec«od by ooUrtce WMb€r& 

n«^ proTC li cooMost tpOoipl»tion to the ttioii^htlciw (uid odJo^u 
Id (dL a 1&>L. Tl» perfect litcbl dov nut i^ilti at prcrtcnt. but wLilo 
#■■» taariiHnind Io^ia anr vi-ry eE<v»llci[it in ilmie wuy, tluuLriuity 
MiOM likiklj to atop in and int|<ply llicir il^'fi4.^k'ti<iiw nnd l^U n 
^ifiillid vMit An doctrio Itaip Oou bo toodo ti> ^vo any dosirod 
HBoml uf Ligbl, bol onytlutiK Mtvoan balf ft cikiidU and n cojjdlo 
MMm ttftDjr ftttftiadflo, ttcd in<^1l n li[^bl can txi »miutaiii4.'d nlvmly 
ft^ bvlftfat ia <x]ileftivo (pUKfl oad in mUuhf; cumuU ol' ikir, 'fW.y 
mm «»pW iu ciMUtnictKiu, cofy of uiupi:cinju j Ibey ore not Ukuly 


Jfr. Waiiim Ufiuy TreMe 




Id bn otingnlAhfvl In hsi»fl1ln^ lilcn tho MnwilcTr ; hoi ihaj da cot 
Mct u dffteokr of tbo |iH-«nco ckf gBa,uid Uiof mi^A cajilodo gw if 
'thcAT protoatinic cJbm thitld vciv iceideiilaUv brokaa 

It ia reEuulcBub Uut Dnry Limwlf in 1^15 cip«niiieated vitb ^ 

•vr Umii in n do«ed tccI ofgliiFii^ but it wu^ tjfit bDtfl 1dG6 ITifti k 

• unull Ofdwicr lik£« ilJnntiiuitod by mpu-lu from an usdvotiofi coil 
and cicitcil by n primary balto^ ; but it inia bcoTy^it mw a kinct 
uf kT]n{»ar-k tu bb oLtritd uoi tUc» bftok, tftud it uiut wilb tw miuaaw- 

Ur. Svan ?iKa Ik^^i mom nKwenTnl, 1li« gn^it «iiDOd«a of tba 
^iKtvf \hta\>. iu Uio iutrMtuctimi cf vhieh ho iiaa |>layod •» moniimt 
5 ihlH. and Ibo porfoGtioa of tho nocondAry hattnry bavo toiAlod bim 
to i^r^idiicu a lamp tlmt compare* in tveitfbt and aizo aod liicbt witik 
tho bavt moDhatLit^ikl lamp. EiAbt bioudrMl of ibso Lamp* arn tn 
eoixtUiit nsd in Ibe Notional OdIUotj in ibo Hhon^iilA Viill«t iA 

tBouUi Wales, and 1600 move uo €& w<Ux fi^r tho Riaa and Abor- 
carnu C^Uierjoo bvI<iD|[ui^ Ur Mcnre. Wfttt*, WittU, tmd C*j. Thtsj 
ore gfring groat mUt-tiabon. A onlli^r tiili) mn ih:tt tba ot»tH<: 

pli^t vckB ** ihH good u tli« moon." Tbo lamn lutUiHoa arc cbargiod 

'■ great number ni a timo in blotikv al thv jiit bank. 

I* Mr. l^Lkin Lftfl aL»D bttu lury aiiDOO«ofii1 in luaklnc Ijk'^t portable 

'lampK, and th^y harfi Ihhih |imctical]j usoil In C>miiocK Hiujiv a^vl at 

Tho "9nn" lamp is nnolhor xcty pronLiaici^ fbrnu worked kyf 
pcc4>iidory battery. It i« li^lib— 3 lb. llj on. ; it giT«« 1} caudle, and 
tbiH In uuiuLiiiiitd for itm lionre. Btjcuudary (v^Uk uaudJly nnjuiru 
•IxiUt twolTd kotirH* oIi)irgf> t^' await n tt^n bonr djj4(jbargi\ but th\t &^\\ 
Till ^^ a toh-hoTir ditvhargo vith f -iir houn^' ch^rgtA, It in IJItol 
witb n nafi'ty appliance — 4 plan palaatod by Mr. &<;i]nott in I6fi3^ 
bjt^ whicb tbc- lamp in uiiknuLti cully awitctiDfj oui tbo inntaiit tljh.1 tbo 
DiittT pruUt'tirig gU«H iBi brrjhtin tir rntrkml, M that cuutocl bctveon 
tlio Lot t}{ tho \aia\t luid Iho oip1oBiv« gaa itt prvircDicil. 
fTbii* »«f&tyup]il^'^i^°^kafl1'<^^ UiLtod by Ur. KliodcA al tbi> Aldir&rcko 
CuUii^rj iiL Jiotiuil f:xjilrip(iTo niixturoa. 

Many offorU bnvci bf.x-n mndu to iiitrtxitifn primary battirrioc for 
the Huoo tjurpoAO, but up to tho pTMat^ut momctit I baro ^cn mily 
f.OM — tbo Soliuisobitill' — wbioli, iu cnu^itmoy) Lghtncse, and ccooocny 
contea up to Ibo r^qoiroraoritii i^f » infijiy buiip. A primary hai thia 
a(1v]Liibi|,*ri nvt-T a Kra^dury bulti^ry — tltitt it \h c-hnt^tM\ at onc« by an 
opuntion as chnplo aa tiat of triiDtciiig a Davy. To trim a Datj 
mcoua tboTongh oJooiiiDg. itusorlin^ a iraih vrick, printing in now 
oil. A pnniREX bfttkry moanv pounng out old, uid potuing lit fro»1i 

OocwlonfttW sIncA ronnirtt n^nAwal, bnt all tboso op«mtionv wft 
vitkin tho intclLiicoiioo 01 tho t^otlLcrt ikiid tlio lompe nood not go Eo 
tbi! nirfjitc. Tlio fiimp licit J of tho oporatioM ba« di^tiuct irr(>nta u( 
iUt (oni tlijkt coinpiiianU^ for Um crxlru cimt of ilia nmli'.mlrt iimid, 

T1)C cliEvf I'bnnn uf tho clocLrio iomp in not tbu grcAt^ir ligbl that 



im St^fitjf L9mp$ r« dfttUncf^ 


d c^rtAf bol Uie |>owi!r it ginM llic viewer to camuliwi thv ruofti vt iLu 
«mj« vil irarkincpi ; U U m Ai£r#m4i|y pnriH>i1^ itEiil hiitiilj ; it pad bn 
Ml Miyvboro ; Ilia ballcry cau bo flocc^l on ihit ^TXinrtd or friL«if<iadod 
Vf K spiko to ft tnM\ ui4 the lamp con bo flu^ in tlio o^p or ■Tonnd 
iKc vmkt; it out bo put uivvbTv ^iid avnl liuj-lit^w. 

Ut. Sopvilh. &1 OuiDork ClitMt. tkiu» txt^ri ukJug liunvy bittkriafl 
l»&ftwaruag ftoo, 4nd naiiig blight 6-cM)(ilo Uiii|i8 m rtiUfK^tc^re, 
» « to lUpaniiwIo tbc w&ribg &oo wiib n liicljt ^hJdi in thikt 
ii^«n ift eoaDDVaUo to dAjligliL Tb« men nro diArmcxI witb it. 

Tbo ehna Aaf«c4» of tbu clnatric htapa aro their fn^^lity, tbo 
Mi^y of the Qi^bovi fiUnuut to to^k. tbo weight of Ui# bftltor/p 
mI tt» ftbMttoo of gu doCtfotiOD ; Atd tt«M ticfbota btro boea tcoy 
nocb caJift&o«d bj impcfffoct oonalnictjua uid mjuilicirKui dcUHa. 
SacCikivM bflTo Dot wf^% iiDfflin«Qt timo in tbc lowi^r rc^ii^iniui, <ujd 
|nelMal ooUiv* Iidti? no tima t^^ ^ tc thu lifKimtory. Wbt^u tho tvro 
fRrivBom W9 pt^pcly uu&lgiuuiitihl uc ubiLli rcry Lkolj obteiu tbo 
Mi nfeir ktnp. 

IW wcli-io Iadbp h tujt a flrv-^up JuLvott^r, but or oloctricftl 

fiAe*tothi4 purpoAQ U skaiI/ nddiul, TJTi^tTig ntnl Sv^an Iiato 
IkU ; but it n donbtfttl vbothor x mntti cfiiduit dotcclcrr than thu 
Dm ttnirtSi VDcL wfaotbor ui appantun that in sa thoroughly utirLiT- 
iM, ftod to tliorvu^dy pnciiukl. will be «aput«o4vd tw a ]»urpuiM 
if «hi«h It MOm* no «imDniitTy ftc1*pto<t, 

J ouAot •ovtcilado, ^pociafly tu thin pbcf^ witb moro ppcfjDaitt 
«t»di tliAH DftTy'^ovn: — ''Tbc((nitTfication<jf tbolorocf knowloJ^o 
ii dvlicbtf 111 to Of cry refiiml mini: but n much highar tuotiru » 
fftmd in itxlalgtiiii; in it irbmi tbnt k[lLl41l^lg« in foU tn Iw iirui-.liuiil 
ftmtt, tnd mb*rtt ib^l pow^ir tufty b» ftj>plii>l t} lui«on tho miiu^riog or 
tlio oomf^rt* of OUT fiiOJow otu»luro3^" 

(W. 11. i\l 

flia Sir Hemy DimWm [Feb. 17, 

Friday. FobruMy 17, 1888, 

WiLLux HiraoiNv, Eaq. D.C.L. LL.D. F^RS. Vioo-ftecidoat, 
in tlio Ch&ir- 


Soma D&fdopmetiU ofEwjUth PoUery d%ni^ (Ke tasififtj/ yeort. 

Tits opporttinitj for tbc efforts of the potten of eacli Buoceediutf age 
lies tu tho fact that tho mamifactiirG ia based on coDditions ivhi<£ an 
constantly Tarying, and sometimes even startling in tboir □iie^>eoted 
results. The material with which the pottor deals is aa Taridd aa an 
the localitiofi from whence it is taken, and aa infinitely divernfled as 
arc the workcn' tastes ftod ingeniuty. And farther, the £nal and 
cBscntial proccoa, the anbjoction to fin?, " which tries every mao'a 
work of what sort it is/' and especially trice the potlor^s work, is 
hidden from view, and under this oondition the last stages of tho 
work may be bcigbtonod in effect or hepolcaaly maired. 

The progress of the art of pottery afTonls many strriking inatanoei 
of the laws «5 growth, perfection, and decay. Ah Bchcx>ls of ^lOoBophy, 
piictry, and paintiag are subject to rise, cuIminaEion, decline and fftfl, 
t^i iH tho letter's nrt. It is, howovcr, a. striking &ot, that, with 
hardly any oiccption, only those potters have boon able to maintain a 
loii^-liTcd career who bavo relied for their staple manufaoture on 
utOitorian rather than dccorativo wares- A proportion of the naofiil 
Bcems to be an oesenlial condition of any d^rce of permanenoo. 

A school of artistic pottery ts short'liTod, firstly, becauae it is 
dependent upon individual tosto and culture, and, secondly, becanae 
it is not remunerative, ^Vcdgwood, Worcester, and Minton bare 
unclouhtcdly mainlainod their contiuuoua production through so hmg 
a pcri<id by careful attention to tho requirements of domcstio as weQ 
as ortiamcutal pottery, 

I projiOBO, in tho limited time nt my disposal this evening, to 
indicate the progress of the last fifty years in both nsafol and 
artistic pottery, and the happy blending of both qnalitiefl in Boma 

Professor Church, in his masterly work on English pottery, says, 
" About the year 1790, tbo careful, elegant, and rteh wares which had 
lieM their own for nearly half a century, wore giadnally displaced by 
iiun-i^ g<rrgeuus ]>roductions, covered with gildiug, and poeeosaiDg even 
h'lit) freedom and epontanoity tlion the works of Chelsea and Etruria, 


m 3tmo DM^apmttti* tf B^HA P9lterf. 


in &et, Tftlff^ «lwn not morolj rochlo." Tho ilocttdcsoo wh\<^ 
then ni in cuotinood ontO tLo comnicnocmicnt of tlic new rouAiMnnoo 
with ihe reign of Hn BIj^usIj- 

Ptod it* pnritj ftn^l dnrubililj, pottdfj, «nbndlig tlio finottt 
MNokin uid tiio roti^mt GnrtJiQaw>j«« ku boon » nacful ft^nsot — 
I ni^t alnuMit m7 ^a ftbsoIuW nooowty — for tlie noitanu, llto 
chetmjit, thtt aicfdlnot, ihtt m^nmiitnjyttj ntid thn filectriclan- 

TboinpidftdnDooof diemicftl and other ACJontifio dUeornrid^, ntid 
tLo fnBortioo to mocndM^tarott of »Qittitifio PfOoMnML, boa Abo tod to 
« witr incMMod (jcmuv) for pottery siutod to mtoK oporatjoiu ; 
vbQ« tne gigiuriio (1ftial[>|ineul i^ lelBphono uiil t«i1otjni|>rj tiiw \\ad 
tti propoiiioiule «4bct <m i)»cl«ry pmonctinit. Thn irtpnioH g^cn 
to matnllnigy iam brought ftbont n F^otlj oxtocdcd noj af ornoiblt 
•al tlio i^iftd odruieo of Miuinrj' ndc^oc hon giTtn n dintij 
InpnlBD to pottery nuulinturu. iudwd. iHitlury liu iu iin n 
4a^!rm taa^aoBA to the nticf«^'i4>rT n^lmton of t^in gr^at Aioil 

CU«M ol Iba pwwn t «^ Tb^ oppliation of torro-ootbii, tuo, 
to Ibo nioft nooeadnl rt«aItA. 

mwNUDORcltMDoaiuiNibiitific icmu^ vtiidi bnro Enc-ltiiiliod tho 
dennnd fiir polterj vmrw h&To had un L'd|Tuil ]itflu<Micv iii impronng 
dMfir qiuli^ uid dScicfflCj^ as woll u reJuoEng Ibu cotti uf thoir 

In l34Cr4litktfii^iii^ ui i^tcitptTo uno of etonowniv for etrwl attd 
luiQWi dminiigp, I brptti a iquwvl fivinrf fot ItE prmliirticm, im(\ iiinofl 
llmt tiBU Ibo Dum&vtitre bun iDcrcwbod till it nuy nuw be couaidoKid 
ft gmU Mticosal indvUr. 

Tbe ioimducii'-ii of mUbM^ auiks, loTBlariee, ^IaeuJ bncJci, rcuUlat- 
bg «&d it>|«kou trojov Irrigftlion pE|h08,}iTid twMty I'tlnr hivUTitiftua 
bav9 in kto yenm pn^ndsd tho mouin nf grctttly ri^ndn^ t^iij di'Mlb" 
ndto of Iftrpc eotnnnmiliM, and it in not tc4> naiioh to ntj lli&t RanttiLry 
«cie<»cc hjfi ultonoed ftsHpatn vith iho um of pottery. 

Tbo iiMTiMMiji^ ikmud fur cbomiul TUueU of tit^HK-^-ELm mjinMn nf 
vcaUtliig noddi may ho n^nled tt gMng tbe Ant Uni^'timil imptilH} to 
Aa I^TtM*^ roOanoL At Uio wjgnt tto«» otro oiLd c^piricu^-, 1^ 
i nl bei vitb boiler nuebincfy for tho preponilioii of tho jiuU^ruJ. u^nloa 

'^ jH«^1*hlil tajg— blrt- If! !■■ Ii rtf ftn'f nr fl»*% liTmilwyl jp^HnuH TltpftfrHy^ 

Under Ibe fntcgory of thiii|^ both DUL-fiil imil Iviiuitiitil m pottory^ 
en «artboti«uie tiJetL In ISIO, B. Prowur, of Binniiif^am, obUuni ~ 
■ ftopf for the nuiaftelnre a bnttoi» by ruduumg tho matorU 
^omJiUn to ft d/7 powder, MKlcnbjcctins II loBtronKI;n^*>w^*'«m 
maA Aim- Pt t i— ; r dbtpoftwl of part aS hilt irtbimfit in thU pfttODt t* 
MiBlo^iriKi tixn nmlo •omoTei; bannttfiJ tiiEtonn nnd ntiidfli In 
1841 DMiMJ ooDMiTed tbftt Ibis pmoo^ tni^^ht I>c citooded to Ibo 
man^dban of null lUeo mnd lenenc Iil l^J. tku piuoou i^ 
iiwlbiftirri WIS eifalbiteil 1^ Prom uiil PliudiflL-lil a,i ft muitiug of 
ibft Bml Bocdoty. vbon Uir Uut rHnoo Contort looh gnot intomt kt] 
tb« sMkiaff of loncTKy ond dodrod on iLCcount of tbo whdo sQbieet 
luboftont bm 


Sr Btm$ Dot^km 

[Folk 17, 



To ihoaa boM ftblo to aft^fecULe tbo obtUdei to be ovc«Twmo, t)i« 
tMntM adbiCTvil fn this divKtton ht Miiitoi», tod Ui4^ ou b/ Mav, 
iUi^d out iA Iritimplkt of radtttil tocenuoal Tcmrc^. 

I Cftttunit liore rtAmio nvED tvudnnug my Uibuto of lulmiratliM lo 
tko bomtiAil IdcUw putb&Ty ccf jyc Mf>r^rir vhirh Iiah hul iu prtnAlftf 
uiplioftlioa lo bles. Of ^ tbo Adftpt&tinna of P«ni4ii tin] HiM|i«AO- 
uoa«tiliio irt> l;ia Iiaa U^d tL^ mo«l MioccwfuL JkUw & 1>\ bure, 
liovrcTcr, Udoly aleiMtt ritnlliMl ui tlioir oirdiury jjruduotijuM Ibe 
«ili|llirite wnHc at lijin nclionK 

Nor miKit vre fntl to uotioo tbo coaBln«Hva fuoooc or gha^ lorrw 
eoHftto ttooOMifiill; prMlD«>;d daring tho Lut few vom Igr UoimL 
MktOQ. TCIoocIe, Citff, Aii^l IXmltoa, wlikli Lw Ulolj bosooD s 
TofXjcnlMd KMdiod of enkl>oUih1iTii4<ut fur iiiaat of our 1ftt|^ botelt. 

Of Iftto yMM llio 9r«<1iml ktrmliirtion of fimclMy into ^ 
pkicca in the thftpo of tUlMi for Wk Aud nulcn hfu iUr»t<:d i 
to tho^eunldlitjof iUiotrodofilioai in Eoglu^il iu tbt? fonnof 

ftppBTflnt t^ukt proij^ofii rnLbcT Umn diMXifOvy bw rufLrkod lli« a(*o xj 
Cur M lottery U oi:>EicvirQOi.i Tho IHtb (v&ttuy i» £lli>l wilh |b> 
ita-HEt* ijf L>ioucwrm in (bo poller'* uX in tbU oHmtFy, wbono patio&t 
TOKAruli liu uiiuMeil lliutr fjllowon to improvft ftn^l peHort Ibo 
tt«ulU. But it ifl ililUcTill to reoftll duHng i\ti* Viotorian nco muj 
iiocovurcn b pWtic mftoofAoinro vbieh c*u bo nuucti on Uie mjdb 
liocMi M tboM of Elcn Uid Aibburj, wbo iiiinxlqccil I'rouu J flml ; 
fkdLot of LivDrpaal, and Dr. Walt of WoriH!«t^T. nrhn fntrrhliiM^ 
potboTT prljitiii^; Cookafrortb j» kftojia ; and Wodgvrwd.jiurfiQi- nuo; 
mid otbcr important diisoorcvon. 

The iiilnxluGtii>ti of )oi»d-gUio uul of tbo prooftu erf ttvuifcff* 

wwn, whiclj virtHttUj f^eosed at tlie end of the Jn^t etmtury. 

Tbo dinoovonr b^ Josoph Sfodo uf cpoqno phinn wu fnllowod br 
tbo fcrfootnig of ptnATi. TLia pooctjub wm ffrtAtlj <luc to f'opclfind, 
bat tliuru is liUlu di>uLt ibat MmLijiiB uxjitTiuiuuLa in llit- nmvs d\ne- 
ticiu xvC'FO eimiiltMinaQG, During thn post tifty ymrfl thnro h(U boeo 
oontiutiouA dovfilopnioQt at ' Minton'' production j>, and tlioir 
nAme» togcthi^r with tbow of Worccttcr ood Wodgwood, occupy ■ 
IHMitiou of bDQuur vnout; ^Hittem in Utor itmiB< 

Thi^ uitut<^Tty ooi^ntictnn nf Bolt la onainol paltiliti^ on cUrk-bloOi 
or "Liniogee Worcofftep," together with Uio Iftl^r iutn><lDOtioa by 
Mp- Binna of ivt^ry porcelain ftt tbo It^^ynl Poroolnin W<>rkfl, kto 
ucLiu^tiuuutu (if nLich ibo prcecnt t^ft moy ju«tly foci proml. 

S^lt-gta^cd StiiifKitrf*. — In ciintTiinJng thu viu-i^iiu Kiiglivb watm 
of «orly daU, AtoutitvcLrc* urro^U mUiitiou «a & grcM ftdfAucv ca M 
thaX has ^onu' bufoTG* That udvuuco Vfos duo, not oo Kuob to tuy 
patii^ut iuaigbt iuto i|auli(y or Adauxtiinj of cnatonjili fts to ft dlstiut^tly 
nov(]El piiriE^iple of TuiiniifactHti?, Tix. tlie glnKiTtg of worn hy TftporriEv 
flux wbilo opproAcbiug tbo vtbri^isg ptuut, uouimoi) eill being tbrowa 

cm Some Dcetkpm4nt$ tf/Z^^lit^ Pi^knf^ 


Idtn wlirto »t fnll white bmL TIut dcoampamt fumuH ol aoiIa 
with the micDtc particle* of lUio* in the «arfaM of Uid wnrVp 
Ifota & Ihm gluaiy oosUog of intoiuo tutlAM«. EiporicDcc »m>u 
ib«Di Iho duHMfToctm tWt Uio full r^ufllitiofl of iho ^Uaing by tlJii 

Mlf pohrt* en tt&l tIkiMB nuoos ttdckptnl to kitd IHllin^iry to ttin 
on uo of neooMtty pvodoood ckocUoooo of bc4; u&d lEtratigtli and 

TIhjw^ telcatoil deounCurA him« <:«rUi[il7 «mj>lojro<l ou Dr^lfl 
wo in Livabeth nt thft mtIj jukH of llm prnuint mntory, t\fi ittl^m|il 
*M n»ile to ^W^J tliia loJont anil oiporiciLOO t> Lh« ctubdlifihrnoat cf 
liW ill glattrn viro, viich noi allowod to nnh into a mnntiCiu'tiiro 
fciuid of oil imaUiuco to hatxiVf, Suoli wui tbu cvmlilivii uf iLo 
tQUiofiMTliira al ihiH tJiiif.v Jiinl ftctcli it coiitiuotfil aiitil ISGT, 
tlM int «Airtt wor* made at LivmUth. 

It w WMiwwIkftI ronArkablo tLal tlto InU^il mttodnatioQ of tbo lut 
Uf ccDtnty ikould co^Ut cf aq krl-warc Trbidi, instead of ^tbcriug 
ip mXi tbn rcKHKram uid ct^wHoncD of Lbv jhuV Hpnng. ka it vrurv, 
ftOB ta «ltog«t^ur itiitoMndcDt stook. htui tlLOLigb 4n ■omo mp«et8 
iffttraallf ft r«TtnJ of oM tnkdftfoiu, ftnd riniag ap frotii tlio mIicaieio 

CBo iJto Dolft polkncf, tlioBaiilton «ti>Doviftro roocivM rie> iuKL^inw 
fpoia ito proQoocffivjni- It Iiak bouii tiucccnitfii! la ■t&rtiiigoatn 
frtb for itK-lf XnAh origiikAl luid pn^roiwivD. 

In lt^6^ U» iiJ«« «u ooocoivcd of fttUnufitiDg to r>ia« (wlt^gluzud 
^MiiwTii ttito IS ftrt nutoriaL Tbu fin4 ftttomi^ts at 4locor&t3ou wuro 
iffnml to furui mjJ relief trith aimplo coloarod iwuds aul ruiiuurr). 
To tlik, ** i^gmAto " or inciiocl ootlino fiM^ in with bloo, wixk hdud 
■4flnl A 1111011 coUootion of iroscc and jagM wiui csLibitod at tho 
hitrnttin^nl Exhibitioii of I'^m, 186T, lujd frum lliu tiino till 11471 
w tetber pro^tao w nmdc. Early iu 1^71 it nus dt-t^rmiijul to 
aake UPAfjr vffWli nt T<&inlwth Pntr^iy to oHginittc «iRri^pl''tt of 
iWiJialiJ *toxio«v^ Tbo rosalt dintincUj vi\x%^ ut w:ifi HUecnAtifally 
mil tbo pVAtor pDitioii tvorc cugurly parohtvs^^d fur tbo 
throughout Europe It ia mtififiicturj to know tbnt tho 
iifl i:fn>rtfi timi]^ tluring tb« laMt liftH^n ymrs to niuitrtiLm 
Wki^oit ahiI orfgiDal cbjibrb}tofbtlM of Uig ware hiTa beou uppr»- 

Tin Ifttor ittontliP cf 187^ oUto bini^i^ht f^bont Ibc i ntrod net jor of 
oatlrDly now bmuwb irf wdrku, ri:^. Liuiibtiib Fiuoiiini. n Wftn 
BOder tlie gUe» on a aofl biMOuit 6f viirm tou« und gUaod 

&ch IntenfttidDiJ KtUlbilion nJlod forth ronnvul c^tjrt, uij 
of Pitriii ID I87B WM hlill nKiro vuii^ and bujKi^Ujit, In tbti 
joftr aiiothor thtw watv wam intmilnord imllud " IinniUEiu,'' 
iJitfiirttinn bd&g uncule-l cti tbo «<yi t'luy by iti'iniTia of coloTtiwI 
In tbe j«arl8K4J lb<? t»*>'OaULd ''tiilkou" waro wuh inlrofJuotLil. 
ofaritrlfied Ht^ruurtikru iiupfvunAkd with lUc^UUio oiidofl 
ll itA lUiH and onatnd idth a ** lanoikr '" or HOim-gbun. 

216 Sir B. Botdlcm rm DeoOopmtmU of Bn^iA PcU^. [Fob. IT, 

It ig much tobefoftredtliittlietafltoftnduitalligeiuttof {nirc^utttfi 
bu not ftdranoed oonoorrfintly witb tho prodaotiou of really beMitifol 
ftud artietio woTk& There is with the piiblia of tho prceent time ft 
morbid onTing after norelties, iifespeotiTe of their intrinsic eioel- 
lenoe, and this cnring Loftves ndther designer nor mmnfactnr&r time 
to develop the foil oapabilitieB of his prodnotioiu before the pavinf; 
day of pnblic &ppreci&tion bu gone by. 

1 might here refer to two originol workers whose early training 
wu flccompliehed at the LambeUi School of Art^ vis. Hiaa Barlow 
and Vr> Tmworth. Mr. Tinworth undonbtodly owee tho reoognitioa 
and oarly development of hig powers to this Bdiool, uid opportimitiM 
of more advanood study to tho Boyal Academy. (Lantern vieva 
wero here shown of Bome of Mr. Tinworth's works.) 

The last ^ftj years has eoen development rather than initiative in 
pottery treatments, and science even more than art will probably have 
the greatest inflnenoe on this mannfactiiToin the innmediate fatnre. I 
wonld &in indulge tho hope that a large proportion of the works of 
this period, snrviving the ravages of time, will testify in the distant 
fdtnre to the combined beanty and ntili^ of the prodnotioii dt the 
Eng^^*f^ potter in the Yiotorian age, 
^*^*^ [H.D.] 

(The lectnre was illnstrated by a series of specimens, and in the 
library was exhibited a oollootioD of the productions of Donltcm, 
Minton, Woreestor^ Maw, and De Morgan, including some ivt^rajAfim 
of Messrs. Doulton's Borslem ware.) 

IU&] ru F#tjr n^. O. 0. Bt^U^ m WmmiMUr JiAeg. 



FriJaj, rdirniity 34, US8. 

'Ata> WooiM, £>!. U, In«t C.E. VicfsPn^ikat, in t]i« Ciiftir* 

TU Very IUt. Q. GnAnni-Lm Tt»*Dmir, D.D 
Deftn of WcctmuidUiT. 

tnrcTi wbo iipolo mnnTly from a tow &<iU«. bemi b^ iluruU- 
iig BlsiaHt in 4oa]Hiir on Utu ulmirpLlimiry ntign and miik£fArr<ina 
oC hEi ciLpML He ^t»^ a (i)ci>b^1i tvf ibrw or four Kdca of 

Ifcog^ht to ithioti b* or aUi»r« ip«Akiiig on «uvb « inibioot migbt 
iBtv E«ik£ood ttiDiiMOlw. no might Imvc fciin<l a riuli fioLl of 
fnliiTft itt tittdtiff tlia biriorf of thv rnvm f&bEio, fi^^m tlw day vrbon 
llto Nonnui iMtililein of K<tirHn1 the Coiffi-twir to^pbA the iiinictura 
vUdi oovcnfl nwrij or f;uilA tb« UTnn ground «« tbal oo which iu 

mJ voliiici^tD.(a) dctAiU. baTG dcwvibod ihv Moilt of llcary III.. &iii| 
itt iJaw oti^ (^riidiiiiL i.-i]iiij>luli(jti. till *l lunt, afLut five cimtum^ of 
ttftm wufb ftTiil «>f long jmiiiuv, itA wfAtfin Uimim nituti} njt t>i.'W nnd 
^MiBlvg ui Ho|tBtlh« pnetnr* of St Judoi^a Pni-k now an view. 
Kbo, «r «iik« novo oompobo&U P^ifilxt hftvo odJod their attention Lo 
^ AUwy M tt mDMivu of jiHoclaiA Tmlvw, frum tbt-^ taun.-l; urtljilic 
iid« of tU ooftUtiilf^ luDlodmy u thoy tTo & oi>T)tiiiui>iiK nir\v* of 
g|l|Tyh «nd foroigD nculptnro from tbt tUirtoccUi <?cm(i]iv down to 
jMlnrJtj Or, Ki^in. bo mJi^Ut hftvu inL^d U> pnt before ibom nomo- 
lUay «f tlic mncr life? and oiitw>r^ Iti^t^y of tbc grval Bcaodictinc 
■aattrtwij 9f wbicb LLbi Lti»Uir)c cbiir^.h f<irmud but ^ |RirL. Hnw 
1b« of tb« ifaoiuttfida ol rtiritar> Ui Ibc Abbuy thoiigbt nf tbo ooitorA- 
iHbi ol moiUn wbo for &CHJ jcftm poood thoM o]ouUr«, dkpt iti thi^t 
4iifldl0lT. aad outs O'^^^ kuoU io Ib^t cb>>ir, wbonc abbots were the 
tffvMVora, or ovdUBellom ox »ecroUnc«* or ftuiLusmJurav cr ^at^lcr* 
vf biBg*, vIhwi dduiuui 4Ih) oiAncm cmnjiriMvl Oydti Turk nuil 
St Umw'a, aoncli or aLI of Kvunugton friinicnft. nad sadi ilinttictt at 
CbUm, i'ttddtnglDn, BclgniTm. iu<l Cownl (fardon. Ur, fourlkly, 
W might Wre poi b<foro ihcrto, by tlio liid <i jpbotograpbj. illu4tni' 
luna of ibe tombia ffitd Hpoknii of ibo TiintAnc luntiKirij^A ivbiob thoy 
sviko, ftlibo In thMUOfllTA ftii4 in tht^r often toiicbmg JmtMKiHition. 

Bvt hoiroold tnra fitmi Uxxa t-ud oth4<T irivitiug vtKtafl of^lbonght, 
ml ooftUcI biDMslf tHtb putting bofoN Ihcm « fuw hictA lui to tbo 
fukra mfloeocco vboco comb[aoi motion had ifiron tbo Abbey Aach 
A bnkl on Uut Ufifflkmi nf all whu iipuiik am Uiigiui{jt^ sad wbiob 

VocXn- (Ko,sa,) *- 


ne Verf Bfu. O. QntmUU Aodlry 


gjVTA % Iian^rod-Coli] forco in tho proiont dftj to tho rtrikmg word* 
of Etlw^i^ IV,, nho m m lottor lo Ibo F^>Ot writton ovor Cbar e«»< 
larica rko, ntoko of it u iImt to tbv or^ Jn>?/fAiii«— Uio ^ vboU 

IHial vr^m ttian, wlul ftro ncnr, Iho clttiinfl ta «n aniqtin & pMition 
of a cbufr^b whoM k«Al tiUo V -"tt* CW^ril« CA«n-A c/ St. Pff<v. 
Vi€4tvuntUT^ i (I) it «« do iloubl a ^uab mnwiBfic ohnrcli. M ila 
vttr/ oaiuv of Ahhcf iaiilJcil, lU vutjr lci;ciif3«t siicU m llijtf of 1b« 
fit t^\o Atst mdo oburcb by 8L Folnr btnurdf, won 
iotortvinud vi^ it« VmI biitoiy, and b*d aMml iu «bbo(j 
in tbob porUsaeuniB and flnooMtfa] oferti to assort th^r «Bti>0 
iiHlep«)il«cio« of iLa Bo^lisb Eplsooitfttc. Bat b«d tbis btcn aU* 
[its tntercat migbl bavo gronn p^ wbtin it« dajn mt aa abUij cbifdi 
to ait «iiJirnndor Himry TLri , wlicn f'jr a ali^irt limo it bamafi 
rbat S^haiocp«an oaila it — a '^ CatbeiJMl CEiurcb " — unci r<iApj>«aT«d 
■itb its ]n-o*uut conetitD^OQ* It ii^ff«4 ibt ^iiij^ukr ^KMlIon to esoop- 
laj caasofl. For (3) it imn tlio srcat raoamacut rnifcd bj ti>o lait 
'of Lho F^ngliiib Ki&git wlio varo buira uf Alfanl; it Mrmi Rvutd by 
E'lwarvl llio Coafesior at hlit own burial -)ili««, And as eiiob iha 
tivw bait fvrtJ|ipL <ljiin«ty of tlio Cooqnornr olAtmod a ahoro in It ad 
kis lioiiSk amimcl lliulr ct\>wuei o&o afW ntiotJm bj biff uraTciQda, 
U11 At Uftt Ibe fajuo[i botwoou NciimAii nbJ EaKlinbuan wm uuirlKd 
tnr thu «reotion tit Iho laatt linportarit puri of tbft na« c^?i»ivb hy 
Uouf/ Ili'i who ahosa biH ovn ploim of «ii[>u]turo bj tho aliU of tho 
Slitioo in vbieb bo ploood tlio body of tho naistod Kiiiff. Hcnmd 
that abnno, ^th some iutcroati&g oicopticiuff, alopt bia aonc ssd 
■Qatanaon^ and it boflBroo move ond mora what Bilward TIL okjifomIt 
oalU it, tho ooloe«a1 " Boyal O^apM *' of tho Kin;^ of Rnglanrl, and 
lt4 liititory hDOALiio io frrory goaoration mora anil morn mtiirtwinod 
with the hiBtory of EngUind aa ahadaffcd forth ia ikwo King! — in 
thfiir oDCufiBiona. ttitir miitria^ft, tluur wam. anil tbcir dudbx <3) 
T" tliti |i£«rtnbt of En^lhiid i^f^^ it hud Iw^itinA ilrifif-— -Unit, an comtftln- 
in(^ Ihii rultoe of tb« rmtiro King to whau roi^ thny toakod bach M 
tho gciLdonagQ of tiio libertjeo of Eughuid ; udlat^oo oo tho aeono 
lit onl/ of groat rQlEgiaus coremo&ioB, but of gicat pogeouto bold in 
I mom 017 of nationul trioDDithtk Tharft tix)* So EIa spti<iidld Ohaplar- 
loQKi wiu thti moeliog plaoo of the Commrms of Kn^jUnd, of tho 
FttTliiimoiit tbat Wiia to bncomo tbo mother of I'ttrluuDcota. And {\} 
fjom tlio irtftkoning time of the IfoforinBtioii its induoncQ grew and 
wiik'iicd, Thuru waa nut murol; tho splondld additliju luarlu tu il 
on U»*.' v<*ry i^Tfl of Ihftt epoch bj? tha chapiJ of Hftnry VII-, Imt thnfo 
wu^ ihi' pocognilion of other forms of gr^EVtnew than tbnt of kingi 
ikTHl vrftrriora and sUtoamon aad abbote and cpcolc^iutiaai that dat^d 
fiuoi tbc urcotioj] (if tliL' niuiiuiutint to Cbauoor and tha LniiaL of 
fijHinwir. Th'i Udo of tnitin*ii *pr(wl oud deepeoed luUi ev^ry 
gencmtiop, till iu rmn'd of inrmninflntA tfiitohfd tho mnini^n^ ami 
oflbctionii of EQ^lifihrnoHj, 8cotuman, WoUh. and Irieb— alike of 
dttsoiib of tbo Antcrionn ltopol>Uc, of mombon of our 01m coWIaI 


m Wf»tmiii»trr Ahtiejf. 


uul nf TifttlvtA of Tfjflift — nlikoof Oiarehmen >fid ofNoQeoi>- 
Tbo Torj "jumble ami ohftod" or iDomuaOQta of wfaioh 
vailDn •ooBctitB^tt apoko had it« interoHt. la (bo iUbT<i, in nlitob all 
«i ooiparativol jr nkodcn^ Pitt, wiUi oaUlroteJiod ami, lookod nvor 
■ JieDUtB DtAD^M Kmtfl on hh light, knd litx rival Kni'« inti(LTitur*Tit 
4aU*l0fU B^ora kiM mm th^ gntTMtoTit<« (if fiiri Innh Arvlit>ij)hop 
mI > Honoofifortniat MtadAcary, of Nailor*, (iL>tilt<ins cDJ{iTltf<n^ and 
nUbcAi^ of Kewlon, ft&d of Dnrwiti. Fikr to tho «bi4 lay id tho 
■^tnJt tbo flrvt ofoiu WcIaIi feaJ tiliv £ixt uf uor SuuUiiih Kui^. 
ft^a bftviioQ* jQilapa«itl/>n Dtml^V ttA^ knult vllTi iU ftiOG lliDit 
*ftt iMsb of Ma wifk?, Uary Ijuqcji af goota^ Bohiar] btm knoU 
h« kotLar, flKftitif; with f^ZdcJ h^tidn <m tbc raolt thnt hald^ tba 
aAnof kia danigbtcr Atabvlla StunrL S^t acaiu, by an iU-cui»riiloriHl 
HMiubI, tlio tab1»i <^f 3l4|iir Crthvl, uluk foil al Rleuhoiiik, liitil lu^An 
liba Crcita Uio apot vhora hit motlivr lu4 pLi^od it, next ta iba 
MBBcitJ oflwo |-aUanl cfiieon vho faool dj*atb in Lori Saadwiob'd 
faf^Up, aud by wliidi lio hacl sa ciflciL »lood to read thuJr intipLriag 


Icctorvr akid a few wordu of tho perioilii of danger m wdH 
M of grvttifa tfaroii^ vhi«h tho ftcti»l CtbHo hiLi posod. It wut 
d Am UMDUitit 01HW Boiv in p«ril> Ho had cuihrv fmitk tbat & 
ttttonat c»f mtioiMh) iintfiry vhich abood uluiiu id tho wotUl irjali 
M b* ■ ■fl b JOd to dn*ay imd fdl 


220 Jk, a Mej/moit Tidjf [Uanh 2, 


Friday, Mflroh 2, IBSB. 

Edwaad Woods, Esq, SI. lust. O.E. Vioo-Preaident, in the Chur. 

C. mimoTT TiDT, Eeq. M.B. M.S. ALHJ. 
(FrofoBBOT of CheroiBtTj and of Foronaio Bfodicino at tho Londoo 

Hospital, 4a). 

Powms and Poisoning. 

ToxicoLOQT is tho Bcienoa of " poisons and poiaoniog." How cornea 
'*toiicology " to moan 'Hbo Hcieuoe of poiaona"? The Greek word 
To£c# (dcriTod porbaps from nrvj^ai^) signified primarily that speoially 
oriootal woopon wliicli wo coll "a l^ow. ' In the very aorUeat aathon, 
howovor^ it incladed nitMn its moaning "the arrow shot fromtha 

In the £nl contary a.d. in tlio roi^n of Nero (a poisoner and a 
crematiuniBt), Dioacoridea, a Qreok wnler on Materia Medioa, vau 
tho oxproaalon ri> ro^utov to signify ** the poison for tmearing otroM 
vnth." Thus by giving an onlargod souse to the word — for weida 
ever atrivo to keep pace, if poaaible, with a scieutifio progress — we 
get onr modem and aigaificaat oipresaion '* Toiioology," va^ aauoM 
of poiaonB and poisoning- 

And there, in that little piece of philology (t6(ov and rofivdv — a bow 
and a poison), you have not only the derivation of the word, but the 
early hiatory of my snbjeot. 

A certain grim historioal intereat gathers around the story of 
poisons and poisoning. It is a history worth studying, for poiaona 
have played their part in history. 

The " sabtil serpent " tanght men the power of a poisooed Gutg. 
Hiatory presents poisoning in its Jirai aapeot in a far lean repnlaiTe 
form than it has assamod in latter days— (for a world may grow wiser 
and wichodoT withal). Poison waa in tiie first inatanco a simple 
instrument of " open warfare." For this purpoao onr savage anoeaton 
tipped their arrows with poiaon in order that they might inflict 
certain death on a hoaUle foe. It can scarcely bo questicned that 
the poison of tho snake was the first materitd employed for this 
object. Tho use of vegetable extracts (saoh aa eurarirut tho active 
principle of which is strychnine, and is employed at the present 
time by certain uncivilised commuuitios) belongs to a later period. 

And so tho first use of poison was for an "open fight." It was 
reserved for later tinios to mix the cup of kinship with a treacherous, 
diabolioal venom t 

CNQ Pi>iAn» and p9\Khing* 

" An open flgtit t "* Ik Itio mggailiim (thinV jon) tt^r* wit^ nrp- 
MOkg "war Cih«oii«t»" irilb lh«iir jiovioni^ Ui^ir con-oottoD, imd 
ftsT trplo«ivo« EM-ror lo htTo hoen iavDulod, tbftt luticma wf>tO<l iaro 
tevad luT Ibcir " ituirvnenta htUi " to toiicoIniriAU vid ihtiii iiciHoiui, 
|(Uift,1iciv«vor(aotwitbitoEiiluig tbat in lbii< wo miwd cni chujcc*), 
aanwa tor mj mlijeol Ihati il0 9u«, if T »tMiipt to Ioo&Iibq ihtt x^tj 
room of »ok«o« m tha UbOTAtorr r>C ilio tnncolo^^oJ warkor. 
Bnadoo B&kko-poUoB, iLo UHt of amtual fluiiU, oiiKfr nlofio dt 

Tbu m cdd Grocfk legvui vr ruod b^iA Htircultut (UdjwJ hit i\tTOvr% 
B 1k» nil of tliv LtraJKa Hydra td wndct tb« wcnudi the; inBioUd 
iBoOTMe mxA tnoH4 A»d bow at Uit Ucro^o* Hmft«lf mw ]>oiecv«d 
\j U« wifo't prcMUt, tbfi tnuio of tic CcnUnr NciAiia nbucod yvtHi 
|ioiBanoiiB ilood. vlucli rht Tftlulj bo|>c<l mifrbt rrsUiri? hor 
L'a 4lbction» Itni wbinh cinly procntrcii for blm tbo ^^tful 
■od tortoro* of vbicli Lo dio^ 
TIm vm of futrid blcoH M a poitfonoru ag«nt and tbo Cbdmidoro 
il ii^ ftftfekD-poUoa ifitli blood ccoitllukd » oiiriotis Liatorj, nheii 

l0>a Mtlvity of pntr^d Lmmal Btiidit CQomie to havn tKnn t-oi^DgnitcHl 
a Tit7 oulj tiiDOV. AqJ I «cppD«o thaco corly obncrnktiotu oq tho 
iffirti of poind blood c^luin Lliu vi«w alni'^flt Wrorull^ aJortoi), 
Aal Uood Lttulf vu ft p^iUuu^ Tbns Ibo dcstlie of rtsii^iiiuuiltiB^luiLg 

tc»iudi ofbllllook'* blood* Ethi BtiUD«tibftob, bo lately a« tbo tuidila 
bf ifao U^i oonlVT. p«nittdcd <aio of lua gIom (b; vny cjf c^ttliug 
Ihi qoMlion) to dnnk ■oicn ouuuom of wnrm TvnlWk'B bloud, Tbu 
fosbg Biaii (s^kkI Hfl won.- his iuU^Jiticnt') did not dio ft martyr to 

Tlw biftlo^ t4 i>o3>oii» lUfd jKiiwikinf?, tLo cotloute of tbo firat 
dnwIqrofvTiicbl bnTv tha* brie fly i:)ilicat«l fvi^. tbc loiirityuf Uio 
iBMift pidBiiii and of bJoul), duvn to the fujul cimiiLirr, wtii^ ts^jjx- 
MiBOM vitb tfao pTopertiM And rMtfllinnH c^f usfiaic fonne h lonpting 
hUmI to IK^ loolvM lo-nitthE. Tbc LinloHoaof Ciroo tind Ucdctk — 
«lliTiftI)7Qftll]fto&d Loctintb-of Tibc^nQECLdd Nero — :>f tboBurgiftS 
--4tf Hkmciyiiift8pftnvTi>fiii]U,CiitLmruicde Mcdicis, 8t, LVmi, mid^ 
haitcifotbarfrunldeft,liftvoprovulGbani:iio>^ lopicnffirtlur murttlDnfu 
aoopr iLft^ it woold not bflvc bocn ua xnx^ciUiy euljuot to Ukto 
^ tnt^ nbdorljiog tJio atonoa of gonoratioiifi of ^ory-tcUure, 
ofavnnd ft* ibay bito b«oomo bj the dcmvid cf igiiotpnt Musfr- 
*^*'**^"" «J|4 ihft lomn of ft aaoftu sojicrttilloiL Cut lLih b i^ut tbo 
I bftvo propoMkd to mjvsif for tbo diKonrsFt to-rugbt. 


" WflAl IS A P0l»0J * " 

T#o difflcoUiee prc<oat tbcmsolTos in of^nivcnaF; ihia qncaik'U : — 
1. TV fair haa sttf c£^«£ u jmzWn. 'f^JufiVAvfuiu/inir i/irjC fAn Mip 
Al limn demand* 0/ fdfTiCf: ih- d^Jlmlifm a/ajwUtm* 


J^. d MfjPu^t Twig 


1 totw ft oftM, tof ocftaipU> wb«N ■ pTMonw, jfidi«uJ te Ifct 
ti rt ftfjcm of a pojvcr, cMapcd, licoieAo Ihc tcioDlifto vilDMi 
dc^ncd lo »y Unit Uic drug aihniuiiikrtil b/ Uio prisoner wu ft 

ftiftdk ^j« <t tncnlific drfiniltcn. GoniiriLlly npoftkiAg, it oosaoi Id tbu. 
tlMb "A |iciMoii U ft drag Uwt kill* rtpid]; vrli«a ftdioiiusUrod n 
ft uiudi c^iumtity," 

The phfftio ** ft <inft]1 qnnTitf ty " m ni^rdt ir«ight, ftml tbft om4 
"iftfidlj" ftft rfigftrlv luoo^uc ai inJoftoilft aa liift okwicfti pioot 
ohftlk «• roRi^ifl j^xc 

I dsfico a ptiLjHin ftft — 

"Aiij Hdltftuncii wTiieh othervrtBa Lhim lij 1liftftgBD0flf AMi 
•Iwtrii^ily U oipfttU of ditKtcjiaig life eiih** l7cb«ttlow ftfttfott 
iLo tiMaoft of 1^ livinc bodpr, ot bjr plijr«tdogi«Al ftCti^fU vncr ftbttorp- 
boft into tbc Unng «jBtoi&. 

(A^ It vlll bu n'LivuivEit lu cuDfetdiir Iirnt, WKai a iKnmm it nL 

It U nr>t fln ajji^tiI thiit flttfirojii llfotjj phj^rtil f uf tiMiooftr 'V^ ft* 
hoftt ftad clcctricilf. 

It ift not tLQ o^QUl tb&t ilMtr>jv hSo bj iLU? piinJr iDccliftiucftJ mI 
(& g, fiiift ftni uol pujDiiu, ftllLou^li fiutJj uioluiJcd ui tbc pbiue 
*'d*«traolJfe Ihia^H"). 

It in not ftt) 0}^t tbit dofitraytt lifo b^- tbo m«T« blocking oat <if 
tbftt whiob id UDOC^aitiry to mnintiuii life (uc. tbc nctLonof « suUtacoG 
to l>e a poiflon muut bu moiv ih&u mLcluUiicAl). 

7liiii IfttUii jTUtut n^iuifvA furttjir ouij><[iluruliuu :^ 

ItoUi nitixjf^ci] mill CAfboait? nci] i)ni|n>j lifts sua c«rLtJnl^ m tlury 
txtitiRuUb a bnruitig taper, Yut uitrogcD m not ft {louoo^ wbiUt 
OfuLonic &Ci4 U* 

Viliu^jeu Aiiuply do«tr»js Itfo by blocbiag out oxji^n. Qirai 
tbo pT-oAODcfl (if £0 [1(7 ctnL Ekf oiygmir tlin 80 fna-cmt. of n^trrgen 
pOBSOfisce no toxio offtfi^l. 

Tbo uiifboiiio ftuidi on Ibo outitwrj. is ?|>ooifii!ally toxioi Ho 
iklmbturo <jf 20 \>fiT coot, or <jf SO t>or coil, of cp^jeon doei 
inti mtkUiiiaUj allof Ibc case. Oij'geu or no oijgoii, CO^ b a 

(B) Couaidor Tioxt, mfif a jic^rtMi £#. 

U IB Ai-i H'^ut f^itftblo of iloHtroyiu^ life. 

Tbo u«o of tltD irLiuc dcitdlif poittL^ij, in surpluMkgv. U m body is 
a poiHiu, it iti OuMliy ; if it bu uul [Li:Aj]ly, it in not ri |>r-lHrii). 

My 'leGnition limits tbo nii-cliauixiti whuriby tbo toKio viflbat v 
iitduLH-'di to ffi^Mffof ftad jiJiifsiol^fijiritf ictioutt. 1 &ni codsczoiui that 
tkie dvfiQition eof^goata clne&Lticatiuij. Ctitt^in 10 il, Ibat italuta 
buteti olab&IficntioQ tin truly <l£ bbu Jiji;Iiuc« iLtfluitiona. 

Lot 11R Imc^ HoiiLi' uf tbcEe En'rbuaLuiLH t\f Uiit^ uaitvitf. 1 soiUct 
thr«fi i]litet)-ati<)iifi of jwiboiifi bd^ittgiu^- to 6iG<ir&ii oIahon, 

(1) Siil^huric JitVJ,— If a |itreoa ft«ftlluivs*ft?;jiunV ncidy Ibo tisnctf 
ivitb irbich tbc uoid <irmcs iuto o^mloct me uiuio or U«b cLurroJ:^ 



011 PaiKm mJ Pt/i»tmhg. 

"MM or IvAft." thai iife wwhltng Ic tfio «lretigth of tlio Mii\ and tbo 

CWrri? : — Tliui ijn]|iJica a chciuic^l net* dcpciidmt on th« ]ioiver 
^MlpLiuic ftciil to oombma with vmtcr- 

lia portion of tbi« bwty thuH oh&rrtJ Jt«A. We nil this tqaff- 

bftihliO'L BcaIUi i« dcrivtx) from tbo old 8ax<>n w^rd " Wlioltl," 
dp i^ j to g fnUittty. Health iiap1j«« tto poifoct rh^vthoticity ^of lUc 
nilOjfiitictitniH. It in ibul omJliou vipfcHBul AiLh oluLniiinu Kim* 
tlM^bjSvfiblkfolV* whodMKTU>o1mbig"i|ti£UTw«n" bj lli<>]>linkhv» 
"Aa)M oA nc^r dfd&" Tbo oh«rriiig iirvcoMa (taolaonlur dosth) 
bvuiCarboJ rbjtboiioitj.) Uofbn Jooff iU tho morabcn vufici hilU 
ft* cbajTcd gUiMch* Tbo do&Ui. luulltcd m Hm iirBl ihhUulcc, 
bBowM geibomit tlju ^«»Ui '>f Oih i>Qtini t>^7i ^-<'- "f tlie jiunKm, 
tw t i w Jly Uking [dftcD. Wo oil UiAt JMnahV dttatli. TLu ia 
foitmiiiijL bj volplittne acid- Hut tKo priraixry a«t of diahtrbftaco — 
lb* ftnl ifitmcreaoe «it1i tho rbythmicily of bi.'jkUb — ttfiu11«d ftom 
lb dkcoucai pDwvir uf fiii]]jbnrtij ucUl bi ^'imhIliiiu witlj unlvr. It 
viU bft •ridtol thai Ibo d)Diiii»1 aotBOD nf n fhJiJuon dt^jicnda on the 
cbiaioal ri^atiouiiipa oi tbat paiaon, 

()) C^shonie 0«t'A^Carbi>mo oiide ifi & trao poiaoo. It u a 
pa IbI in^j olloQ boM4a buniiu^ witL a blue ilniuo on the tup of ft 
I^Al fl4« la Ui* opoa fl»>«tnvii. 

Ita impnrtAnco amobgit pobODOOJt bo'lica dt<pcnda on ih& oir- 
OHBitefice tlukt it id lvuItixI in many muuuiitutcirini* op«nkti<)Tis 
fn^ liaie uul briclc kilua, itvx\ bloM firuaocii co[*p[?r-rcAiiiug 
Wfaiua^ Ac^), aiHl thut It li< ulwa/ii prt:#unt in aiiwU i|imi]tiiy iu 
MaloMit oooatimiDg ita Une tocio cntutirtiMit. 

Wkat tbeo v ti^ meohftDi^ii: n'bi.'ivby oarlyjuic oxtJo dGiitroyt 
tf— Tbo Mtiva a«;ctit nf tho blood m ita ro<l oi^Iourinif tualtcr 

i)» Tu tJiC chcmiHt thia itabACttnt'o j^lfMiaiilH in ipvoiijirr 
W« barn muon li> bvlioro that hjumkiglobin in fctrmiil fniin the 
tho ByulhCiiiifl <if wbidi ilbumonoida la limited to tlio 
mutahlo Cnannlml u Ibo Ubuintnoida Atu to tLnimnJlifo, tho animal 
k 4o|M&dcait for tboir f6rn]a1iL>ii uii tlio ajutliutival [imotwva takiDg 
plion In ibo fdaat Ubi>n4ijry. The mtiuiiil, bLJ^rov^r, i-wu iranamotO 
ma albsoMiiioid icto aauthor ft^g. bu 4<aiL i-hango nllmmoQ into n 
pwtoai), irbllat ha van &1«o form from tfitiu bodit^ of l«fs com- 
Inaital ooai|itiUioB(«.jI. fat):— ia othc^r wordu, lu can lo^ror thuid 
IbiIh waX^ Put, MLVr irith one excoption, bit ^:«i^i^ui uki thvm t« 
ifct fatgbor vytiUKUaal fotiufttloaup Thia Muglo cici^iitioTi u luxsmu- 

b I* no loalbr for aurpHjio tliat a bmlj Uho lin&ioglobiii*-o&o of 
lb« dUaf Mtoc*, »o tn ipcttV ii <tL<r curioud dninia of Kfoond living 
v^Utli com oo) tlw NooUD tlmmgh a itai^o (t|wDiiig, uf iwLuobvo 
Bijlbr bnov coaalraction utir wbtTi.iitH.iut4 — nfmiild [Hwaom imiqoo 
AMiTial p»>povti«« and r«lAtic>o«biiie, I nlLaU only tracUd joa tbie 
aiBviag vidt ttrnn of ihoao rcUtioDri^i|<(^ 

2U Dr, a M0jfmoti Tidy [Uucb 9, 

Ae a gODcral rnle, ft subeUnco that com1:^nefl vith oxygen vilb 
difficulty, parts from it with oase* and trice verwd. It is diffieult to 
mako gold combino with oiygen, but it U easy to decompoce oxide 
of gold. Potafifiinm easily combines with oxygen, bat it nquind 
tbo gemue of a Davy, aT>d the resourceB of tho Boyal InBtitirtio&, 
to Bcparato potassinm and oxygen. 

In haemoglobin, however, we have a enbetanoe that conbineB 
with, and doliTeie np« ita oxygen {i, e. is oxidized and reduced) with 
alxDi>st eq^ual facility under simitar conditions. Upon this and other 
chemical choractorUtica of btemoglobiu — as the oxygen-receiver, the 
oxygon-canier, the oxygen-dolivorer, the carbonic-aoid noeiTer, 
carrier, and deliverer — the act of living depends. In other words, 
life depends on the integriiif of the hEemoglohin- — on the rhythmicity 
of those chemical proocsacB, in effecting which hemoglobin is the 
primary worker. 

With these facts before qb, let ns tnm to the toxic action of 
carbonic oside. 

Ttio hemoglobin at once soizee upon and combiner with the 
carbonic oiido, carbonic-oxide-hiemoglobin being formed. 

Two difficnltiee arise : 

1. The hfemoglohin, satorated with carbonic oxide, cannot combine 
with oxygen. Regarding hemoglobin as a common carrier, the car- 
riagc is full. 

2. The hiemoglobin, being saturated with carbonic oxide, cannot 
get rid of tbo carbonic oxide nndor the ordinary conditions of Tflspii*' 
tion and circulation. Again, regarding the luemoglobin as a oommon 
carrier, the vehicle, full np, cannot be nnloaded. 

To put all this in scientific phraseology, carbon ic-oxide-hjamo- 
glohin ia a comparatively atable compound, being neither decompoeed 
by the presence of an oxcesa of oxygen (aa in the lungs) nor by 
carbonic acid. What must happen? The man dies bocanfia tba 
integrity of the hemoglobin has been disturbed — bocansa the normal 
Aequonce of its oxidation and reduction has been interrupted by the 
formation of carbonio oxide hemoglobin, 

Wc call the reanlt of all those chemical actions and interforenoQii 
poisoning by carbonio oxido, 

3^ Strychnine (the poison derived from St Ignatins' Boan)> 

How does strychnine act? We know sadly little abont it — so 
little that we Dse the phrase '^ physiological action " to eiptflflfi our 
want of knowledge. But wo know somethiixg. 

A marked chemical characteristic of strychnine is its powei to com- 
bine with oxygen when the oxygen is presented toit ina nascent form. 

Note then the conditions. Strychnine is in the body. There ii 
also present in the blood, hsmoglohin looeoly combined with ozygeoif 
which oxygen the haemoglobin is always ready to give np on first 
don^and. We ore able to trace this action, and to Goe that the period 
of the primary strychnine £t coiucidoa with the reduction of the 


om Pot^om cnwJ Poitcminif^ 


Mbjtjott ftKk) docB Uiat kill? J cnimot UUjon. IlkthohiglMMt 
fom at ktiCMrlodp^ to mtc tbc limiUof podtlro knovrkdst', and to 
■iba diAi Ibe Btartinj^-ftdal fur fnah luquiry^ 

V^Dtt what 1 liATr finUi, it will 1m vttOi.'nt thnt my ubjoct bim bumi 
1h tnea tosic MMfny ta tho chomicftl nctinn tir [lois^nA on living 
liaac««f fluid*. Tho [-linwd " ybpnolc-^ical rvcton" mant nol bo 
— *'***'^^* «« ucpl^iug ikiiy theory rv modua f^tamii. Ttui: u b 
dHftf loA ihv [thnaa " [iLjKiulugtoal iv:Uuii " iiliiiuld be uiupluyoiL ur 

■Am <tf oottftia druga on tbc limg body tbnm tho «-nrd oftUlyKifl 

Tlioro kfttnnlly fallows <jta trhut I 1iat« bU mpociing tiiit 
duBiu:«] action uf ^tntoan, tLu fuUrj^iuy lUjjwrtriLl (|ui»LiCiu:— ^ 

Given knowlfit^ nf fapIaIil firoprCiAi <tf the Gifini^ilfl, unnh ns 

at*Pi** woigbt*, Ibflir rolatiTo poHitioti »coording to tbo jwriodic 

IbcEr- ipoctrowoEoo obofootorB, ^^; — or girob kDovL^d;;^ of 

tfhcmioal ogiuipoailuia, tb« muluculur tuDBtitutiim, toi^^Lb^r witb 

~ dwniioftl ukI iilifAlcsI |»ro|H^rtL^« i.if lvj]ii[ioii tills in oilif^r 

§iTQ& mttfa knovlMga of th^ olcanont or comjKiimil na may bo 

i& « kbontofy— doM laoh knotFlodno afford nny due ^rboroby 

n nuy prcdiuto the probkblu aolion of t^c alduuut or of tbo txim- 

m|Kvtit«lj, uu iIm liviui* budyf 

Tlw al&riiiif(-pouit of IbU iiu|ittry vra* tho toxic propcirtioii of tbo 
Tbo work of Btnkfi (18dl ^ in tbid dircL<tiun wikiiBftui'mrda 
by BftUukfttl (Ld07). TbuEr^uB Il\I tbtm U tbo 
flondiulnB, lltat **tha pbyubbtifiiiAl ii^tivjly nf tlio riir.'lJtl# 
with tbidT atomic wnight," l~bii brood 0«Donl iiuitamant 
9tm ttodiftoi ftt ft l&lor puriod by cutiu^ tbiit tfw rororvo ««« tbo o«m 
vUi wrtftiD gro u pe of mtttola. Tbtu potnaaiam L'30)iB mort^ poiBunons 
Ifan ajdlntn (23). ftbd bcriani (137) moru jiuj^liiivum iKimi ouldiuu 
[til- Tbivn fbctn Ind fiabalata Ut Ibo cEimilTinion, tbut nTxy com- 
of toxicity VUtft b« Umiloi to tlio intULln IxtNfriL-iiig to tbo 

rnp. Howmaiuk ftnd Hiohot. hw^vfT, jioiuU-J ont Ikut 
nil^did sot hold ^;ood»RCOui|t tbntlitbimn IjrLvin^ uti •li'inie 
ttirf^Saf T« iTVfl tu men poucptioiiii (Ijau clL-ht^r fiAliiink cr [HitoMiiuiD. 
Szporisioiilii on the metalM trort furtltcr cM^iUffuFU^l by Itkbi:! witb 
Iko Mulftllifl eUlotidtt. Omui by |,-niiii» U iotorttLla of forty-eight 
boon^ 1m ftddod tbo eklondoa to Vftt<<t iu whiob ho kept fii^b uf a ffivon 
Uftdi Qo Lien rccor Jc<l tbo uuuiniam «lrGn|j[tb ot the fti^lutii^n of tbo 
id cbloridi.* in which tlieaa M&i'd fliih wocid livu fir forty-^fijjibt 
Tlio oooolwioB ftt which ho ftn1t«d nan ibnt tho liitiils of 
Ihv lasicity of & OMtal boro iii> n>Ulioiiflbip oithor to tta utomio 
v^^liOr Ivuiy citbcr chemical or phyiiical oh^Tfu^ti^rinlia of tbo mAtiU.* 
BoDdi«rdAl uQiX 8;4;f»'2rt Oonpur> in u Kimilikr mauu^r, ui)7i>riiuuutL^ 
Willi Iko DOll*«MlAti. H<!lo(;tihg tbi> \t9,\o\i\ gronp nf fleiiicntA, thoy 

Ih. a Kffmoti 3Uf 


'sotod iLftt tLoir toxicity wm iuToivolj ti> iLcor atomic vdtcl^^ 
iuoxuiD (I^Ji bvncig tkn nruA (joatftiui^uBi. und iiHliiM) 037) tlie loui 
laor lk« group, ebloHfid (315 'G;ftn(i broiafite (SO) WMMpfitig 

ol tho •kmeatoor bi^lior •tifmicitv. t>iu toxicit/ of n-luniniu (79) 

^iHi fl)«M ra^la b«fon ui Uiora ajibm tltU c|ii«iJtio», Wu « 

[Tttigltt ? One pouob octo on muMlcv-^i •eeo&d on Arrrr* uinl Mim>' 
rjBBDlrGft — tk tliinl on Uie bIfHxl : — Ik it likulr, ot«ii xupjKififig n rvtttloa- 
tlU]> to oxiftt U>1«*«ea a ovrubi gmtip r^f olonwntn uiil ■ gLTun orgut 
)0r ft ^iv«c ctraoturo, iLat tlio rvlatioiiflhip ^ri^oli be tlio euiu la thv 
fcuo of all or^ani aiiii all «lruotmv«f Tboiu rcscnrfbcfl (d» o^Uav 
rlitoJi I Imvu titiully iDiLitstt^) Mi^^gwt ihifl iimcli Ui futunr iubKrvei, 
tvl>.: FInt "f kU gtfkiiji y»nr prtlcAnH li^rrHnlmg Ui tlit-ir metbo^ of 
ktion, aiid th«n MM1 liov fnv tlio <legn>o <if toiicitj* uf ih^ tAtofl of 
3J ono unn]|t vhcv r«liiti<iDfibip to thu ntomiD ncifibtd of (tucEi pru^utk 
But Uic diillciillii^ of compmitKiu thickin, ivLtiU wu coiiMdcr t£» 
[]ilijB[olDgioftI BTiiou of ctrtAiu BUutrupic DJuiliSabtioiui of tin 

TJinc ooropnTO i/r/f<w fho«i>1iora«f » bo<lj rondily iDflamuUfv 

MoJublo in bidijIflLiiW of cArboDn finug hj contAcl mth iodinp, nitb 

imf plioBjilioruH, B botijr si numuixr with lliu ^cUow \arii?tjr ia lbs 

n«fiort4 iiBfii4ir1- N^ir \a thin nlL Fcir tfrtlfitr pboijjhoruft ii ■& 

Mtivo jwicoD, tcTo jimiiiR boin^ a oortvinly toxic doto, vhUat 

pluMpKicinu i« vj abfldutclr lucrL bod)-. 

Take 1 boooekI illiutiatMfiL la ile citiliuary form oxyi^Rii p 
part of a liJW Hurttl&er. But o^gt^it in only n lifi' mutain^r in 
«tirmn>on fotm am) at iinlinary ppftflmwi, 

Ou thU IfttLcF^ point i huto no time to dwoll, uto to iMutioo that 
if au cuiimaj be cx|xhk.x1 to oty^oii at thrco prcHUics, tbc rwultiBg 
tiyiui'tutuB ucu Bul uuliku LlioM ij^iltJcul by hlryuliuiui.*. 

Tbrirn IR, howf^fir, nn Allolfti|ric foniT of niyjirn ralW onM, 
Tbo pUyniokif^cnl utioii of cioim wu tb<i aubjccl L<f a coinii.nn{««ti<iQ 

Iho IIoyiL bo^^kiy of Edinburgh by D«viir oiicl McKumtru-'k (IfiTdu 

"^Tlieir eiperimi.'tits wci u injulc i^o butfi coUl nud nntiii-UooJitl auiiimli;^ 
itiuluilijii; aiuih]i|;fil ihu likllur lliiuuAirlvch lUitl tlintr MflttrtiiDta. 

Tht roaalu ttro i&aokvkMoj more purlicularly wboa wo tvnwcabaf 
tbat iho air with wbicli tboy upomt^d, at luoot only contaiucij 10 pcff 
cent, of OfuUC. 

Plauiug II Ur^if fro^ Ju ri jnf uf uir, auO tbm Oii>t)i^lii^ lli^r atr, 

the ffog in nboiil half ik mitnitp ploBnd tin fy<^is th^^ respimlion* fcjl i 

froiD Ur^ to t^ pi-r miuutu, and tbu body U'inpvnitur« v-od loworod 4^ oF fl 

C C. Tbc buimnl rocov<irod iu about tf iL^innU^A, wbciL puro air 
adniitttKl iuto tbu ix.H;oittir. Di-ulh roioltod if thi; jmhiinl iviU) oxpucd 
tar any tf^^tliontid period to tbn nnUcm f»f tbi? oxouixemI nir, 

Ab rc'gardfl tbc (tctba of oxono on wnnn-bloodi^^ animobf DtfOtr 

tm P»cM«t dmJ P9t4rmitt^ 


Mrtala iMirflockftl «ip«fi<akooi, c^i>f ftinon^sl wticli were ft 

Bit low oomofl U>o cnrioTM prt ^ ttie itEory, vix, tliRi at t'lo /j'^f- 

OB the %nicnK]it tliat diud nulc-r Ehu luTliicticLi c^f oai~hTic, ihiy 

UbbI w found to tK> r«iiMW. (Tlit< n^ultr* wurii biiu'W trhcn pari? 

oEjr^vu vTiu omploycd.) It U hl^jaI ronuhrkublu tbaL llm 

^pnAtmnttoN ol drnlh fii:du un iiitQtaiifli)d otyg4in »fju(i1i| 

Omvo of dcftlb from ou-bonk- klcM. 

I pT» tiioao Ultuttrntiofu to U^ow wbjr Ui«Fti ft]ioiil<l bo rcamm to 

4«tfal vbcttior tlio phfriciJ or oliORiic*! propnrtice of »a olciasat out 

VKV HCfMn ttltikor tone ftctivity i>r pliyncfLo^iuil nctlinK 

MMtiMion of A «<an|HWtul body and iIjr pbyMola^onl aotii^Ti ? 

Tbo firtl Htrif gf rcMOKsboH <ai ihin qnottiMH vu* iliivotv:*! to 
dctenuaing vlMtlur, in the ouc uf a aII. tlif; ocitl or iZk^ Ihiv witii. 
fljlUo^iAllj, Ufeo moAl iinpciTi^Tii EiLgri'dinnt, (HUlitf 1441). 

H« 4oQfa4 moot often tho jtcEtvo a^unl <iC a mIi i» the biwfi> Lut 
ttu K« bj bu looaiko nnlfcinnlj tlic code. I^ioWblj the *ulubility of 
• e^DfcnuM] uid the difTi^rcut projwrtiufi* of ncid to Imku in tliir ull 
(Lc wlii<tli*T tlH onspound i& qnaotioD be uit airlrl or h Uiair; Jiult) nrc 
■QMC9M wbich alio b«Ip Eo douomi&o tJiQ toxicity of Ih^ body aud 
tH |^y^oio^«i] Mtioo, 

A ooc^pa iwcii of oipcnm<mt0 na* mjid'^ by BUV«fiirtlL«pm7iow> 
itf ibmitig Uiai, i^ven a tMiri(.B uf ibuiULiruluu nlla, llit- iiitoiiHily uf 

mmimd& thai oalbi GTyKtilIuia(; ia dilTorcnt fi^rm* had djfltn^ut 
pijl^itirt f < ■! acliooji. Od thU baAin be cuuntrturW a nmcn of niao 
pna^cifadU.0M^ croup tviug cbtuitukruMd bj spc^^ial pliyiuologk^ 
■fftkw, ift*^—Tir|g witD luuch r«A8on IbU w) fir>hH«Hi4 in living irirttti^r 
ft flianl («> to l^xdc) OLpablo of Aiding tiE in cur inTCfltL^aliont^ 
litotbo iftoloenlor properties of cbomloAL couipouitii. H froia 
mImhIv ootMiiitctioii jroa can dal«m»uo physio U^icnl octii^, 
TluUilily tnau p1iyBiuli>tpiml actiuu, cuuvcTHelyt you uiuy dijWnuuiQ 
aJiop hr o>iwt:tniuia, 

A'Htrff* tforioo of oipftriinoDU io aMiuiiUr ditntioti n-uro tatido 
\f Sdioff oa the CootiiiOQt, uid bj Fn«i:r nu<t CVuui JJrowa iu tbu 

Of Ihmo AtpAHmraitH tbn nuutt impftrtAUt; ^un liofln indlfntin^; hnw 
Im bo4i«o of vMtly dificroDt phyai<ilogi(.«l avti<iii yt^a tnay obtain 
tevitrroM having «nnlar projiurti^^ 

Piv cmuitlo, tto pbyaitilcfiu*! (u.tioEt of ttrnclnin^ h ^rJniiu-ily 
VflW CNt tee «pinal ctird. Ah 4 rviHtiltt oiiuvtilHii^Uh ixxiir it* u 
|i^n<bi cymptooi- Bui if hu ititrcidiKm into tlio strychuino 
■llvila A mothyl gruip (f'^nutun DiulbyJ'nlrycbuin^), Ujo nction of 
fc Itig fa ftllorod— mothyl-ftrychiituo panljgin^ (^tryobnino Atima- 
[) ihc motor acme, 
il here orinioN ft curioim tacL If uo tnkc i]ii>rphtuii, ur uiiH-dinu, 

228 Dr. a Me^tnoti Tidtf [Uudi 3, 

or atropinOf or quminfi, or veratrino (none of which bodies am com- 
imrablo ID thoir phyeiological action to Btryohnine), and ooDTort 
them into their methyl derivatJTes, the methjl compoiuidB formed 
(viz. mbthyl-morphine, methyl-nicotino, Sec.) &re oompamblo Id theb 
physiological actioo to methyl -Btrychnioe. 

We mti&t admit the«e eipeHmeats to be Htriking, One tieudm 
any eiperiment Bugg<stive of the chemical oonstitiition of a body 
indicftting physiological action. 

Bat again: — The true physiological action of a drng is not ■> 
much ita general as its eelective action, this selective action beiDg 
lurguly dependent on the doac adminiBtered and the moda n 

For example: Inject into the circulation of a &og a 8maU dcM 
of reratriue^ g>'oat maacular BtiSnesa roftoltSi a large doae similarlj 
administered not producing this effect. And now cbango the method 
of ikdmiiiistration : Apply the tmoU dose directly to the mnacle, yon 
get uo symptom ; but apply the large dose directly, and great mnBonlir 
stiffncBs results. Tfere see the modifying influence of do«e and of the 
mode of admin lEtratioD. 

Again, tlie difficulty of *^ allotropism " in the case of eJements, 
fiuda its counterpart in ^^isomeriam" in the caee of oomponnd& 
Thus cyanogen and paracyanogen are bodies of identical perceiUaffs 
composition, and yet cyanogen is one of the moat poiBonoDB of gaaea, 
whilst paracyanogen ia one of the most inert of solids. 

Or, again, take piperin and morphine. These bodice are of identical 
percentage and molecolar compoBitiou. They agree (it is true) in 
being poisons. But how vastly different their physiological actionl 
— the one an extreme irritant, the other a poweiful narcotia 

I fear we must admit that, as no a priori reasoning oonld predict 
that by combining copper and snlphnrio acid a blue salt would be 
formed, so no a priori reasoning, no knowledge of chemical constitn- 
tion, can predicate what will be the special organ on which any 
given poiaon will act, nor, even supposing tbat the organ upon which 
tbo chemical activity of the drug will be exerted be known, what will 
bo the nature of such chemical action, Tbo science of drugs, like 
the science of chemiEtry^ is, and mnat ever remain, an experimental 

And, be it remembered, the poisons of the toxicologiat are the 
medicines of the physician. Physiological action is a aubject-matter 
for experiment. Let tho gnard be jealously set and as rigidly 
maintained to prevent cruelty to animals ; but ask yonreelvee, whether 
to rob the higher creation of life and health rather than that one ot 
the lower creation should suffer, be not a refinement of cruelty — the 
cruelty of cruelties ? '* Are ye not of much greater value than they?" 
speaks a still amall voice amidst the noisy babble of well-intontioned 

Tno general observations are suggested. And this first : The 
later age hiaCory of poisoning is the history of a profosBion. Tbia 

IBSa] on PoMOiM and Pdxming. ^ 

profenitm we find cloaelj aasociBted, not onlj with tbo profesfiioa of 
nndiciDe ^e art of healing), but vith witcbcnft, incantation, and 
cbunV' Tho threefold arts of poiHoniog. ivitcbcraftf and medicine, 
aoreoTer, beca^iao so closely allied to religion, as to claim^ each and 
all, the ahield of a sacred sanction and the protection of a Divino 
voice. Even that very word tftdpfiaKi^, the Greek for * a dispenser of 
medicine' is the same word used to imply ^ a v>xich ' and ' apoisoncT.' 
The modem soientiat has once and for otot shattorod the bund tliat 
imited science with supentition. It was a special ministry of scienco 
to leaeh men that in the preparation of medicines the pharmacist 
reqnired no stuffed crocodile to preside over the mysteries of his 
laborstoryf nor incautation to give virtue to hie dmga J 

And this secondly: The Tillanics of the early poisoners can 
never again be pmctiaed in the light of the science of the niuetccntlk 
oentary- Scienco can and has done what legislation could never 
do. The Hebrew ScripturcB speak of a time when "the sucking 
child shall play on the hole of the asp, aud the weaned child shall 
pat his hands on the basilisk's deu" (Is. xi. 8, Ber. Ver.). Is uot 
■eifioioe working ont some soch consommation as this? I claim 
that a science idiicb, like a blood-houndj can track with cunuitig 
Kent the minutest atom of a poison in the body, is helping forward 
the day when poison shall cease to be the instrument of a secret 
trea^ery, becanse there are eyes it cannot hope to evade, and a 
scianoe whoso investigations it wilt not dare to defy. 

[C. M. T,] 

230 OeMcral M&iiiJdif MMtiug. [Ibnh 5, 


UoiuUy, Mvch 5, 1888. 

Edward Wooda, Esq. U. Inst. G.E. Vico-Froflidfltit, in the Cb^ir. 

Frederick Bcor, Bsq- 

ThomAB Bnckney, Eeq. F.B.A& 

Tho Hon. Juatioe D*;, 

J. E. Drower, Esq. 

GoorgQ BeloG EUia, Ksq. 

David Charlo8 Guthrie, Esq. 

Robert Goorge Hfjbbes, Esq. 

Grahora Hutchison, Esq. J,P, 

H». William Moir, 

PercivflJ Arthnr L. Pryor, Esq. 

Vinceot Joseph Robinfionj Eaq. 

Alfred Richard Senitett, Esq. 

Lonia Sterne^ Esq- 

Goorge Philip Willonghby, Esq, 

wore elected Membors of the Rojftl Institntioii. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned for tiie 
followiog Donation to the Fund for the Promotion of Experimvitil 
Research r — 

Professor Dewar, £100. 

The following Arrangements for the Lectures after Eagtor wen 

announced : — 

CtiARLBS WALDffnnr, Esq. U.A. PIlD. — Tbree Lectnras m Joan Braof; 

on TufwlajHf April 10, 17, 24. 

Walteb Garlunjcr, Esq. M.A, — Three Lecturs on Toi Puurr nr tsi Wab 
OF Natvbe; on Tuesduja, Maj 1, S, IS* 

BiDNET CoLViN, Ebo. M.A. — Thrw Lectorea on OoiTTDfTiOHfl ajid Oovm^ 
TIQNAUTV IN Akt; on TueKfaji, Uaj 22, 29, Juna 5. 

PnorraBon Dkwah, Af,A. F-R.S. JVlRLPulleriBn PrDfevornrChemiilrT.fiX 

— BixLectoiVH on Tplb CatutOAL Aara: on ThnndajB, April 12,19, S6,Hn^ 
10, 17. 

PuoFESSoa T. Q. Boajtst, D.Bo. LL.D. F.BJB.— Tbree Lecture* en Tn 
Gbowth ANn SmxpTUBK of the Alps (TheTjndaJl LeotDies); oa Thnnd»n 
Maj 24, 31, June 7. 

Carl ARMsacOTEB. Esq^ — SeTsn Lectures on The Later Wobis or Biohaid 
Waqheb (With Vocal and Instrameatal lllaatntLona) ; on BLturdan, April 14, 
21.28, May 5, 12, 19,26. 

Photessor C. E. Tubneb, of the University of Bt Fetenbni^.— Three [.ectnzei 
on CorvT ToLaroi as N'otelut Avn Thinker; on BalnrdayB, Jnne 2, 9, IS. 

Ottteml ilootXl) Stettittj). 



7%A PaawTt rftNdwd dnoo iha Inat M^ciog vara Ud oa tbt 
•d4 tbo thuikv of tho UoibborH n^tarnod for tha Hmo^ vls 9— 


Ihfiiikl of ihaUwloerfrfludl*. 1*11:1 IV. Minpnloj^j. By F. It Udli<t, ATA. 

iltt CklhwiTio dfl liBdfcSt. I^r Ctix Jl^^alur Ju It^ Futfilav. 'iWia UL 
MX/«-v^ Jtwb.NiMHi— Atli,8vno Qiurlii: t^nJkoutL Vol. lit 

iii^votte Mmtmm^ MW— Dowiptin Cub1a((u(* nf the IM^lm at tlw Aui|» 

C^Md^ l% t M mj^ n4 JJ^tf^rfy-rrocrftLifiK.. Vol, VL r»irt 9. 9f&. lAHft^ 
£Wi«ifa <7cttlB0id«r4s*f J!r#Jitf*it ttUt^Ty S^rt*^ C4li[o|;i» ot Oundun TlftntB, 

Part ni. At«Ul». bvJ. Mjta>aa, ^r^L U\i^. 
r\,m\ntl i^avi*— Joonul fnr Fnbrivuv. intiS. Alta, 
CVm*. niMAr^ Em. F-lJi- ^ V.Af. ifk^i K-UttryS awmi of Iho BotkI 

LIJtJ AwMtfifl— Joonal of Soumm* f^i Fcbrurr, lEj^^ lbi> 

Al^aiwtt fag r^tomrr, '»«- *U. 

r^ml-ir T rr '-T T'-Vn-T T'T ffrc. 
O— bl «ud Dntniii fur Ftlruuj, 1888. 6*0^ 
BNCtenr&rPobrouj, 1^88, foT. 
ITariMrrintf br FtbRHir, 1 SSS^ int. 
U ^oHtfa^l J««n»| f<« Fi^WtJirr. I««a 
iWnrtrfiM for Pebnwrjr. liWa. loL 

UatAt** Ha^dc far Fcbmrr. 1863. 
K«lm far rUciMn, IRSa. «M. 



B«vw lUMliAaM for P«liimrT, lt6». 


tf^F^fcffliJgW>rf^lJ»iJ-r»f0o^ifie*.So*8*fl*»,Vc.l.X.W^ ^o. IS81 

MnJ rn^ Kdwar d B- jft^ <*** JuiAor)— Tli^ C<a>tngUno of M*pt in Hallat Svql 

tf »M »iii<r-J«qnwJ- Wb>. 120. 117, \U S*i>. ]»^, 

Wiaitifm itf f\Jiim Wmh^ Aivw^-Olomftln Ab\ Uciilo UrU*. 9«rlo QaintiL 
V«tLyAl& »f<<^ AipI IXprtnl. fbf. 1Wr7. ^ 

23:2 General M<mtUy Mteling- [Ukrch 5, 

AVir T^rk Amd^mi/ 0/ &K4e»«Tmuacticiiu, VoU. L 11. mnd V. Sva, lSSl-6. 
.VHjii'>niafi> £<«fWy— Cbnoiole ud JnurD&I, 1887, Put 4. 8to, 18S7- 
Phfirmacrntical SopK^y of Orrat Britain— J oomal, Fobnuny, 1888, 8vo. 

CulendoF T^tr 1888. 8to. 
Pkoloympkic So^tty—JiaiTDmi, Vol. XII. No. *. 8yo. 1887. 
Rio <li^ Jaiuim Obfn-mJmy— BerutA, No^ I. Svo- 1888. 

ADiinftriiv IS85. 1886. 1887- I6la, 
Royii Six-itf^ of E'liHbur^h—TnnBKiioaa, Vol. SXX. Ptui 1: VoL XXXIL 

Piitto 2-4 : Vol. XXXIII. Part 1. itn. 1883-7. 
PiTOcodin^ Km. 121-123. 870. |885~6. 
Itoynl Soeir^tff of London— ProcepdinjjH, Vna. Ml, 262. 8to. 1887-8. 

I'hilowphicalTniiiBActiona. Vol. Cl.XXVllL 4b>. 1888. 
Sririifrnn't K'lai^iliuA Library. South KfntirigioH Muteum — CaUJogue of BcifiQlLfio 

Perio-licftl^ 8vo. 1886. 
St- Pfttrff'' unj, Anidemie ImpftiaJe den Scieruja — Memoim, Tomo XXXV. 

N'fw. 8. S. ito. 1387. 
Sofietif of ^rfj«— JoiiniBl, Febnury, 1888, 8to. 
StatMirttI AjeVe^i/— Jouraa!, Vol. L. P*rt 4, Svo. 1887. 
Ttli^rvfJi KtHjinffr*. ^-kteirtu of — JouiubK Mo. 69. 8to. 1887. 
Vnilfd Strricr Inrlitutioit. Jtoffal — Journal, No. 142. 8to. 1888. 
VnitttI Sta/tf Gtototjiral ^urKy—Hiiienl Reoources of the United filatei fbr 

ISSG. 8m 1887. 
Frrr/m i>Jr fif/ffrcfn-uno des Gaeerifieiuet rn JVniiaen^VflrliuidliiDKeD. 18SS; 

Ben U 4to. 
Wild, Br. H. {the IHrtrttjr) — Antialf^ d«r PbyBLkalLacben CeDtrai-ObeGrTfttorinn^ 

1886, Theil 2. 1887. 
Wright and Co. Mfttrv. John (the PttbIithtTty-T\ie Hedioal Anfiiul, IfiSfl. Bia 
Ytrrkr/iire Archjnlogitxl and TrnKgrajJtical AnocitUioa—Journalf Fart S&. in. 


Mr. Lf^it Sirfitn tm R r. OitrnJy^ 


L»tti SmtrnzHt fiMi< U.i. 

!■ Uh9 |Wfii>d vhich inUrvom^l between tlio (>r«nt Wiu- ^nd llio finit 

Baton B 11, llivro vrt-rc tm ocalrtn of inlcdli^tn^l li^ht iu Eiij;1nijiL 

ji«iBiT ItcmliaAi, in bin ohourrbl nUI «gn. r^^ai^h*'^ hin nl|;jfilinlh 

birtbfUj in 181^. vlill, u lid plirft«od it. Codifying like any dmnou, 

ftrttviajt k11 ptroblctiM b^ tbo a[)fili<^tioii of hu fAmcua formula Bboat 

Uk ifniidcitt kftp|i«r>owi of t)jo i-ixAti^t iiiLm))«r,Mi4 ftdding 4tkj by day 

U* iht* f^pR jitltii inf iiuniiM:n|>t alauli vrnrc to rmbfiily t)n?< [irrndjJus 

irf all fntcrc IrfpftlUkm. To Iiik lurrniitAgn in Wmtminftt^r witftt 

%dmatt*A » lilllc group of oho«eo jlijoipltw. Ihtj «l«ni politicrbl oooao- 

^itea rigid taliliUriftdii^ muI onori^tic roforinont, Br>Tiio of wbum ^cro 

in Um ovmiri* yivTi to amiino th^ tlllu uf ^(jilunujihical nidicAli^ 

AofiCbcfr faukd of mtliDcinitii wiTif^lit AdifF^rrrt ia1irin<v Tbfiy 1 i>iLAiii>i| 

to lA ofMJo «hi47b Idnght thiTii Ibat otiliUHnuutm vaii *■ moral 

Mnmkj," potitjonk oooiiomy n "Aoli^iua bumba^," rkdicdium tbd 

£rMI road to nitTi, *h'l irno «i*(l>Ln citily to bu fuuiiJ \u n^iohv ctf 

i1*U<7n wliifJi Di^Jtharn eonid nnror wnWr— fof m rwufiu 

ta tlut ttiiinli fnrhirlv pHchrdivrmatnn^ f^iciulntpOifs lo tnmt 

awpyrcftB. Wo know ]>rvtty wchL whot wan tho imuitMO' of 

«■■ ttt vhoM fori t^MC dboiiibw M«t> TliU k(xiii»t tif Oolitcjlkptnirj 

fchtm m !■■ lufl » pictaro wlJol tu^iHl Ik: Inirl uiitW L-uiitHbutiuEt fir 

MWj JuHiri|iluni nf OoUfidgCL (^brt^lci hrw art old mnn — tbmiijli tn 

ftiak «r ftf^UuJ y«M« Im «u BtnihunH JDmor by doatI; n i^nnrLor nf 

tcmlnry — wilb Uio bMV of n pbiJ"tii>p^ur and iIk r:yc i>f & po^^t, tmK 

miL tiae iiiiwilillo 0*bliy Inoul^ of * MiEeuuiii diYAjJtiir of druAUtn, 

BQMBnbig oii]iH of tm, liikfTwnrrn but Intl'ir tbi\[j Ii'T flm^vrvi^T, or 

ttnlttni^ «*rlt*cr<rtf r«4hion, a1on;f txlb sidoii of n g;nn|itti jmth, im- 

*^ to Mko np bU raiuJ to tqtbor. Yoq pat htm nfjUiution ; ho n> 

fW by isc«ranUtuig ** fofmiilnbk appmntns, logical Hwini-bbiddcait 

darinUi t» mj thai mum of tbo iiMtPmc^iU Tn thu f /ctutA rt« 

wlifB itf •ci^nml ilotuaunW* nimt of nU:^ li 1ia<ii ncii Ljlhirlii 

. (» biDyTfepb^e^ I trm nj IrnowVljii r>r iJn nt f^hirftv ^ Mt. 

^ Eha Cr^Hfd^. fruo b tu piainvini] <jf hiiif <:nkii>lfLiLlj(iT'fl M^0^— Lbui 

VM.XIL (N«.83.> 


Vr. Ltt/Ttf Sifpkea 


goaf f«tteM<Di4o«l;" bnimnUod inlot^QfiiT«nc>ktbiM tn*M 
jitn " aaumtan pajwito bnckot, to bo paoipod into " (fiuic> aOnilylc fur 
iipuaivi]biiokct!^,*nd finolljr left yon " Kniinming and fiuttnring in ili« 
miitff t wiilo nuintalligibltt Julu^ of tlimot;, for tho lurwt j)«rt ui a 
nUaer profiilow au«oiaf«rt«b1i> DkftOGvr." i«i, at ti(iic«, wc u» UJJ, 
" ImIiuj 0IUUI7 i«lvtH.tiili'tiii^f t1icUi>*tA»i1 inWllijeiUfi," would ri«oott 
of tlwlkAto; and uptmUkfw iilfiiatht oTLibiiHiittin f^tnrlingiaidDtiiBn 
vmdd trj lo«ut oiicbOT. Hi'] ihtyy r< ••• h^ >1 rii ■-. ■]\>\ fbuudalioaof 

«iMti««i,or liod tbcjtlika Uittuti'« fili'i ii li til t^tf^Lt-lkiviidAnd 

aldfi niErtcJiva aomo uoUpUjMCAl ^tiikvu fvr the psciMaoeal buno- 
vcirk of tttingB ? 

Tliftt quoaimi mnY bo nnmnTn! domnoticaTl/ by mj ono wbo 
p1ni>r< LuinovBblo LimU of liiii« uid Oi^ttcil/ f^Uid &■» from 
attecD^ticiC to uumx il now. &Iy Mouao for YonturtDjt to nj Mnu>- 
iJiiDtf oi CoTcridgo— ^crtainli idic ci Cbo rai>«l &«ciiittiiii]f and movt 
pnrjiUnlrig Aguru in nnr litiTu^' hlf^tory— in Kitnply thht i I fcara Igcq 
forcul I'l itiTctittgato with Homo <xrv Ihe^ dctuili tiS bin oarMr ; and 1 
oi'trbt t& ba ftbU tid oBly to uiaiirar thoqnoatioa but loprcrido aliitlo 
" uLicnlAtorj StAT*' bovnrdfl nDiiwonng it. Golcdd^o'e i>lulo«i>|>tij 
misfit of c'ijim; bi? jiiJ|^ by i^AinMilnnitiohM MlntrnxRw to hut poraooftl 
LiEtcd-y. Y^'t I Ihtiik, u ■ pr{>f<^«iuniiiLl bic>gniphor ifl in clit^ bornid 
to thjiik, tliut i>bil"e'>jihy la^ rauru oftuii Ibnu pliitueo|ihoni ndmilf tbo 
outiui>iuo«f |>i'rth)Tiul <j|HiricuciT; aLcl C<>1«nd^V eiriifuliu bittUdyEoay 
throw tOEa« liicbi ujioti hiM li^iinj-. Ilim: i^c ino«t 111* bagicloaut 
aail Ibo imatidiwiL, tlio tniti pingiiu uf Ihn hurulilo bingrapw. 
l^hA Lft^ologUt biirui JUfionjw bvfoiv hie idol liU t1 In diftoolt to 
dUtlnguiali uiy fuud oejIIujo tlirunch tli< oJoulIa of gargoooilj- 
ttutod ra^Hmr. Cilcrldgc iliL/tigll liiinti If to havo cL7rt«iu fulUtffi^ 
fIjH ndatimm fcillj ogroud nith hiin. Hia WLiraliipproii rrifkiJ thao 
in«ilc fUliifwiioirB lis mara illusLnktiunft rf tbo ^vtd iran'v bismUi^. 
and «r«ii niAiiag(» to andow tbo ptMit tnd piiiiotopUer with uU tw 
bomoly YirlaoH of tbo re^pocUblo aaid tbo >o1tc&l T<> put fcntwl 
tni^U d&iui« tH bi cballtiogo tbo imnujcluL ITr, * pvreoa oudoved 
by DUtorawith n fine sl^jck of ¥irttir-M» indignniiun, ban rery littb 
trunblo in pidtunrjp tbd poot-phJu^oplior an a abauibliuD, uxu^liaibki^ 
indoLuQt nuIui'tiiiLry, 1o whtw wi aution biiuiuo ii»|io«iai bio §o aooit aa 
il iRiHPutird il^ilf a« ft duty, nnil ^ivlio, cYOu na a niftn of /vuior^ ia\vH 
hfi i^^iktlcjnnnd an iiiifiiUhfuI Ici Iiih bigli mlling. Aii^l jiii vo mf^n ibrr 
nsual edifying diicuaiif^J kv to Uio privilcgoii of geuiua. D^i tbcy 
i&elado mporiority tu tliu I'l^n OoinvjiLtiJnivtilitV Omi joa cipoct a 
poet to ooo£bo biuMlf to otic »ifo? M»y fb tuari reelect bi« cKtldrto 
CH1C&11B0 be lifw vritWn ibi^ 'AiLfimit M;hrmor' niid 'CiiriMCalMd*f— 
jR>iiiu of cixsiiiftiry, nf wJiii'b, witji your tcavf, I will putpuco iho 
otmuiJcntiiin to n faturo oocQBi'm. 

For ni.y pnrpooot it ea titioii^U to Uicciftain iLc ffloU. I haro not 
b) dLtidu >^ijutliur CulviiJi^u ebi'uM ruci^lfu ciiximiuuuicalioii or 
Ciinonintlinn ; whplhnF be doecrrod ti j^o atrni^clit tci bonvon or to 

«« S. T. Coifnilji. 


ft period — will, ff fi^ Ikiw lon^ « jtorinJ — In pni^nbuy. It 
tiH tn flcttio mob quAvHonn mtitfacUtHTf . 1 fToiricW%U nn ftac!ii* 
ktc du^n8iisiiotftjiiM»ouk]uDt«iicio, Cobridf^aBiiiaorlaD^I ivpoctoi 
iakm noto of flna uid of rrftcatiiQOQ u iin^KAtiuuB of dinnckr. I do 
pflvtvul lo nj vbulLtT ill lilt ujFu i)f Elnruo Uiu nii>uuUiiuu wihiM 
AO Ktmnnm Ht-olf f'^r thn nlr. Rut T prnmiu^ onn «[tnli igy for 
Ljtbin^ tbtkl fnftj caiutLl iooniwl^lic* oiii) ^^Iii^h I think U vrnrth 
'sntiDn of tlio ftmiftblo panon» who iiEu]«rtnko to r^ihnViti- 
npntoticiiJL A nun* irt«kkiio«« mu nutJy be oTurlc.o.jkv(l 
aBdemtlniAlirr^ trj« alrmigUi. If Ciilariil^'« bituUoct wirr\ 
QaJBoay miA in hU inaf^nnoqQfriit tt«y, ■' th« gmubMt ntiil inofLt 
ivittlx) mbtlcil mid in<i«t (KimprDhcnBivQ, llinl bad ytt uiiaUd 
DMa ** f wbftl n |thiIoiio|>hcr ouc muprt bo to j^rouoTiucu Miob h 
iltX wuj ivrriti tLt n^HiiIti m Biaiill 1^ LtucauEV llm cllicnml 
iQl «U cniiiinn Ia a dr^htjr i^nr^iuft. To diTi^ Ihla Ir tn fnrp.i> U4 |<i 
wawne t^U vhftt bo did v§m nil iliht bo onub) do. Von mutt uithor 
exftggoral« bia ftctruU acbumdncnU bcjcsi'l aII nowdblo limitB, or «nTo 
jw htHot in bis polcntial ocbiuromoutii, hj oduuitiug tbat bid iutd- 
lect Dsror bod frtir jilHy. 

Lot vm ^onsidot tfae onleetdfntfl <>f tbf^ propb»t of TTij^bgate Hill. 
Tao tlioro OTor » joimg nukia fnllcr of intfOlootiial prumino tr of pcr- 
dftnn tbtti Ibo joutb of twmly-Ji\c, who. in 17'JT. mmbled 
Ibo QuautodndiHOiiuimg niid coia|x«iu^ puutrjr h'iltj Wunti' 
CiraBmstaaoea oApftremly unfiLVinimblti IikjL nnly florid to 
D bio btlb]J*chifljr growth. Sfiiorolod fmm bio fiuuily in 
raacy, to bcciomo ooc uf tbc Tictimo oi oar public Acbckol ay»t«xii — 
L-fbi. iU-nnrood, mad iU-Uuubt ot Chritiri IJu^piUl ^ UT|;od ujnia 
Ao tr«>dnoin of a oomid *?""W' odnt^iilioTi by o n^id «v^hoiilmA« 
hoij ««BiiDiUt«d With dti^lor opiitudo wboU^^ir int'llt^cLuBl fi;vi| 
drifted triUuc )t» H*cb, He fioJ conxlil j^limipMii of hifib moU- 
ijsi«ol OMLFoto; ho liod pciQrr^ i&U> tbc my^tt^rioo of molioAl 
pnotlm; be hod brdlod u mLHx:lliL]iM)Uii libniry wbtiki; b« bail Ikk^ 
InfiBelod vitb povtlcol oothtioionn by tbo xtft'ly ol' tb^t iTiiiiub» ilny- 
fteiyW, tk Bob|o«; oad bo bod ooraplr^UJ Inn Iminiitj^ by fnllinj; 
iMpcnldy ta Ioto witb ih^t luenUbto niMtor of n fcbmiirnllnw^ ]| 
bftPMOlbfi tu rcfloct tliot tho hrai nenbikul A/ihinn <»r cduraEioii 
tffMk dovn ftmottiioreb Gdl«^g«<t it vouTd have «(<4>mi.'<?. nui wory 
fif twiof Artroft olKoik-Uko olong tho dnil In^hrtfrl 4<r Lntiit 
imor. Nftton ko4 pirmiptoJ him t>> Kiit|i tho f< iic^<'*s (■» e:iiqittolo 
tbo wiilo 5obio of Liitidli4^tiEJLl Aiid inmi^inAtiTu jiwtiins and ti^ 
■ keoncr i«ot To? hi' tioariMbmant f rum the ktiov-linltf! thnt tlm 
io^lgiiveo «M Ubi^tiniJito, Cambridge, tho mother of inkU. roof tvod 
biiD viUi ibo kindMM obo boo «o often iiboitfi to hc^r i?]iiUlrv.ri< Wo 
— I wpak >o o CWaiiriilgo umu — 4^ fli>i,%^l i"T nenrly l\n\i)t^<i\} 
Hillm inlp rapaUiauikm ; wo dlnff^fl^^l Drydrn iiib) on nnornivbtTia 
9^ monotnno protoicig p tor Oif<ird : vi> hctt^l Gmy lilK half itiflnd 
vilb MttidoBiA JnlnQM. ho oniipht ioo[-« clu^rfnl mirrnMniltii^ iii a 
tikoiobyvdi wo lofl Ityrua ta Uiu ouifg<3uikl Ktvicty <f bv 

n 2 


Jf r. Lm/h St/^pkm 


did itothiiJfE f<'^ WrnbiTOTll), ciovpt, Iad«cd. timlwu Uk^ 

Luii ic Uilu^uV rcponiK, nfiil tlicrv fcir anci? (it nm«t rcAlly tuve (Imiv 

bfan MmM good) iutluooJ Lim to to&o a gtui too oncb ; ft&d wi^ m 

iiMiif M iMMSibU, i>oiifortwl CoL*nJ;Eu into & he&vj jrafpxm. W* 

iitifdMvd bim 1o bow (ho k&«e to Bnvliil, «ijil to Ncrvton's Pnodptt* 

[jtiie mi\y idolii vhoao nonritu wnm mllogct^ior Imjfiiiil Kin ]>op««a dJ 

I AppPMiUtioari, lutd by sucli kindoDia in dugQi<« to^ticol ttm to plnnm 

[failo * pneooioiu bn>4oli with Ifao propricliot. A fuUo«7hip miiffd 

l^fo couTortod bin i&lo ft djtid Cliurch ami SUI« don, ui c^ake of 

I UkO Comliiitfttlan ]li3nm,&nL) * M~hii]jil ji]i1i;i^ tif purl. wjii(\ Wfi Htrrutir 

i.villtliold ihn trrmi^ntion. A iv«ron]ii>r hju hi i^tnrt ID Ufa flji r r\<bo]- 

kOolOrid^ iijnipnthi«c4 vith tL« rcVcUioiui \S illioia Frvnd, vbo vu 

[ ^fsg buiiBhod fntin Ohiabri^l;^ for ci«.«Bir<) hlwralinm. IXo oft^rod 

'ki« youthfhl iDCCiiM to PrJMtlrj, tlio " (lotriot oud eoiul uid mcb " — 

«o tiio Tornig mUitiKiaKl c^llnl Mm — wbf> wiw noon to ^a rip^lffd hj 

1fc« QlulMruit lonltj of BinuiughiiLm &om on imgmicifal oonptr^. 

\ 7%oii^h noTfrr Q Jftcobiu, ho booanio vihai. in some form or otbor, » 

^nn^ TDhti oiigUt tpo b«OuiDO — ui tnthuninat for tbc ncwut li^il*. ft 

parliAAEi uf lljo Id«U Btni^liEig In nfiiHiiM \ht\ t^w.ii^ii\ ordtrr iMd 

min-> ilto ft«piriitirii3B of muikfnd. Tho Miuiior of tho Ci^ll^o «hoolE 

hiM rovor«iid iivod, kindly onough at timus, ul tho Ud'« vftgariw, ft&d 

forptTo liim orcii rt>r th«t pmptMtoroiQa nttimpl to bccomo ft trooper 

wluvli nuvvr iimlrlHl liim, ivith ftll Iu« bubtlol^ erf dutiiiL'tion. to fonn 

ftfiy cirur Ron^f^ptifin fit thn diffiiwinwi bdlwcpn ft bnraji'ii }ti*^\ ftnd fU 

tftiL But ho (x>u!d Dot ruTi in tho r^-^rir ttnt^k- Ho uiu^ llirovn 

into tlio obuctifl wurld to iink or swiiu by hid imrunntcd AlLililicfL 

Ko lu&u Lbd. ill eoiue way«, ■ bHttirr fluutini; a]ijjufttt)iL Tho poctto 

Tiaii, «(ior] ^> umnifiLiKl itself in bin Ix^st «ork. ww tndewl kUU torUd 

vitt tlxnfllloyof ilidjif^iir twnildlo. Bnt ftlroftdy hi> Iwd tho vcTtfttiUt*, 

tiio iolioK'^nt vitftlit^ of intoUoct. tho power of cmbodyirp philoaoplM 

tlioughta in po<:tio imagoryi which nifiJu hiii^ unrivallud iu moook^pN^ 

Ho t&lktd bvllcr. 1 um apt lu think, Willi hib chum, Oiults lAmb, 

>lI lht> *■ Cat and Snlntnlinn/" iknn lu* rTiir tnlkrd to hid vronliippcn 

Dt HighgntQ Hii). A nAD in nt hJi bout K-foro ha ts rooocQiMd* 

Culcridgci'a oaily Icttcrn and cDmyis akov iLl falucsB mid intollodod 

Ttgcutt tritliout lliv too tlnbctintu luid elightly MticliiwiiUcioK niivtiTn- 

Kpniiiynii. uf 1j)S Inter orr^hinre. Aud \\m gvuin^ whii imch aa 

Stiplicd A double portirn of Ibe pow<!r of tniLkidg hiQivAHj if h:oJi, with 

moat of ue^ wnnca so lAincnioMy ae tho yo&ra ^ by. Lftiub, Lu 

corlicet Jind Intfst 6ii>ud» ^ab nlrewly duvott^d tu thifl brlllUiit M;Loi>^ 

fijllow ; utid if Lumh ivns an ca^y coEii)ij<Ht^ luun of luem tisiFjiirunrudy 

tfoid^i' iiiLtnt^ wTn fMjEially nttr«cl^. Ho bnd only Ui ri](x?t Southriy 

ftt Oifijrd to ew<inr at oaco nD otomnl fHeudfthip — a frkrudfcliip to to 

conentod by u regoDcjiUion of tbo world, 

Coloridgc wjui to Ur tbo Plntti uf a ttov vccioty to bo ArniDiTetl \n 
Ibv wilds of ATiic-rfci, Tht-rt* a nbort nfid )it-htL)iy itpiiiw of dftUy toil 
was to pn>vido ilII that wm n4^co«iinry fur ft tjn&d <i |ioot8 uid philo- 
tfipbora, («o boiic?j>k(it to cftro fur ncjiaratc property, &rid wotihy 


on S. T. M^M^. 


btetlM Ktuci of tbo fW«diM, wcrv tkerv nol tbrMUu* FVielc«»? 
OJMUflB.rrn ill I 1 for m tiino t!)0 kK> obrii^ud foruliudirLg Hint Pati- 
IfawMflj w«« Imt it jinmiioo ui ^rountAnl, DruuuliLiid wdk hi« 
mikf. T»r tbo Jcffnui^lii ciT l>ali^hora uid liftltort bo h^ itilJ » 
Mlj itoiiiffcrcnoo. lie Lad tlio tdloo vhioh ocmU cbflrm otoq b 
nUalMir, The mim uii f H^bIi C<>ttlc wsa at c&cc uiiiciuil ly 
udmAgei, mud sll Ui<t luUuttl c«iilii>u -jf & InuIt^HiUEtn dif) tuit with' 

^ W ft still mitrtcd nov |ioot- Wbat worg oao liai^iitod liuiNt to 
fsmiv vrbicb cookl Inm oC ah ut of a tnn^cdj in m momtut;, 
nki^ noou tiWrwudA cunJil biiikl tie vLuly piilaco of Kubk 
in B drutnt Goloridg^ wu )usl1fiei], iu [itiirit of bare pra- 
la nnrrjdiift ftt onoo on tho frovyioct. $ofn(ili'>vr tLo |>o«Uy 
W Ki4 CoOMk «o fiwt w tbo bUU. Dut (^loridgo J]a<I othor irtriri^a lo 
Uftboir- lltt oel np M ft lc«titTcr uid joamaliat, UU omrvulloUB 
O0Bilc3«yTuJn] for iLu iioutn it> wilt jiroiuiiuB vf i9ti)wi!rip- 
&OHI ^bwloni 111 ultciB- ; ftnd tho philosopber — not witlioiit a 
of bis ^m abcordilj— bott^o a BDOOoesfltl oorjiiiicnual 
InwUor, ThenorqiftpeTof ooorvocoUapecdalmoet cm tbo nput. AU 
1lboatfttM0DUoi]teirorftalMun1,iujd OoJcJidgc's cluqucncn funvi^l tolie 
MMMhov iiiicuKi0MiU1 b> tbo UTlovr-dtioUuff iDt«ro>L Eat mcuinbllo, 
im th# coatBo o< hio joortuf, CaUHdg* biMl inaiiiv&tully and, a& U 
Wn. t^ ibo CMt« Fodo j[luieo ol bu cycfiwrpt rjp ClioirlcB LlL<yc).eau 
itf ft Ml buolKt, wbo, bKunatol tmd cinthriilknl. lufL tbo bauk t<> 
tie ami hi iiinftl« of bii loubor^H huiuv. am], nn dimbt, a oDDthlintor 
to ><■ camniouf^ Poolo, o moot |tublic-0{>irrti.-Hl uij'l ititclLig«it man, 
oAnd fcnD ftn Mj^vm nt Kolbor Slovoj, Ttk<^ Uuitanutifi^ lo trbum 
WiKvo or loMboIoncod.irero raftfijtoopcn thrir I'ulpitlu a pmiclier 
will doqutticc iiTTHnLMil to riifc) QTQEt Utu iDOflt hjtUiiilicI irodilioM 
of llift rodned ogo of I^ighton ami Jvntaj T^yltT. 

Uftolittt t^t jol oooTftd oodt oovoqo, boat\l Coliitidi^ frcndi iu 
1798 i ojkd loUa u IU inio HadUttui otjlo liovr Lio Toioc toao liko o 
•kmi of rtcli dUtlUcd pi^irfiiaic* ; bov hn UnncTtuI tutu Iijh ULibjVct 

iiko on Mglo dollying irltb Uio wind; how, in l^of, poetry and 
pholoaofby bad itwt IcgotW^ Inatli ond goniui had t^mbnioofl andor 
Ibo ojft o&d willi tbo aoBotioaoT rootco. Tbo UDitoriiui £jdio£D0d1 
M too awnpod far Ihio brillioBi luolcor ; Ujo pbilcmnirby <^xpffTlBlIcld 
ffoat llio inilpiln lUHniiDrl to fctui nao^ ond r^d ; iitirl, wbilo booU 
IoIIMi bo rccoivol Hu oS^ Jroni tbo gcncrooi Woduvooits, oascioa* to 
OpOftoBOloo poH of t£ioir wonltb in th« patrono^ of icenio'. 

ItvnMiro bod ruicbcd Eui^land bj thiA lime tbal o greot intoILoo- 
taol tj^ bod orfs«i) iu Gcnooity. Tbo W<^lj^4(N.xth goTU Coleridge 
ft npAosI on&vity, ttftfrttorod (to I mti now nny) hj ony oonditloD 
vtolfftf^ft ftwt vbioh tnokoi tbo mbM^^uont v^itbdrawU a borvbor 

IBloaBBO tllOft IkOO boCQ Mippoaodp OoJi^ridgo ixkoItoL to go to 
Itenoay, ooldt IbooicnO ti%3 uftliL' Eaiitiuii |i|iiIinL>]i}iy, and ruliirti 
lobgnibdlo rogoomto tbo minil cf bin onnrtiyiiKiti, Hii sUit«d 

Jfr. 1*91*0 Sifflam 


111 SuptoiuWr. IIOS, wbea kc wm jast IwtMitf-ttix, m componj whb 
lUo frivod vliu kIudv uuultl \fj vMui|«m«] l-i Uiiu in u]k<]1«ctinil iwrrw. 
WofdnroTth Ivul b««b »tiraot^, u I^mb ika<l Bonthtjr hiA bM& 
ktbmctod Mbn) him. Colt^rvd^ ^ud WordsworUi bbd diMuawd Iho 
witKnjJM of UkOir oommorL art; juitt Oilcridgc b*d applied tlicm in 
SttOM in>ttd««fii1 poeow^ iLn ' AilckuI Manner* wid 'dirinUiW 
(th« flnl fftitV wUcK WW* Id In but thn iimti^ffiiA i-> a fnllttr uUft^ 
anco ; * irooosr^ll proloffoov f«v» thou^ foliowtvl by aolhtmg^ it 
njQoiacd aiii([Uo ami iiiimitikUlc, Coiduii^ mui not fot dAttnAM 
ri>l>u iwiil (if Jiibiufin -, tkc DTiiinnty entice li*il <mhr a p^Mang «ni]tf 
<jr flnnrr fcr thu iJlllu clique vhldi pobliahnl Ite oWiiro ntkntiav 
in ft provincial Untn. MahUlIj nnd critical Mvlevori — tbo arbilon 
«if tMtc — vrculili bavD booEt utcaiMhod lo bcftr that Coloritlgo anJ 
Wor^fl^mrilx and iMoth ami SoaLh^j womU aooo utand in th^ Tcrf 
fniiit ranks of EugUvli libHralurv; aiu] Lu must Wn.- a clajnr<iJt> 
tcicocolhanlwlio vouUlcaAtaAlonf^aicritlcafarncitalOKiOttdvlMling 
tLc Gnt Kcrnv of rUiig gtahuL Dat, m «b ^ /tuto proffaot** «« 
uj« abb ko PM that Coloridf^o Altoidf Jud not only fpren proGi& of 
OKtoaiitiJiing powi^r, but had wun wLat v<u otca moro Tnliablo, Ifao 
trne eympathj and curdiiLl sCTfCtiuu vfvi>ajig iumi wbo wore the dta- 
ItDct Icodcra uf Ibo next gnntmuion. Ewn tDai«Hal eup[>^ wat not 
>^iuitLng frum tuch uon aji Po<»Io and Wadffnood «tUS«loiit to ouBto 
u fjur hUri fiT tlic Utile bond of Hfiphoto* Wo alioidd h*To bean 
juMilied In fanTtfllHng. utiLU uuuBual ouuJidtiutsn, a ounsr of mriiUKing 
bnUiuxoT Ciir tbo jontL, of whom h immed onty qneiUoMbk vihelliat 
Lu w<iiiLl ohooeo to bu a »«coi]d Daoon cr a AAOODd MQlon. 

Ami if H ul ifiat tiiiiCt any ono could bavu Khomi u« Iko bum 
Col(.triilg>T Ht ft dii^aucu of ui^litt^n ^tvrfi, ilio worn. iSi^pniMti'd, pre- 
niatultily agknl mnn vliutouk up limubork* with (itUihui in Ifilft, «n 
aUould haVD boon dbockod. and j«1,_porb»p«, havu boon nblo to uHor 
our oomplaooDt " 1 told jon lo. What eo Car Lad Wu the acbiofo- 
nonbi of the uioht biilUaut ecniud r>f tW ironcmtivu : u luau uut uuljr 
of avrpaulrg ability, but irf mirfiii»[tig fniMlity of ntlrntn^w ; a nian 
whom io aot gfii^^ at ntiy iric>ii)fiiit ivag t^ tiiik^h n pcrpfitQaUj 
flowioiC '<^>'^t> trf uloUDilitij^ iKif^ufttooV A few n(iVkfi[kn|>rr arUchil 
aiLd miULo cuurava Iff Udiinn*, licaaid iu 1817, cr.'jittilulul hu vboU 
pnbUcdty, It niaj bii oddod timt ho liad Jiilli^l doun mi thu luargtn* 
i,f book^ ouoLi^b dctAob<xl tbnugbti to hbvc made ■mLO ^lntt«<«f 
fKlinirablo rcHcotionfl. but lio b«d aohitnd nothiiw to ROgflOit 
ix^iicciitimtcd tliou^bt <it ^\i»lann-<\ bibour. In a afiovtor period 
Arolt poiutN.1 out Qia wbL>bi of t]in Wavciloj nuvula, bnddw dtiH 
cliuri^in^ nOkml diitii^K^ iLiid writing a tiunibcr <if rvvi^va anJ 
miawilAiiooLvi Wurk^. I say notbing an to tbu qtialitj. J ani tbaply 
iLinbinjr of ttiu oiaotint of ivui-k; and ColcnJ^'a Hoik ci>#t liltba 
lub^rur, for biB poMcr nf iinj'n-TJfAtiL'Ti was aiuunff bin tnoxt inar> 
volluiih l'fL/^it1ltriu Why, tbrJi, van tlj<! work mj lEmitCul in qnantttjV 
Tb<' lutornal t^vtn avo iiifliHvntly Higiiifivaiil. After hin ivtum from 
C'cnniu'y iti tki^ uutumu of 17V^, bu ^vrotu n^nu ntticJoa wkieb 

im 9, T, Oiftmd^ 

tart^iikly pTov«iil lliAt 1il« iDt^IlM*! «A* fti full rtgt\ui, tnruUU-l 
'W»ii(a»4cini' AnJ th«, in 1^00, httirod viUt hie fjunilr 1o 
KvHck. lloro mk atuoc omuujuH 1^3 mpt^itiu bfafCiQ I0 filuiir loaui* 
«lm. A Bttmitgo diwuiot ia bolivjixi iti bin IniUrtn; Uiom &r» 
nfarfnl cnDpluntM ot UMiAlth; hut poetio iavpimliun bmthm iin 
W Itt Umi *OIo to Ih>^lion/ Ho Aonght tb V4ui lu diatnu:! 

IMM Lo ftpvua tvo ^tAn oud a Lalf tn M^IIa miiI lUlf. Hvlurtilug 
lA bttlukil. bo tried IdTluring nl tbn Rnyul IiiKtitiilinn^ «nrl l)ieit 
McUm at OivsiMiru — AAmiJi mUo* of mocmtaixi roadj frvm bifl vifo — 
«d ivp*AU4 Lb ' Wfttoknuk ' vrpori&MOit bj writiug ttio ^ Krioad.' 
TW jmiUifQ] boojutcj, •Ten 11i|jjjsijc7, Lm dflparbud. tlion^h it 
ibpnv br ripor tbongbl ftml nUior inl4:ll«:ctiiiJ Hturv«# Rut^iL^iLri- 
nam flf w^rix nvlu every ptkg« ; tba long Ktmtettooic comcbow HOtTgoiLt 
ft VWWWUNi vf Atiflud gruuiBi M tho caLoTpritO proccodit, it oon 
«n]j bs kc|4 up by inb^uciiig a&j irrclcTAfit uiftltor tbiit D^y 
b« «n bftfiil — sucL utt olJ loUovB fnjui Ouiii;ui> Hliivb ]lBpJMUll^l Ut 
he iti hill fiortbLio, snH »n oxtnvAffntil luuu-flyrio npun hfH inxlnm nt 
lUu, bir Alesfthder BUI. 

1 bo ^Kriond' »ik>& ttl\a d«d, &nd Culuriitji^o dnfln bncb ti> 
LoBJoQ. Tbtft) b« lunkcft pff'^rls, pnLlifilit: m lliuir L£ii|uU:JiijL\ tu 
bat|i bla lM«d Abniii viitj^r. Hi- Irir-.n j^Mi-uAlLKiri njjitin^ but wfUiunt 
Iba OMBMoitial triontplis vhicb fud formerly bioooil far hii irrngn- 
hrily. Jlc IhIuks uid 10 board with lui iLk^wt vluoh iJiown tliat, 
ia tfiitc of aU iiiiptdimoDU, bis m&rTcIIutiii |H>^vrti have U l«fist 
mttHl tJ« CLiHiwity of all wbu uUim tu hu^e juj iiiUillwliml U«k'. 
S« luA m $^<^^^ o^ fldociran, too, fmim thn prodiirtioa c)f liu old 
InMi^fs ' B^noTM,' vntton in tbo dayi of early TLgour, Itui tctaa 
■MiVtow M«n« to bo fluching bim look, no that he oah never ^t 
Iw fret plMilwl on d^ Uud- Ha rntim t^ Driatol, aul tliuiKW t-j 
OftfaVt noM ba M(ffu« b> he alhbfng \iiiit nXt^r irWnHiy. fli:i lukn 

^'t*^ pMMd out of ibe kaoiwlad^ of hii; fritfudit, vhon a biKt 
A«|«lm|( «tfbrt Uitd» lum ot BifEbjCiblc, and thof« a rather mn^iLir 
imyifiwMHtlwo, h uay i>««iq ftt firvt Might, oottblo* bim to bccomo ihtt 
oficl* oi yottlbhil Aqrintion, wisdmn, &ikd virluu. P^iTjfiilly, mid 
bBpcrfDotljr «rith ik«At ««d, h« g4lh«T« t>^tlifir Bomn fmgml'^t« of 
ftCtaU ttohMTvaoat — ouongh to jattify ft ^cnt, bat a iuobI tantnluiu}; 


Wbnt WW thrt mnrvt of llii* ]iaiitfVi1 hutury? Brlufly, it wuh 
njinn. OuUrvdiju laid «u ^lim^Jr, ai»I a11 I1L4 l>1ogr(ijihi>rs Invo 
iiited tbtf Em4m, WiLhdUt thJA iitAtonwiit tho vhola pi<iry nould bo 
mltttelUgiblOi Acd wo orxiM Iiotc demo juAttoo odthor lo l^okniJf^u'A 
IjOallecitnal pitvnr* nor atv-u to muKj vi bU TiiiTiw. Tu tcLI ibu 
itoty of CV'b^ndifQ withurit tlivfiiinm i» lo ttitl ttio ^tiiry iif Hjitrrhl 
wftiioot uMntioDnig tb& glvjxl. Tho tr«g«^y of 4 lifo m»itld b^i<(>irD 
ftsemtlfin^ of incoborcnt aooiduntfl. Nor aro tha fiK<tii doubtfiU, 
Oolariilgo. I Cmlt, conpoflod, 01 invented, for tho honest of Qillmaii, 
ftWtftfD fdolntcB^iut '* Kciidft) bburk drup" — « Lr(juchurvu« uiwtruni. 


Xr, L^tht Skphim 




it !■ iDggMtcdH vli^cli b«JiTo biui rolivf in hit piiifTi-rlai£B hI K«aiticl, 
■nil cmvpo^v^rud IiIk vill bpfDn he IiihI rcoipiiNxl itn naturr. Tlia 
tratb it, M4AU bttftbiimUnlly j'TuT<kI L^ Lin li<1t»r« *t tl;< tine. tW 
h*i wn» tiiJiio^ UnduiQiii m Lu-)^> i^mmliliii^ lu i'*Ji\ Ihvl U ^\k*i Iw 
wnA JUKI ttfE<iit7'four, nndw iio piM»r« of iUii«««, bat ovrUinly 
nrjl kimwiu^ vhhol ho OM Inkbiif. It ««« mi Kc«vlck, iiul iLaI liu 
finil iTjrtulgod^ but iLnt ho firvl bt^iimo itv&ro cf lus ^liauttt bopali** 

After rvftduii: nuriy puLiLfiilly ocaicluwro Tii^Kif^ uf tl^e |>*auoD, 
1 <iuiifuM Uikt I ihJTik il Ufut rvmuikulilii thai liih iliiiMifalJAAtMiu in 

this mpUCt «(Wn>LHl to ho OOTTlplttf? hlxtllt ISH^ tlllUl tljnt bo KlIC- 

0«d4ML DiulDr Uillmnc':* turu, iu (h> ^r Wffckiiic olT tlii< Imbit m lu 
iikibk« D ourtain BitLTHfrti fruni tlu wrouk, 1 wiuTiIy tiikfi uotv (rf iLttv 
fiujlis >i^d toAvu fkUyUJJy who ]>kiiMi7H lo <1o cLic uiuiaHuhjc ; but 1 uii 
fnrcGri] to mdd a few wiinU iijiou aimthor lci|L{r^ Ut which hln Hfiolii^iciii 
bftvu rcAjrittl iu urdur to mtoniiuU iho opitiiu-^ttlmg. Briefly, it ^^ 
Lu» l>«ii Litlvm^.'d to AT« liii« <!Lofiict<jr by ftboAiJig Lu o-ifcu^H 
tl&iioabt'^llyk tt4 tlio rcooiktly jiiilfliehid Ctloi>rlou I'upen prons^^ 
tbi^nv wiui A ODiiifpli'to w^Lit iif njiii|mUjy. TIjc^ uunv duciiiuiTntf' 
rIi.^it thnt it WW TiDt« M! hod Ixvti j^ncruUjr «nppo<vd^ n rjuo <if 
j^nfliUkl driftiu^ opul Fro^^uJa fur n rv^hix HMiaiitLon bud bMQ 
tnodo hy tlic ismn of Cutondgo's ruturu frum M&ltn. fokridgci'fl 
«^|o|;iHta Iiavu hikld tbiil Urfi. Oul^rJilj^u wiui tn^u vt Is|^'i> wututMi, 
liom " to Mif^klo fmiU aitd flhrnhirtn vtmW lio^T," atkI nnilA nnctbU la 
•pppiwiftl*] Kuitiiiti mutaph^io*, or avoa • ChrutikVcJ," A tcry 
iliiuhtfal lu^cjiid Lu buuu put nbuut, Itjut ahv onut jiciid, " Got OOp, 
Ctiltiridgci " (■ rviiutrk f^^r vrliich atxv can cuticciivtj a mifficiutit juBtai^ 
oation), »Tid nit LEiHTi 4-4UI Ih; iijijHicKxl Ui luro fur » wuntiu^ nlio Fayti 
*• Got oop " Of for lur rhildrmi- TiVim htU^rt nf Ijctb nLic-h I t*v<i 
0OO&, I Bjn ificliuL'd io tluuk thrtt Urit^ {'olcHd^o must rooUy fa»« 
hoou a very (uiiaiblu womiui, vfLo ivorkcil Litrd u> udaoalc ker own 
ohihlnsii, uud iLu chiMruu uf Ltir iifiettrr, Mm. 3uulLc»:(, Ju Fri^iit-h and 
lUliiut, ftiid vhtt rtniht i^iproAf^ hf^»i'lf in ivTimrknhly ^(aoiI Kii|fltAti- 
8L« wuH iici doubt inapproi^iativo uf a ^Quiuu wb.ii.-h couid not bo iot 
Id bi'Cdbl'WiniiiuK. Aud tuorooTcrf whuu a iniku bue au ftcatatJc 
Adminitiuii fur lu^jtbtir wuuLnti, it la unt likvly l^i luuko hi« ruUtiofit 
to hie wifo Jiwn< pk^RMiint. Tj npi^k of ilII ilhi hm a rii»ni1 uuiu* 
r>i" O-ilei-idfit) Is to Ttjy mind imnianly. If a man of aniiint oon- 
iloacondd to mJJi'y n \yoiiiiiu, aud ho tho fiithor of hap CHtiiLdrca, Im 
ijiiidt luonr ruB]>L.iiifiihi]itira. Tho foot tbut hu Iuhtm hcr« «« Coto- 
ridgi^ dill, bifi bui»ll IixikI iiiuojnu. thu btihtuo- uf h<.'r 4?ijhtuh» bu ba 
lutido uii by hifi hrothor-in-law ami rlhcr Drmna^ticmii, in an (kr ta Ui« 
uivditt bill dfn-£ not oxcio^o bim for ft ut^glect of tbtwo datioHf tiot to 
bo iDoMt^rctl in pimndii* ehilliu^n, and punco, whiab a biijib«ad mud 
futbiir itwuH tu ou iuiiu(;c£it wotuuii uud tbrvu huaII childtvQ^ Col^- 
tidgoV jHiKiiUiri wikH iiu ihtijbt dinL^ull, but tUu ui(h1i> in hIucJi ho 
B^dvcrfl Uki dilhoitUy U u proof thut i~ipiiiiU'C:]itiiig in inooufliAtvul nilh 
ooruiu homoly dutJ'.B. 


M 5. r. OjirHdije. 


1 hiifa pa |kitmjtm1 nirmi In Ehiu q»i«tl«ii, mir will I i-viirrju Any 
ifiMM mpoa it. Itnt f>c>r in inoliiitii tii luy. Don't bo hit bruUicr-iD- 
uv, «rbw publishor. or IlU editor, or uivtUiiig lliat em buif tod cun? 
tvDpcftCi^' — it is protMbtj fdi tioottiivu vuJuiLtioi]— fur Uio opmioit of 
|a«lb«aKiU£ crilxt^A. 

Bott Agitlni T woi]]j nrniil tuomltKintr, T nnly itfilc wliat k thn 
InbB tnfcrcnott m t» Co]«ni)gu*a vlikru^tur. And thai ooofltJcraHoQ 
i«Kj' brine ^K* b*vk tv 1<" |«ififiil rofliNitiouii. It i» prupoEUiroaB li> 
iw»lAiQ iliD tlicflu tlmt Colorlil|£« wn« tbo kttJtl of imr^vu k* U IkiIJ 
Bp ■• « |«ltirrD iu yijuiig ni<^i about ti> jnarry. Oiiiiiiii Itinl rui:)Eii1 
tiw po»ef of Hill, tU'twr vor^ Ktrniig, iLi}d any cATiitaity )ici mny liavn 
had — uvl fciM v^riMtility vthk pf^rlmp* mooTfipitiMo wiiii any great 
ca|«al;f ^ii>r ctmcQDtmtiuTi ■/)] * i^riTAi tn«h. Thr) cHiA^'iu-jncca of 
•Bcfa imilgvucv Iwl ruiLC^l hh hn-.uv lifi:. riud nil Iml jui'jiL'iJ Lis 
IntoOaclMMl «^afTHir. But thrmi i« uIhi iIjb* ti Ui vnul, tliftl nt bin 
ViHM ColtftdgC w«A bulb torpd uiid rtitiiiQiitly luvnlilc, Uii fniHri^ 
tmri^v^ fikr iborc <*oiii]Fautriuii thuu i^cli^tiatiuu. TLc ^|iiiy of it ^' 
<i¥fn— m iIm Miitimoiit cf all L7i.^«ituc-4*<«, TTi] wiu alwuyH fEil] of 
kimlly fivlin;?*. (iitvirr foiin^ iiitit cyiiinUin. Tint striLti [G ]i-i*<t of 
Eftb^atktlioQ nhif^h im hxl Rhmivii :ii bin jKbottf* youttj IiflVnr drHftfcl 
Liu. Ai Iki QiuDOAy bu taid : '^iSjyLiii^t nil tacu who fvci f'cirljaika 
fefttp iiTod, bv fi>md mCMU to «u^;*o & unUALniit nticccniou of luoal 
futhful fritudi). Hti rvuujvvd Uio wrviciw of testUin, bruUiLTti, 
ckatfbtHrH, fiiTiA. fmm llin liondff of utmnf^nn, attra^tjHl tj^ hkin hy no 
nniilifcp iBDpvko* but tboM of i^rvnnico for h'm iulcllocl and lova for 
bft BTHtoiu naturo, r<irpt4uU rc^tays wuto laid nkmjr bin f.Atb in 
tif* oTimIuvs uiil judlduuH HnuiiurCcr*.'* WLclum:; t.'iilcrid^c mil* 
fet hi«loiML, AOiiie oti>i >vm r^y to holy Uini. VfAv. uinl LEnyd, 
m^ W^gvooJ, and D« QtttDCcj, bad (wmo fumtinl bi lliciir turn. 
Tliitrfi^ tbo ilwiiibl yoktv <if docrndutii^u ^'hich |>ruood<ril hifi fiiiiU 
ivfuco nt Gil]iiuEi*«, Lbu faitlifitl Mor^;ui0 Lud mtulc biiti a bomti ; 
tfinl (u bffuik uff IjIh biuJ babiUii und ^iiubkn.! Iiiiii lu L-nrry on tlm 
■iBufft bof^lMU «4rnggl«. Wliiin M^rr^n hfntciklf lifx^mo Ir&uknipt, 
il k jklmxint tu know thtd Coloridgc, ftincin^ vhntut ftulu iKJOuuiory 
matattcm b^I i o pUoo. (Oitc vbnt bo could— and far maro ihoxi kc 
oDttU tT*Uy a|«&e — to bdp bia > Id fricud. WboD lioilclivorod bi« 
livtaftB or lacHtrod omt ai Aiimxiiii; mitmiloi^iiri at Lnnib'e Hupjion, or 
i» Ooilwtn'a ibnp. y ntcn^t nuin, at t^Lcftf^of ber><worAhiEi, u'uro ^liuuly 
prvmrod not only to ^ri^nJur ut Ibo intolleotiml dbpUy, bitt U> fvol 

and fanpnHorily ifau»|i»riniil vtwut, nolnrldgL^V I<itt4?r'ii may ^l^vcld 
WPUm fut <>r tbb diarm, llioagh mirno pni-tn ti^:i, t^f tbo dmwW'k. 
Hi* Mff iurolrol KQUuctct, coDipnrcd by bimulf to a SiiHnain Imut 
wlUi a brood of litUo Wdii cfunpiu^ frcm bii bicJc, Triad AboUl in 
vuoif tblne botnuii a bi'luii tuno^e uiinl u ByaiiAtbntio effViaioii nf 
«anlbkttli&l ci>"r'*'^J<inA, Wli^n ib^^y UiiwU Aty jinii.'tW1. «. ^ 
ooGoudU, Uioy urcj mj>t tu buoujiw bojioJc«dly uumkdligibb>i 


JTr. LMe SUfUn 


liVbon ibej ^ipoun^ a vnal ticliuui« for a fnoffaHM ojmw, or ouu of lit? 
vaHifiiH fMi^Ufi opr-nt tvtiich i&l any tiinn fur Uiirljr jcttnt wnm jii«t 
tnulj tn Itisao tmni tita prvAt, an mnri na a fi^ir piig«B vero tnuucribodi 
wo |>croftivo, &ficv Ik momcDt, Uiut thcj utj Dot Uto fioti^tiu of the 
bcj^j^nff'] Letter writer, but m ktnii of «oan]tioii» qvonUntfODaljr ami up* 
fxiLscimiiAlj cvclvud to jibcify tbc alltiga of imiKitinb Thcow %n 
iTiniii(»iiU whi^n \>i^ i^ ^iiofuIimia, linl it» miuit for^^i^ tliurii hi Iho mati 
ir)ii> UaJ biHiu lio|)c1oaiJ;^ Jifit]Uic«(t tn nopnW tmno by Ju« inforiont 
wbc»w bttcmjjto ot public uttcnkuco uod utterly oolUpftOJ; wIumd 
' W&IlDnfttein * utill cuDUTuburul bm patfUnbci'i vfcolvea; vrLoM 
poetioat cojiyrj^'bu )\H'\ bi-urt iMjWTHU.ify V(lIui.<<1 nl mJ ; aiuI i*Lom> 
n^foe mi4 onK m^nllim'^l in ttif cTiinf ri^vii^iH us n uip^rlaUro f«ir 
vilfiil oaoQELtnoity eiod nbaurditv. Atid tbnn, at ttstirj tan), we oo^do 
vpoa fro^aonb glG«m.<v not only of rnbtle tboDifbC mud iiuagitibUirD 
tapniHJou, bni of vbram] ^uiuiium miiiah. huiI flvim itt tlnwn of & 
giainlTiA linmonr, wbinh noAniA ia tmply ibiU L«nil) uu pftrlly ecriona 
vtion lio ulkI tbfti Cotariilgo Lftd (aomnoJi 'f-f-fua^ in bim. Aficf 
n^din^ nirhny of tbo IctUov. vbicb still mnain iiitpu^Luibc^J. I may 
<i\y ami it in my oirn cutivtotiun tbot a life cf tVldTiil^r may Mill ui 
|titt tfipTthtir by lu^tjiu jiuliditastt^rllvr, wlin aJtmild take Bosvoll tsih«r 
limn Uiu *Aijtii Sjirictiiriim' (lit hU mmluV wUob would bo ui 
loWr^iAtiiig kLa ihd grthAt * ('oufouiotiff ' ; which Abantd by luriu rcdaiDi) 
u* of AugiiAtinf^ (if M<>uUi);iic. cuii) of HoufucnOt auJ flomslioiuBi toot 
rif tbo iuiiTiitablii Pcliyn ur Butiwall LLiurtrlf ; wliidl ■buuit fibrrw the 
tLuiidiug of tbo UUAjd«in«iiUi 'tf A nii^t r-oiii|»k-i cliAtmcrtor uicl k 
tUMt voraaldo a>itl o|>nUnt iLto1l»ct ; wliidi pbouUl otEou c&U fuHL 
vrouJur, And arailutf oiiil n|[lia» And indifniftli'^n nmolliorcU by |>]ly, iit 
ime i}f tliuM) lilt (q lie C(3[TiUu4tiiJU» irliidi it raimlil Ulum :^}iHku»pe«ro 
Ui portrny and net. ntid dt fy I^lli «ki1l nf n jHychdk-firMt U^ dofin*. 

Utily ■ faiEit inJjonlion <■! ihia k lu b& fonud in ColoHJjtu's 
* A|ioli>j;ijK' or, u Lo ouUod it, bi> ' Birffmpbia Livrftria/ of vbidi 
I jjiuiHL (iuw wiy a ft<iiiJ, It waa writl<Ti] at hi* vvTy nadir, luul 
fjitldinhoil jUAt of^iT be lilul rccu.^hEMl lija luyluiu at Higbgubx Iti thi« 
aotiibu It liaM a tipccUI bir»yri^pKl''Al vbiIiij\ Ibougb iu atatomcnb^ 
Duluurvi by tbu iiIueiouA V^ nbicb ho wan t^cn Spooially mbjocti 
Luvu pAeW uiUHUr too coaSly witli bio biui^nplirnu Its ultu i% 
chii.it1y til JJ^(tl(]^t a|£iiiiL*t Uio uc^lm't of tbu public luiil t'lo i|ji4jx*niirTH 
cf |iatnmagn. Kiich conijdniJitB g'iii4.*nilly n^Tiiiiiil nj« ikf a rifltrnfitt 
ccmpUibmg tbat tLo tnrg^rl pondHtn in kot^[^in|^ oqI <'i Hm lino of fir^ 
But if AC i»u«t pnrdun ponif^tLin^ to a iirtcm fo fj^uvou^y tric^I for 
t?LdiMivuuriuictL>«bift n portcf the rLiipotihJbility upon otlivr abL-ulflcm 
ibnTi bU own, wn mnit be ujhiu uur t^uard jt^niunt acrcuptmc <wniiina 
vhich vuroliro JujUMtioA to otborv. fJotbiiig l>nt CV.lI fridge ft «trang« 
illuaiona could bu an ajai^lon^y^ for oiunpla, for bis oooDpUinta Ibftt 
tbo Uimvlry luul u;jt rcward^i^ a writer whoao ipvAtoal eucc^fMwvi had 
Ihm^i HLvrLiful dDTiuiiL^iutioDa uf Uiclr Kunt loadot. IltL Tbu book, of 
courK, is put tiJ^tbcir with a |>itc1imk- It 1* without form or pro- 
poi'tiou, utid i« Jjuully okuJ aut with a batcb of thu old ](tt^^r• fn>in 


m A r. CbttiUgs. 


Gauj «rluo1k bo hmd ■ItmHj Mcd ir the * FricniT/ «iiil ft|>parcutly 
1^4 M m IwA roBonroe lo slop ibo wovlht of (innkn*^ 

Sow ii ift mmiiTkftblc tli*l erca >l tliw tiuicv vtiou bU dcmorali- 
Mfiion 1>td fjouo fiirilicv^V Ito fVi»ll «til1 poor oat many I«>:i9 ft 
eritkiam, (pitlo irrftlcviuit in thn profruD^ purp(M» nf llto Ix^ck, tad 
jt4 Mch «■ w«i0 bej^md utd above tha mugo of nnr living ctiDUmpo* 
farj. Ci>l«ri4fiD &t hia worsl k«t tLe |N}w«r of fiui^ioj! Mid coacvn- 
tn&iiig — oC wfaiji hv Wl utfTU bail vtjr> iiiucb— tut ikiI tbu i^'uvr vS 
ilMWidm tiift«wUrai. IT^ niTii^t bii rtmijHircd not to a tnm nhir^li lu 
kM il« viteA ftbre, bol ta a vino doprivod of it« propi, uthict, tbungb 
Ml of tt» fndi 10 orapbod and w»ilc<l, oun jct prvdaoo ^mp(« vriiH 
tba foQ Usocn uf vrlsst nnebi bave bcKiu a p»pvrUtlvv viutagi.'^ 3ut 
ibom it <iB« imci ot Hi* ' Diuic^pbU ' fur wlurb ibv Eiixiliigy of illiinloEi 
kt 9»an nqulidto «v«ii tbft& for bU miifttatccncnu of fkcC 0<>lcHd^ 
ba« ttAcii boen ftooaMd of pUgUrinn. I ilcr nut U^Liovo tbut be stolo 
has Shakvpoftre criticima from ScMop.^, ^ii'l, partly ai hn^U r<>r iJw 
vibick wvald iuducu uie Id ariiult ■ tiitj>|iuHL!i) tbK'f irf liuviu^ 
a |ttlr of biwebcfl froin a vild T I i^f ilnmnum. Buc it In im- 
' > tbtt Ccd«fidgo wiu gtiiltv of a wrioDft tbeft of motaphyiiica! 
Tlio Ottlj C3uni« vugscctod ib tbat tb« tbeft wofi t^fu ccitiun 
of Lin^aiiro to bo |«rpotnitoJ- Bui, fta it oorlftJBly wub [i:rjx:lrmlvd. 
tbia <BD Odily h» ttn njvdfyy for d;ii nt^iLtvi*, TUa ii\jst[th' iwl ii ILilI 
part of bia dcbcna yxta to «tftl>!iB}i bic cUiiau to ho tk gri>ftt mota- 
pfcyrician. But it takc« mooh trutiblc vid »ciiuo Ui'Jii^it L:> put lo- 
yfaor wbftt looka hko a cboin of n priori AemonAtni'um uf uLcitrtkot 
prifwiplea, Ciib'n'lui.-, iben^fr^ri.) |H<n(tiMdi.'d biiiiHc^U tbxl bv Liul 
rmltj kftticJriali^d Sctielhng'E ilimighlt ami niifcbt J^i-tirmlily nppriw 
pkto Soiudlnifc'fl voixbL if« tfiron* ctit n fow phnuon ftbovt ^ goaid 
«a£ael4«Bfio*'^pcirliApH tljo bappkst circtuulboiitioii ever doruod f«t 
«W Kikil O»1l0d "cDbTDjin^* — uud udupliid SFbvUiug in tbe Itiuip. 
Urbv bff 1m1 mcin b> ail end nf Sclirtllin^'H fftiiJantw, lifk ]in>['j«v1tu1 
— with aa infuUilo ciinpHoity vpbicb diinu^s iiicljgniitiim — lii wuiv n 
mImw oiapIimo&Urf lollor ffom bitnn^lf lo hiiaiclfr pL>ii]tiiLK init 
Ibaft iko p^Uio vonU havo bod onougL of ittc iliDctiaBLon. mid *^ Dear 
r." politoljr agTMil lr> ilr^ii the sulif^ict, witli pivijifir runipliinvuld tj 

Afld »aw 1 votDo V> tbo vorp diffiirutt tiuk nf indicAting, lue bru<flj 
aft 1 caA. tiic bearing of tbcvo remarks npon Colf^ridgc'i nmllLrarion* 
actiTilj. It is nut jnAaillv to itimi up iu a fu(v plmuHu (fiii uhoruuter- 
tatlia of a van nho vrrnU^ njic^n imvLif^jiiioA, ifi<ii>Vfgj, ni(^ml4. 
fatitfwr. and litirvry onticiam; «bo marU a doop impronatrin mall 
iha 4apaHetoflU of thonsbt; nboM nltoTHTicoH ara waltcrcd up and 
lion ia fbagxicailarj LrvatiMia, in ooiuiilox argumvnbi wbiolt Kouorally 
brrttk filT in tbe iriiddio, &nd In mitoollaueaiui Juttiiign ii|kh> tlid 
tWflJM nf hnntm ; whoa» opinlnnfi bav« bonn dJU^rnntlj intnrpvotod 
by £flM<«ftl diadpkat and bavo tn (rront part to bo inforrcHi ft<om bin 
cmOMBti open olbcf trritori, aai mo u^ly bu ititoUi;^b)c ^vlitrri wo 
bsifa Killlcid iilidi ibun: mtii/jn uicniit, ojid nbut lif: l^mk tbuui 1i> 


Mr. Itdic Sk^^ 


Uiinknm of a ^illaRnl ucOcr, Ui lui^ iiitxiirily uvpti tu aubJKtB 

viklk •!• MOMattily^tactir*. Nor Ia i^dlllknlij diubiitliMl vrbcii, 
u la n^ <«■«, lli« ooBBiftlitor boftoagi !» vhM nttft be wllod U« 

Uaovongb fliilirtaa vko i> dwH mtaapt to gw7 in bU I'liilkiiniaBk 

[^palsv^and ki mj vU ivprttboD UlultM npo& ft ndi^ftlljpfMiAt 

Tbc briHiiujt ChU^EiJk^ qS Nctbet Slowey, Uie tiuojaikt jromg 
■phiW^l^hcf irbi> hfld not 3vi Immo to Qtrmuty, wv Ktil) n can'oiu 

ipooitd n1 imy<iivfily InMd clanonU. His LibMidkn hid Icil 
bun lo ibto DmIiuiMUcm of PrivMluv a&d Um ftnoaifttito phik«opbj 
of Ilftrlloj. But Lo bod shbu dippod Luto PUitiaoo Ami idIo aoow cv 
tbo nip^iidiT vriton wba raprroDt the wirj tn^pamUt polo of Kpeeali- 
liuu. TLe fini 4o«triE)0 w^ ijapoatfl npoti liim frcaa irilbonj^ ibo 
ctiitT wna iLat u^liaeh vns nuliy oongt^iAl tu bin t«mjiDnid0ot Fot 
CoUnilgu vu,atHiTv nil. (ttMuiiiJlT toJ iittHi:«u-Jhllj » pori. Tbo 

fr Ueffvo bt wnE tiK^itT-di, 'Hw garm cf nil Oilitridgc'* Dtter- 
hViom ddaj U< fiiuinl^bjr K lilUo mgCBoitj-^ui tbo ' Aacunit M^riotr.' 
For wtiat in the Dcarot mf tbo ttns^ onmi of tbat naiquo M!bi#«o- 
tULtftV I dv ii<jt tiitnk <if iilmt iiia; bu called Jln pimd/ lituruy 
tnnHlji— Ibr- nuibxtT tit TrrAiAoAtinn^ thti rnpimniLd rif Inngu^E^ Ibd 
viviJuriiifl of iLo a«M:rij^iv« puuga, and b> fottb— -I Icftrft Micli 

Cii&te to crilicv <4 luior pcroopiioA tmd a tsn^tUir ocdunuktid of tamf 
Uvu. Bui pari» ftt lavti of tbo etxml is iLu tun vrilb ittkb 
Oal«ridg« cuuvM bi a wutid of wbicb tlni uincIiEimi^ (fta Ibsolil cHtk* 
«dM 1l) ift &ii|>plied hj tbo iQfBUc pbiltMopbor. MUIod, h 
Fuiaux«o, iiii|Jor<i« 

Hic iplrtl of Plbfu to naMd. 
Wlial iti^ijIiU oi wbM tint »;^alviw huld 
llii; apiril of man tbat fauth f >rA>(4 
II«T Dianbiou ill llii» OcOhf Q«»k> 
Aail of tktmr diPUHii thni iin- fouixl 
fa flra. «l«, CodI. aii<1 iiiiili-jvri»urr(1, 

WUb pkiwtatid mil olnucuL 

If aodli n ULon fcl) (uIiH^p in biii ** bigb lo&«ly towor,*" bia 
^vculd pfttut to bim lu st.iusui.'ut) iiuiiEiirj tbo nry nrodd id 
tbn ntnuLgfT history of tbc ^Aucki;! MurLiii:f ^ viiio L^uaiwt«d. It ifll 
trurld iu wblob h^tQl wuimaXal lliiii^^ niid iticiiicc, and bmlM, and 
olouJs^ auii pUuU ore moved by ifpiri(ii0l agency ; ia wbich, <u bo 
would ]tijt U, tbo veil of tbo ecnecH ib uctbiu^ but d eTJubclUm ovon> 
vtboru ii^lliii^ t>f uuscvEi &ud au|^ttmlural furv^ja. ^Vbat nc call tbo 
solid ondtliu iiTEWtuuttkl bt'iYiTiioii fl dri'ftm; nnd ibr drmm iu Uid trim 
uud^xtyiug rooiity. Tbo diUgri^aoo Utuoou «acb pootry, uxjd tbc 




of Popo, or crrtm of Ot%j. or GrtMinnttli, or Covpcr— pnciiy 

fdi^QU nfloctiotift-^iEnplioi a Ittanr^ ivvolnlion. C<tl9rid^ ov«n 
■on dvtiiwUy than Wordsm^rlh, toptCMmteil ft ^loUborftlo rDJ6otion 
ofthvoMUioft of iha fr*o>Jirtff iwhoni; for. if Woninrfirtli'd philo- 
Mfibf diCtcTML trsita tLat of I\r]i\ he still tnu^^fil li; liinict txpuiitiorj 
MBm4 of OiS pr«Minlxtii'ifj nf KMfiHii4^iT-i xTnitfJiiiiii, Tln^ iti^iifiction 
■IAIIm lllikaitnit*d by thn iEiyi<iii'>iiA i^rjiiiriHir) <i Mr^ nnrtmij)i),tvho 
lOM Oul«rid|{0 tfaftt tbc * Atictoiit Murin^ir ' Imd two lirtlU -it wns 
wifrolwMieii uid luhj iio monL {'ulciidgn ohikiI iht^ imiimitk^liilit;, 
htL np)aeA to tbu «ittiiir Klriotiim llint it hml bm itnv>)\ rrirmf, tliat it 
OtttfM to h«T« li&H no TDor« IhKTi n trtury iu th« ' ArnbtAn Nij^litn/ 
IhU*I. Uio irortti, nhich wouM ftppnrotitly be thul po^ipltt ^li^t 
flUfifclMwi viUi a mftii vhn iJiooU ftii iititAU^Mi« will die in pr>Ionfr<i^ 

torUoV vi fliinC ii o[M.-[) t» nhvliillH objocrtEnnit. 

Coloriil0»'« jK^tirftt impulm tliorl »rl,7 ; pcrhftpa, m D« Qitififro/ 
mU, ft w«« Itfllwl bj th« ^niiiun ; K'T lU 0'oloH<l|{0 tnid lifiiiAt<lf, that 
ABirtlon« Imd siiiijwiidoa vrhftt naturo gAT^ bim nl UtA birili, 

Prom hill <'vn nstoro all tfic naniral nun* 

r, too, I Ab<>TLl<l in^^ r<^ tbo t«u»o& tiiAt Ibis etntifjo m^sdo 
i& wbfch t^: wft9 at ItomOi wu )io mmoto fr^ni nil onliTiaiy 
XDOD tbat it &ilul flvctii t<» proTJilu vi cflicirTELt KjiitUJUm furhU 

ICBflDBt UlOllghlJI, EiMll COtlM umlj Ixt lU^'i'HHibltk ill Iftf KlTlglltlir f(l(rW 

«Bd farvoorcf foolliflil iufl^iirKtioti. TIki iV»m«^Klio nuiurtii^tE^ tho pninii 
cf ill-bnllii, tb« 4cprai«iou pT'i<li]rxHl by oplunr, wcro ft b«ivj ctog 
SB ^Tll*f "*'*'■" wiich Ahi'uli] try to Aonr ii)ti> VAAt itc'rial rr^j^iuiiB. 
tl nwj bo dimbifi]] uTidlbur tliiv iiri(-iiti*r rnin of iinaftinatfrin, 
mftiod ffi tlio ' Anoicct MnHu^f ' Mn\ ■ C^Hnlabol/ oonld in tuf 
OMfrWf^ bom ffc>rki>d mncli firrllicr. 

At uij r«le, Culor>^go. ■« I^ia LmncfijiatiTf^ intpalM^ nH};^*0(l« iKUiHod 
Ja(o lb<i rcdvctiTn lUfo ; util, iw won nn1iun1« bm tjilihI tlwiU rrnnrli 
non lliAOo pHnnnlA of ^rl urhiiili hr fibJ nln^fuly divnuf^il uith 
WoidcvofftJt in hH orOLtiro poriotl. in 'nyin|X tSat CutcriiLgt' u-ui 
priEnanly a |[io€Tt 1 did tiot inrMi t> intJTiikU ibut bo vtm^ ri<?t ^tno 
Bvoblk ^iolcctJc^on. Hji^to U no rcdil iiuxmiimtiijility butwocn lhi> 
bro CvfliUini^ A imnlin litrmtiirr wbicb imiluibiK Rhmknipearc in tbn 

Ci&d Ur, Dri>iinitng in Ibo prv«unt la of iUvlf ii M)iflii;iiitit [iruof 
ikc keCDCOl and moH ootiTO loginl faoalty mny bn <»Dibin<hl with 
Ifae Irocal roolicol iTnaiEiutili'jrti Oo1otI4j^i( pociiUftt >Rrrio<i to 
liiglHr ctitlcHOn flinniit«d, iiulood, in (frrnil intKuiurv. iti ft clmr 
if fffo e iatiop of tho1n]or«1btiont»twcoiithu ra<<n1l]iXiL roU[i/>n, I Uiiuk, 
«bich b« fkovcr %mU> mAiuxgrxJ to cxpifns clunrly- Pi^try, m bo Myi^ 


Jfr LeMiif Sitfken 


U fvopcffly opposed not to pvotfo but to muacu. Ili Uf», lio Infnn, a 
not to esUliiia}k truth but to oommmiiciato pkMoiA. TW fud 
pnaeulA db wrUi tha ounr.r'<tv Mymtxil ; tha nan of tdcnce cnrlfAmnn 
tou&LjrMM44b«iMCt tliu la«H<«Qbi:»di«4. Shah— www vnw gerUinJy 
iK»t k |MVcholo|(ut in tbo cpn«« in ntJeh Praf«a»oi B«^ti is • tMjoWo- 
gidt lio docfl not Mate what are otif Tilttttuto Jacchio*^ at low Ukt 
act and luwrl. ^uil Ji_-tr;rmiiitt oar oomdact ; but, ao fkr aa bo niaatM 
tjpifNil ^^harAiUnt, hfi gSvM oofi<9«)to p^dioloffT, or |mpaito dw 
Itf^Uooui upon vrhJch pi^iliologj bM to oponle. Tborofovo, if poottj, 
am Ootoriii|[a «a;> ikftcv .iC {It4xs nhoiild b« sunfJo, iotMOonfl, p«uocMto. 
uurtad dI mlaauUiOt abittnut, aiul cmoliuQlcM, liko speoolatin 
wawTiing, It !• liot to ho Lnfifrred iliat tho p<H3t ahc^ulil bo pontwilf 
inifUlntoptLica], nor ii fco tli» ^tt«r, o lome rooml cvitioi appoar to 
kato diaooTorod, for morc^Iy tppoding to tho aoiwu m bouis wtUuaot 
tbonglkb^ en. ili 3iiiJi|ilor woitln. a uuire aniiajkl. TliO loftiwl pjct u>J 
tin luftuwt philutiLiphtir deal ^ith tlio nuuu ■Ti^Dct-in4t4ar, tlin ^tniI 
poUeioit or the tKitld «Ad of fanpian lirij. ibuugb ono proacuu tlw 

r1»lifliti and tho olh«r wtvola tho logioal oonnooticn of tLo 
riu:i o^uct^frtionjL 

CiJiirii1|;a, Laiiuff pmoUoDl, pffooeodod lo pnHMih. Thnt n poet 
Hhtxiltl ttlitij Iw b g<Hid uribTu iM im more *urpriiung timn that ujij mhn 
should Hpoak ir«iron tJio u\ of whfoh ho U mAaU^r. Uor bost critics 
of pootrj, at looat, fton DrTJOQ to Sir- Motlhov Ar»olil« h^ro beca 
(to inrorl a fAmona maiiia) pootn wlio haTo auocoodwl. CuloridgeV 
ntwciflc marit wu not, lu I think, tlmt tio bud down anj ncitfiAtlfio 
tbcoty. I doiri buli«T« that any a»oU theory bu >a yet any oxiilonoa 
otoqjt in oiuhryo. Ho was aomoLhms aliao«t nrn'^uu iu thin aa in bia 
pooOy, firtt Wiiiiiift bU criticism (*o ht a% it ifrM rwtllj cxcullcul) 
vu liw critid:tni nf Utvtt^ thn criticinn inf a ra^n ^tm irimiliiii».i1 t^iv 
ilrwt limplo inipTiIiMt uf ivbairiktion with ito power of oxplkiijintf vhy 
h«iLr[mir(xl ; uuiI tfci'tiudlyi iLml u u ri<sEitt, bucouito bu placed himihilf 
at tbo Tiii^ii point i^ tioa ; bcoaneo, to put it hmflj. ho woa Ibo &nrt 
fnut AriUr who vntii iW ]XMtrjr ospoolry, ftti<l iji>l m aaltfuotv Tbv 
procodijkf* gunoruliini Imii aflhifd, nit Mtv. BnrbiiiM luibnl: What la 
tlio inorel V Him Othclto % moml catutropho V ^V b«t dcuA * Partdiaa 
Lost'provu? Ar\> the piuciiplM of Pirpu'tt ' Ehauj en Han ' phil^ 
si.^phic»l. VI 19 Q\t\*iHiniiWti 'Dtsoftvd VjUsjeu' a BOund picoa of 
pcUiimI liTiiiKriiiy ? TLv icply omlKiiliod iil Oultirid^it's ftilinirablo 
criticumi, ciptM^inUy of Shokespcuro, wai Hint thi* imjiUMi a total 
tuinconeopiion ot the rt^lutimie ^jf pnctry to philosophy. TtiO " monl ** 
of A poem in not this in: tUnt |>n)poeitit>ii titu^Lxl to it ur dodiicihlc fr<<tn 
i^ imnihl rtr trthtTwiMJ * but thu tuliil Hl^xt irf Llu' ntiniubit to tlic 
ii»ni(infttion and utTocittuLi^ or what fioloriiltro wmihl odl iu dyiiAraio 
tfSoct Thut will, no dcuht, Jepund partly upon the pbil<«fM]ihy 
ABHumud iu it; but hud uu ooinuiou (^rotiiul witL tho mmta tit o 
dcuJuuelr«tioii iu Bucliil or SjniuoEn. It ia iLifi wliJi^ll'jn of n ro«lly 
new mcthodf vliich ninlci^ti ur foiil whon wn romparo r«il<^Hd^ not 
<*nly with tho critlcn of a [irntt gt^noration, but ovon with vary nblo and 



n & r. CoicH^jf^ 

Niitliinjf it vtfMtvr t^iniL to ntit tEi«r [intfier 
•• mnuTiiic/' or " clftnricil/ an'l bo fiirth ; 

lU Vf aro in ib frocr And largor stmottplif^rcs *^<1 i^rT) in ooaUct wilh 

ridga'a tocMl oittitfciotiit fttian ** " 
Uttti im B {inol — to call him 

■ftd llicn, il he b*a a proiocDaKir of liko prindpTot. lo DiEilikia him bf 

Ibv UkeiML, sod if be rupmHiitfl n cli&ii^ of pniiciptue, to tunke tlie 

lAui^ tttpbthi ilitclf lijr nlliitkf it a ni&iltuii. T^iv luuLhml ia il^liijlit- 

fkiU/ •implev i^nd ' ''ah tiiw iIia VimiE wt rjwkly as my nilf^lilHirirK. 

Tb oolf Uitaif 1 Sii-1 diflicuU ii lo look wn wbcn I luo thvni, or lo 

Gmctj th*l 1 ^Tc i>ii ci^UiiBtion b<«aiiJio I ho^jo ajoptcd u atMsificaticti. 

Ooltfiilgv, 1j^>Ui ia poutrjauti philfHifplij, ooiiD(<itv] liiuuuir tu Ik- la*^ 

«if 1^ Indiani of siidi u lyaHiuii. Hi:i iiri>|HD4(.ii1 U> iiliolUli Uih vrlrkiul, 

OMsIaaimI, iiUUol, p^aAdc ciabtocatUi ooEtlury and go back to the 

•vnAtaEMik. 1 do not bvlioTV in tho poadbilitr or U;« dccirability cf 

aoj avdi nadioA. I itrrfvr niy ovu p^cuid^kthon to tficir gtvir]- 

ftdDMBtAnd raTarU— iuciiiliug vuu nuil uiiT—to uiy f;r>itidriil.L'.'ra. 1 

m^aii#s&r» UML. if I did rntt, [ ctmk) nnt makn ilnifi nin luiohvuila, 

Vv u« frrcCK-ogh o^lo bo ja>l to iho ihaIt^ci) ri^htofimtik oontirryp 

■nrl to Iwvp &11 uiur ii&cb*riub1«iic«« for oot contomjKinincfi — it toay 

Au iWan «Dtnd good. I would novcr kbuflo llio ontary whicb lo^nl 

WSmi ■cnufl ftiv) tt*t>t\aia uf tiytii-vh, hud bnlivt biuiiliu^ jtrirl iny>'t''ry : 

I tta ifw tory in wfaicfa first Hpraug to lifn nott of tha do^iliI ainl 

■■kHBpMial nwramenta wbiob %jo «tiU tha bent bopo of our ovm ; in 

^^^^^pekftoe And bintuTT ftnl ibTcntioti tint b:>ok their moituin nlmpi^ ; 

' 4ii cnttiij of [>Hv>il HtJl[f»^ xnA A'\%iv Sn^irli. nud fiihWi, iinJ 

DwItVi, MM JobiuaoDf ATid Fit'lrllncc^ ATirl mnnv ''M frLiiiiU Ij> ub<>iti I 

ftVfir iticttloBlabW (cv«tj|Qdc ; bat 1 admit tlmt, liico fithnr crkntriric^. it 

fa^ iU (ftolb^ It wntt, no dottl>t, impocticjU &t ita oIok — rvhnoHi jyi 

ttapwtinJ M tbo UUcr ludf of IJm tLJiitttinEilh - mid tomtrbrjn it li*f] 

Umi bito tlut iji^i^r liltimler rif j^d^Iii^ ]tiiiriry by th'< t'^noiifi cif 

Mi«fta** TliO ob] vymbutuni of ui oatIiw d^Qf^mtinu htu\, tuyi 

§Bt l^^pti or OirifdiMi imaj^cry wo bftd fngid |K:rfrria(lrnttc>»Hf Jiudi 

«« Cid«jjilf[i- qunioB from Home priso potm : " Imxriilutioin, 

id!" A ifi'ily w]m r-'ulil Iht i.»Tdy inh^niil ru rt rhjiijuj 

And (■oUridi:<i*« i-thftr^n n^ninut lb<.' ]>hih>"op]iy of 

r<«]ly ideiitif'jil with bin cbiiru^i ik)*Hi]LHt tlii; ponUy. 

PcH'trj, villu-nl tbo mjittio or pprntniu rbnimt, mcoiil l>ar^inV 

VfliasU <9«tdrTi"— aa i<^t-pa1iiUL% lui ho culbvl it. a hmp of Ann 

|itnaw iUE)d »b«iii p^r*i-Ttifimtif>utL Tfkki< i]u\ UUDO «b»nmt fivm 

IlKiUajg. 4iid yoii ba^ I^Joy'l« * EtliJ<iiiciA ' ; from momJn, fLud tLo 

nfUKiaa i« Bcntlkm'K utJIitArtBTiUm. r(}lDrJc]j<o'4 n^ioi^nc-latitro 

«c|HmHiJ UiiA iu 4 fudiEOD. IIi^ ivu r^fikd of luiyiug tbtt hll men 

WtM bora AriA£oi<^1uiiH or I'tnbinttlit : Pluttiiti'Mtn, if. in Kih fuvfMiritn 

dMtiiwCioik, tlic rv«Mn nnd tbo iTiJiLf^iriniion (b.miiiiHtijd in tti*<iii| And 

Ari«tot»liuitf \S ib«j k»d oody Ibvi lAt«tA(]ilinj^, Ibo almost vidpino 

onuioga wLkli vm iliiu^^d nvui by lltu Iuhci niiimali^ ivbiob nuTVLit 
pnda&o* iM pkortUty, MUiLCc ii|Hm ini:ni rtU'tuii) rvkk-nou in 


Jlr. L«Wk Si^c* 


U]L'«jli>g7t [uul i>urr uiiM%lteVfijr in politico Huw lt«i AHiatntiJIm 

[)iAil fV'iikA ti> rein ilid worM ovfir hidmi Uio Aponina of thts df{ltt«<rnih 

century U a qiicvtioA wIiicTr, t*i fiu* Ji4 I kiti><(r, no bOTcr sjunronJ. 

But Ibc cifToct of Ihcjr (l<iimim^>ii wna i!<iiip,llv i> ilollirono rautoD nn to 

ybrKiBito iiiHigituibou^ Thv Ivu were aUiis. if tLi>t ait IncamAtfm 
Ice ttma hoiiltj. InnnMly lht< iWlhamitec. till Mill wa« Mnw 
LfiovM bf WordiTorth, rogtrd*il poottr ma MoiTidc-iit tn n«N 
^^tinoftbQlaliati And Ijicjc or, •# (MtU* IVJ<«d put it, the -*pri>* 
doootim of a rude >jp^" It W u njiicli in Itiii diH^tckr Lif piid w 
of jidiloKipfjiTr, Uiiil Ci^eridge bnl'^J Pi-tiiic^i] l^onmny, thr favr>iv{li» 
L#of*ac« of the BcDtlitiBJtM ; for, icoonliTig to biiii, it ^u im ^IIbUm- 
rlioa of Iboir dfalraotiTo ia«tliOHil< Tho <ooEicaui(d dtaln ^th n)cn 
tl»ncii alifrlrftctiotUL, m^ ihm mUapjilic* UicnD to Ibe oouimte 
FovgotifHit. tlic life of triuch, nctMrUijiff to thu i^^nicion metaphor, ban 
bwD doKtrojvd by hi« ditMvtiiig Icmfe. Oalfridgie goM too &rin 
Bp«a1iirig M if »fialj«ia wi^ro in ilu^lf a BitHeLi«tviim iiurtead of an 
timporliuti proocfMi, mtioli aa WorU-AVirtJi Ihniicht iKat ^r^rymaa nf 
FffDici]c« «a*t read; to bcbutiiti? on l^it mollicr** gravo. Unt. (m Ifaa 
rithrrliriTid, thr t^lfur ctitirii^tirti^ TTiAtn«rc[<tr onQld ahIj bci rriplalliad 

diatiuotlj il»y limits i-^f lliu oppopito t^^UiHil. One imhcatioo of tJua ^| 

in i-iirimm that MiH* m liU iwny "iMrii Ci>lrrM|fr, i?K]i«rmllj admih^ 

liim for lakiiig into iot'imnt tJii' htit'-rintl ^It-mt^ut in which BortUian 

wiH d^Hcioutn It it Giirioiiti bwftiiaij it i» tvinarkaUij that tho iMidor 

, of a bc>]iHil ivliicli lKiu«t<id it<^uL]j <f ri'fttiii^ npori <ixpcncaoei, nhtnld 

Lftdnklt Hint it mui wvafa prtcuwl; tii nrit nppr<'rjatlu>f thif hUtmrica] 

'nolhoit oa tthioh anrvlj pirpr^rtonc^n aIkiiiIi] Im- fcmndnd. 7l ■ocinfl 

almoit M if tho nnUffniiielN had chartgCHl w<:<rLp<in<, liko tho docJliAUia 

/fairrJrf. ThcApnan tllink(VK«t«1Ip(ln<lX|>4jriuUl^(sa&d tlwcmpimiti h 

ujji'iL n n.'a11y ajrHvri uiclbcid, H 

Thn nmhignity fndt(!ntrK Colrndgn'n pu^iiliu pnmlinn tonarda tba 
oppointo ftchool. Hq rc'^rdjt auL^roty aa ati orgftmaoi, a KiDipthtae 
VMLTct linii F*ronn thrucgb Inng of^ntiinM, nvid tJjorcfora to bo ttndiw 
in its Titnl priiiuiplo, u^jI to bo anulynod iuto a nicro taoohoaiu&i fbr 
diKlrihiTtiM^c^irtAtii lniii[iA of lia|ipiniju. 1u dnici^ u> ba waa a^ag 
Ttliiit hmi bonn aaVl hy Itnrko, vrhciK* viudfim lio fnUy ap|iFfeiat«d aiU 
wbrxG roal oonnittincy ha tvou^iboJ. To my miud, iiidco>1, Bnrhc aa 
a politicnl pliilowipbor woi far ic've^I'^ tban Colcr^dj^ai But Burko 
batol tliH mt«lii]ibyf<ic« tn wbii/li Culvnc3|^i.i iltOij^lit^O, nnrl Lbemfnm 
with b*m wji swin Jih Viwt tf* romo npcm blank prrjiiilinn, or nra. 
aoriftion. a< ibo nltiniiito ^^onnd of pulilionl M^iirtcc. OtJonifga J 
fcctfl tho Effccoity <if ccnatittiug his iir^^nnio priiiciplcB with tome V 
i;>>umEii* p!ii]iw>plii<-ul |»riiiclbk-, and Mill rbdiuita that Oonoortatifln 
itL liJH l[\iHtii;i<iit w>m rill I HI I till hi; very sn[>oiniiT in thik mtvo bnita 
prrjiidifti to ivlii<'h Eblon an*! HkwtUtrnpb upp^nt^d^ and vbioh ura* 
uHod nei a iiCu'ljjoon Ly ^"/tfl i^firtcrlv Jt'-vifrw. Uuhipkily it ia licrt^, 
fctKi, tbnt wo find ibo wvaknvbn nf Uolf^ridgo'it okarAobor. Uc trkd 



imS^Z (kieridgr. 


lo ftl to^ctbior lib T]««9 at s lias nhon hia nund h«<1 boon fcop6- 
b^ J <fMrtnl«d ; ivh«n ho ooiiL4 ffuoea And boAt nboirl » priiidpLo, 
fall ooiU iMTor |C«t it fhirlj staled or sco iU fall bonnnftK. n<i \» 
tfngi^lDg fnr ultcnuicc, «tUl aliugiug to ike Itdicf ll;jit ho cun 
dliiarato it a^itom, boi uevBr grltiug buyuTnl prolvgutnt'iiik uiiil 
taitin) huita. Ho n^ thnl ia stadv pi>liticii vlth Miffiit wo miut 
ky to abWAtO Ibo ■^ idm " of Obnroh nni Stftto, and the " tdcii," ju) 
W ffTfrhipf, ia tdcoiticftl with vbj^t pcicatii^c por>pIa onll a biv, 
Bttt Ikiv iba Uv or Ufrn at lui urguniam uv tti bo d'^Lfirmiutrd by 
«MM tmaiOMLdaiilal prffir^id^ nvernilfDg nrifl tnrlopEidcnt of ot* 
pariHUMtt, £a jiurt Ibo ytoint wliinh tvraftiiLH inrifkllnRMo. Hn noomn 
W anvoclftte vb^l «rR ocrw oall tho bi«kjric niotbod^ IIii iiiu^ii tbo 
■Mftn phniie * uTulntlou/ wlijcb in flimply tljt gcmoru) fLunoQlfi of 
wUeli UiQ bkloritf iLvUiijiJ in » H]Wrml Hjr]dii'iili(>rh [tnt wn find 
tLat bf OTolottoa be DiatoA fti>mA titrangc pr<H^<iw ■9iigc;<?iiitLVo ->f hio 
aU nratioal otDplojinatiti bud ovnn at timcA Ulhi^ of bi^fitu^jq ond 
WOtaiia ar-d th« '^ adof»h1c tctmotj^" frliiob u tbn ifLiua wlUi tbo 
vAdir; and Uiiiumcia obuiiiiuul l&wd of ui/L^m und tiyiU'uutii gait 
Willi tiM Ic^fcaJ fortnuln abont prrkthMiH,iind Antithr^U, iirjii itio-^v 
tbaaia Toatalo tbo thoory of o'n>luticn in vc^rillablo and flrioiitilio 
l«mi VTMi r««<«Tcd fnr Djirwiu; whan nc mmt it in CoJcridpTf? wo 
Mdi to be going b«cl to Pjtlia^ni ; and yut it ia tbo Huioo tlnjugltb 
ttUdi ia fllniiggling f^^ir nn iiLlnmnrf» In HincpliLr iltifI iMwlMiriiit^ 
laiBi, an4 aooroorcf ll wwi jiut tbo tbcorj wluch Mill r<}n\Lir(i4]. 

BdN; to ccmo t^ a ooooItiiuoii, tlioa^ J omiaot tbinb tlint C4di> 
nig^ em voirkod vnib bia caind cltiu', or vraa; ind«ad> oapa14o of 
IIm moaMtfj njuotctialioa aoit a(Mdlii«a4 of tbougbt hjr vfh\c\i 
alaaa nbHoaopbTCfil aobioTonicatta «iv poaiibla ; tKoiigb 1 hnbl, ftgniu, 
llial if bo hul in]c<vod«d ba would buvo found Lbat ho noa not «o 
tnmt^ ntfuliiig bii oppononto u euppljing a imaoDinrjr onrnplomcut to 
tbair tcttdiiu^. I cnu ^Itll bcliuvci Llial bu tiiw morij ctturt/ (Icilil atij 
vt YAm omimaporaHm vhftt wnrn tbo vital ixATtJA; thot in liiii iltv 
tfccbarl, ftad divitiltorj, and ii]c<ii]ii«t«iil foahioa ho icaa Alirrin^ Ibo 
tfaDiQ^U whieb «-ori} to ocoapy Uh tsooooaaora; ojid thrU adototlnd 
«BBBnia4icai voald shotr in 1ji>w iiiauydiroolicifiaacfirUiiiColmdgiaii 
lea*«a ia wooing in 1J4^*^ ft-nnonUti^iuii. 

Biddaa lb# abta mid ^tnloun di^iHplria who anknoirlcil^'od liia 
latteilupi vo migbt and umuy ikiftuitiopi in rnrtjb'o nuuojlino if 
■Mvov UacJiin^; or a^iraiii, in a KLtH.1 wliicb diverged m a rory 
nposile diraoliuu, fur ibo ibcurjr uf Oburi'li aiiL.lK»riljr wiuoliutitHl b/ 
l£a Oxfoni dlfldplM nf raMLnal NovmAT) k, m Epit^ i-if 11a dltTfront 
iMilt, eloaolj oJlicd to Coknigo'* \ wfadla tha nodorti nnpcliLina-' 
tho^l^ tbfgr r*i|Tird liim nn n rmrnrfirinl d>>>hTrir Tnnnt nrtiml thiU ho 
nmland Ina oorrico (of doubtful vaIuo. pcrbiipe) of ixifooLiu^ Euj^IihIi 
Ibow^l vrltlk Uio Tima of Grtrntuo roiT(»pbj'(ii(<«, and will pi>r)i:t])s 
tbat, in pritidpU, bo mitij^ipntol iomr of iboir most ropotit 
I o( Infr ttmunoD oiicmy. Coluridgu uovur conHructod a 
U a philosophy, or ito iTcaCor. la to !■« jt^dgwl by tbo 

T4N.XU. (N(x81) 

250 Mr. Leslie St^^m tm A 71 OoUridgv. [Mudt 9, 

syBtflniAtio cliar&ctera, Coloridge mnat take a ver; low pUoe. But 
when we tbiok what philosophical ayBtema have bo far been ; what 
fliTQsy and air-bTiilt bubbles in the eye« of the next generatioii ; 
how often we deeirOf eren in the case of the greatest moD, fliat the 
one vital idea (there is seldom so mnoh as one I) oould be proKxred, 
and the preteotioiis Htroetnre in whioh it is inTolred permitted otmq 
for all to bunt; we may think that another criterion le admiaaible; 
that a man^s work may be judged by the Btimnlas given to reflection, 
even if giTOn in 80 intricato a mnddle and saoh tingmentarj ntter- 
ances that ite disciples themHelTos are hopelessly nnable to preaent it 
in an orderly form. Upon that ground, Colerid^'a nuk will be ■ 
very high one, although, when all is said, the history, both of the 
man and the thinker, will always bo a sad one— the Mddeot in wme 
Bense that wo can read, for it is the history of early promise bli^^ited 
and roat powers all but running hopeleaaly to waste. 

Jfr, Johm Murr^ tm dral B^^ dA 


PriciUy, Utfch IC. IB69. 

[Ituu nc4i«uid, £b|. D.CX. LLpD. F.B.3. Vioo-Froudut, 

in U:j» Chjiir. 

^fgin, (TMif Vittriintnm *>/ Coral Ee^f* and Ul^ndt. 
Tki fietvraaqoo b«aty of tlia coriU fttoll, Moalod 'mU a wii«to of 

hfwu, maA ili muToUottui AuljiaEvin* E^^oloj^icnl gonlfinA, lioa lung 
bi^o4«bndod is (luiile6uri|»tioiw uf irojfu:^i& ti>(ro|iicJiJ imub. TL« 
lilnpyl fo ifrlrt n( * cortcct ax{kUjuttion of Iho gniumi aTid ^ViArto- 
MAa ftm afid fo«tiircA of thoM reo& and ubnda hotf^ f<<r nn 
■laJijlofkg poriod of timo. i'»)icatfod Iho inguoiutj of thongbtful 

nlfttiwitf 0(1 tfao 6ko& of tho VOrtb. Tbcy arc iTK^t wilL in or^FiLin 
lnfi«] regioiut ui'l ofo hn^ m»«Ma of airburinta of lituu, urcrotcil 
Mb oeoaa ir»tcTS l)j monads nf laeuiao or^ruuKma* Wljilu U^n 
pvlMlEof tlfo roorooDMfltiiitrili«fl otrraU, hVuIvUiuh ujmI Hliellh.tliu 
vMcr iorAwo is cIoUiihI with » living invrtU of p!«iitii and animiLli. 
Tb V «^>oaUlJj tbo 0000 OD tbu outer and HOftwu^i faco cf tho roor, 
vbcn Ibivo are, at aJJ tiooMt lojiiods upon mjniwlB of outdtrctcZkcd 
■^ bm^iT EBOuUia, and not ifio loaM inBorvMiug tinoafciunB ciuuuc^cUxl 
villi aonl foof mu Ihoao mULiog to how Ihosd nnngr; nt^TkLlin ni« 

U to to Uio povw of thMo organinu of «ocrvtinc oiLrboacito of 
fa* ftttt M* water — Imiliiatf ap aui entt geooratiuu after giTQ^mlioD 
flftflMlr dead avlna — that tlioconi] feof unna ltH<»rJ|ifii. ^j wi.irLd*?r- 
fdaod nsiqnaia Hw mull, tliat DciiiibiEintion for n dcAnito ond hoa 
WitiMii beoa aitr.buLisl Ui tltot*) rot^'buildvnL 

TVfro 101 toToror, auotbor proooiu otat at ^^'o^k in tho otwui, ia 
a icon aalaffniiUtic to Ikal of jbocroti<ia of t^ki-ljufiiil^r uf liitiu by 
t^^mmm,, whii'li Imi taiiob to ilu iu fiutbiiiniiig tliei wian* vhavac'XtMu- 
^ flsilQWa of outiO r«uCt. ThfB l( thft lUiltitrkin of nil dcud carboiiato 
•f biao ahoDa, afcolMons, and oaJtonKfiiu dubriaf wh«rowr thoM aro 
igpcacd U> llto aolion of aca wator. A» »,miu a« lifo Io«va tU bold on 
Iba Docal atiQctorea, «»! wliurrsTtrr tl^tiu; dimd lurbwiato nf liino 
I— iIlM af« tirnn4ectod bjr rtijiiil aocnmulEbtTi^u, tTii<y are aiUutlj^ 
tntAj, »fid atnuiQy roniovod In flr^lndnn. Thin up|U'nrfi &> bo ono of 
lla laat oalAblJabod oooanoipapbic^ footiif und nvjy tboorioa oan«om- 
iog Ik pMwnl DGoooDj of tbo oocoii Tvhidb fail to tako aooounl of 

H 3 


Mr. Jofai J/Hr*4f 


litis tnTTfml &|]XtK7 m most lilielj to bo »! fknll. Wq kacm 
BoQicthiag aboet ll>i> r«to cif KiJvtkn, pTobftilj inorci Ur»a ^rs J.^ 
kbgal tb* nto of ETOvth umI toontioa «f cuboouto or lino hy Ite 
eor&l p^ljpa. II dm bo«a «^im Hat tbo rate of solution i^es 
with KCnpvralorf^, witli prctMoro, ud with itio aiDQQui of ttrlmic 
Bcid pnMmt in tbn wBtcr- It >■ ah tbn pla^ at tlMm two «ippoiii]g 
fifTCM — Um) coie Vila] ftud ih^ olfaor riicmicAl — &d^ Ihcir ftr^og 
BCtiTitf ia difieraot rogtona uid «iiii«r diflbKAt ctroamatftiioG«^ ihiA 
we Mf for Ifao cnl^Mliott oi nMOf ooMDo^phiod pbauHMu, 
f^pmiJlj mtfij of UKMft isoiiiMcfad vtlh oonuiie dcprnfts ftnd cnnl 
tam In tome K^tom tliMtf mmj fan mov« growth, SM-Mti<a u»i 
dmodtion of tfaaU and ooral mfttoials than aotuiioB by n« Matw, 
a&a tboa lh«ic roanll* tbo Ffimuttioii of ooral roofit i^d Tfiat c^kAfCona 
il>«xiai|i at tlio bottoB of tho oocao. Tbcio maj bo aa alttioat aatci 
Lalu»^- UrtwooQ lLi«a pruwHMa. Aod ngain, tliuro ma; la mom 
Bolntfon llian ansiattan, aa, fat hurtaivw. hi tlie rM «la)r ar«aa, arbich 
oMovy dia doaHat pajta ivf tba oot^ao, antl io noino oomL rt«f iafcooa*. 

Wbat Ja tbc itatnro of the fcuiidatio&a <d lb««c oortl uJ&nds, 
asTTvimdod u Uit J BumHiuua aro b]r au ocaau xnilcM in il<:pLlt V Wltj 
bare mjmk* t-longatt^d raafa no lagixmn? Wby Iipitl* mnat nf tba 
}agt^^nsirIf th(> cgmallar atcdla bwa l!l1od op? Why ta the ciro!a <if 
kiiil Of roof ID tho poribot at>lbr otif , at moat, a Cow bnndrod wtb 
ift diaioeior? Vbat ia tbo on^ of tho U^ooa? Wbat tuUtjuu 
oiiati* bvtu-cuQ lb« ilrptb of Uir^ Luj^txju, its art«v atiJ Uin drrpth of tho 
vntiir Ijf jooil tbfi niTlPr rrff ^ llow hwi ibo ^Iry tonil Af th«ao t^Ivi^* 
bem futTQiHl, pTDTiicd witb a trtilt a fauna and a 6[>ra V Th<«e •4>F*V 
to bo tliG cbitf qncntiona tiiol demand an annwcT ffoan any Ifaooij of 
coial islnnd fonuatioU' 

Tlii'*^ rHtntl f^tinuktiona arc lUMntiallj Htrrictiires bdotlging to 
tbo prtfut orrntiR niid oooan boAiita. Thry nrn dot* cf land vitUn 
tbo QvcfiUic &rcu0 that mi^t bv comj-unnl or «ODtittatad fnth ib^ 
ajcall aalt lakiv wbicL oro »c«tturod otor Iho auHacw of tbo oouUlMX- 
Ul landi. A rbjjk] tmrvoy nt aomo of Uio SDOro ceuotal pbtoomoiia of 
tba RT'^t ncfvtriH nmy, thi'ii, lc«d hi a bettor atiprvclation of the 
problctDa G4»uncotod ^itb ccnxl r««fa. 

Thu grc«t (Kwaa baeina oooupy orer two'thirda of Ibo cttrtL'a 
aitrfjKxi, ai^d l^aro a mean depth of over two mQech "nie ocmtnil foe* 
tiiiiiii i>r Ihi'M^ IfwiuMi coUcd iLo abTsma] tvi^ona. cjccitny aliout oii<v 
hjkXi of tbo cartlin Enrftco, and bavo a nwan dupr^Bmou bdoir tlJ« 
f'oncnl kiTt^l uf tijo ooutiuortte of ovar thrae iojIm. Tbo abjVDat 
rct-iuuB art) thI inxliikting pLainn, eoTnctimM risllig to loea tluui two 
uuW frvni iLc »m-ruco of llio aea, and a^^iilei rtluldug to tburaud fito 
ttilu bonnatb 11- Volaanic coiioe nH> singly or in rJnst^vra fhim 
IhoAO gn.'At Buliiu^T^^l ijloiiu. WbeiL Umy Nboot oI^'Td Uic lorcil of 

or irroupH, ]\h! llio X^Kis tlic Sandwich, tho Fiji, wid ibi? Sodctj 
Islpuda. An might fuivn ^Mfc^n uxpixTti^d, tlictro an? many uinn? of ijiaao 
conva bitTdvn U^noath tbu wavi^a ihnii rtao abovo tiwnL Wbcili tbo 


Clillwjfr p&imdod ftlobff tbc vert ooirt of AfHco, Uwro wh to 
«M|icai» thai Iwtwoen bcr BUtimi* nIio was Miliug avar nubuicrgoi 
Mik Siooe thoD, tio««rT«f, tbo lonndiQ^ of tule^ntj^h Mi'H liftfo 
«Hl^oily tDAbped out po ]<<«• th^n HrT«s of tbeao pa&kf belwooa Uio 
hiitiii of l^boa AUil tho iiJuid of ToncnSo. Tbo doptLs 0& Uto 
annitoof tiM«e W7 £rom 12 to 600 ^Uioma; Oa one of them, ^i 

400 fadMBI, two vpscsie* of OUnd ( Lt^^Mia jjrvfi/tnt uud J ntfthihelia 
«nliln) vara ooVteg Iniarlflnlly. I'broughonL iLji fnwAti IhmUik 
ftlovl WHI raoE «Db«iftruu> ooqiml rudng from gnat ^Jopthn up to 
vilUn ^pUkB of fhxn COO to 10 fattii>mii from tko taaha^ wo 

All ibe BgraidHfl HI wvrk nlxivu tlic^ lowor liinit of w»?e ft«lIon 
ted to we»r av&y a>>d lofol d<kwn iLf^e Eoniu, luiil Ibnn to fopm 
GnLfttt** Xnlotxl, tKrov-a ttf in the Mcdihjmnuui in 1S31, 
900 feet ia boi^l Ui4 tLrcc tiu]<e iii ctrciuufdcJKx^. &u-l wm 
■««j in tt ytxLT or Iwu. Tiio bh»k left vji ibu «jjvt, ii4 ilnX 
IMJ iIaIIciv, liiM nov l^t f'tti (if xntnr oTnr Jt^ InuUumH vimilar Ui 
Ail klMoricAl oxaap U mnit ofton b^ro happ«uod in the grDAt uccou 
Imm. Ania, ibe sftow tfioo^^ Drodiuw widu biuilu woiuid rol- 
maac tdMim \>j waabi&x Avnj &iia ipraftdius odI tbo uiAtcnats i>f 
iIb •oftor lockfu 8iiob bulk*, ^ith tloptU of low tLui 00 f^iUjuiiu, 
op liiaw) «»cndUkg tojuiy milos ndawdtf aroimd mjmo volob&io 

Ob fbe otkor huuL, all Iho dccplr eubiaorgcpl BtiiumltA oro con- 
littBlIf bein^ boUt up to iLo lottu- IbkU of w«ro aution b> tUii aucu- 
■nlrtioa of llio mEimici of animals vrhtoh Uvo oa thmn and by Iho 
IkU of ibollfl upon tbdu from tlio ivfaoo wotont. In tbo Solovnon 
Uwdis 1^- Uruttghuii <-!appjr bos BhovD tbot tboro oro u]>niiBod 
mnl Umada itilh c«olni rolcuiJo ooQOs cotvkkI witli thick layuv vt 
a«lae dopiMl*; Ckrialnwi IiJ^ul iu tbn fnilitkn (Wuii la nniuhnr 
faMnMir Mid ciaUir dopoaits mtiit nov bo fcinning twr buiidroln of 
iatewgid BonnlAhaM. In ibiB wvj ore fovndotioat pifMrod for tbo 
Ihn toof^boiUiiLg •pccico, wkich ouly flourub ui too tboUowor 

Tho bolk of the u-*t«r of llio Jicwin hiu a rtaj low tonipor»<iirfi : 
It 9 ioo><olii At tL« botbjiTi, «TOn uurlur tbu i>qiiJit>r, bvit oa thv HOrfiico 
vidttJi tb« tr^tpiAi, tli«to in • ixdAUwlr tbiu iLlm r>f v&rm xvtktur, witJi 
ft ImwfttBio of fnwft 70^ to 81^ Ffthr. Thin Qlra rjf wnria v4tor 
ii onob diwper kinrd* tbo wwtera ihu-U ut tliu AUautia uid I'odfa 
4n It w in tlio «ut«ni, tbo r«OAiii for tlii* heln^ that tbt* tnuto 
vMl| wbiob b]i>« oootioa&tly f^oio Uio i*i«t, OAtry bU tbo wvm 
ivfcco «i4cr to tbo vcotuafd, fiod draw up oold wbtor from bcnooth 
tIcM tbo Tcatcra aboroi of AJtiua and Amtirim to suppl; tbo pUco 
ef tut <lTnian westward at iTie «tirfik)u, (jOTiMitjriniitljr, tliiim Iiv at 
UVM^ a vofy low taBponUur^, a&cl a afv*\ aiiniial ran^ of tcmjho* 
Mtro, aJ«ojc UwM woatcra ihoro*. TLiA lr moni ot«*tJy Ahown by 
Ma* t«M<talarca at 50 and 100 ffttloiiia thao hy tbu«o ftt tlio «ur- 
faoQL Tumaraiiotxifid rwfii ftlou^ tic i^tbturu iibun^ uf AfrjuH aud 

2U Mr. JoU Jfurroy [Uudi 16, 

Sonth America, a ciroumBtuica eTidentlj conneoted with tho low 
temporature, wide rango, and, more dii-eotly, with the food supply, 
coTifloqnent on those oouditions. It appears to be a oonfirmatioii of 
this view that, on tho eaatem shores of Afrios, ftbont Cape Qwdafni, 
from off whiuh the soath-veat monfioon blowe for eereral months in 
the jcnr, cold wator ia also drawn to the enr&ce, and there, likewise^ 
ftTo no coral reefs, though they flouriah to the nc^ih and south of titie 

Coral roe& flourish in mid-ocean and along the eaatem Hhoret of 
the continents, or wherorer the coaats are btUhed bj the wumeBt 
and pnrcat currents of water coming directly from the Open sol 
If vc except Bermnda and one or two other outlying reef< when the 
temperature may occasionally fall to 66^ Fahr. or %4^ Fahi'^ it may 
be said that roefs are nerer found where the surface temperatnie (J 
the water, at any time of the year, sinka below 70° Fahr., and whore 
tbo annual rango ia greater than 13° Fahr< la typical coral reef 
regions however, the temperature is higher and tiie range moch 

The food supply of the ooral reef is dorived from pelagia ooeania 
orgnTiit^ms, which exist in the greatest variety and abnndanoe in the 
surftkCQ and sub^surface waters of the ocean. Those conaiat of 
myriads of algte, rhizopodsi infusorianSj medusre, annelids, moUneos, 
ciuslacoana, oscidians, and fishes. A Tory large numb^ of these 
creatures, within tbc tropiCA, secrete carbonate of lime from the 
ocean to form their shells and skeletons, which, falling to the bottom 
after dcathi form tlio vast ocoonic deposita known as Ptecopod and 
Globigorina oozos. In falling to the bottom, they carry down some 
of the urganie matter that composed their living bodies, and thus are 
Ujo animnls which lire on the floor of the ocean chiefly supplied with 
foo<1- Here it may be remarked that the abundance of life at depths 
of oven over two miles is Tory great Our amall dredges aometimea 
bring up over sixty species and bundreiSs of specimens in one Lanl — 
of invertebratca and flahos, exclusive of tbo protozoa. These pelagic 
orgaiiiRms oscillate from the surface down to about 80 or IDO fathoms, 
probably that stratum of the ocean affected by sunlight, and tbey 
api^arcntly descend further in regions where the stratum of warm 
water Las a greater depth* Many of the forms rise to the snrfiu^ in 
the evening and during calms, and sink again in soulight and during 
stormy weather. It is in the evening and when it is calm that this 
swarming life is most Tivtdly forced on the attention by gorgeous 
phos[>horeBeent displnys. The Time-secreting orgauisme, lihe Oocoo- 
fiphercB and Khabdosphcres, Foraminifoia, Ftcropods, and otber 
Mollu^s, are much more abundant, both in species and individuals, 
in the warmeet and saltcst waters than elaewhere. I have eetitnated, 
froQi to^v-net experiments, that at least 16 tons of carbonate of lime, 
in the furm of these shells, aiist in a masa of the ocean, in ooral 
reef rogioue^ one mile square by 100 fathoms in depth. If we take 
this estimate, which I consider much bulow the re^ty, uid suppose 

WC[ m Strttrture, Or^ mi DtatrOmtkin tf COtnJ ^»ffi^ At. 255 

iw to t with oC tbe*0 creanlSDit to dJo vad itil to the l>att>^ each 
^t ftib Ilk07 WouU taEo btttiTOVD 400 ujil tOO yuunt t^ funu a 
liMBi Otto lTic!h in thicJniwa, I f(iva tLin mlr^LilAllcjti more to 
Honte ft mctbod thnn lo giTa cvon Iho runghuat jtppratjmation to 
a ■>» e( ftoenfOulftliOQ cf depoiiti. Tfa« oipttim^nu von too loir 

Tbs ni»t ocwukio c«rrait« luoTtiijc ircdtwjiol a! Ihc^ratoof ttaranbl 

tf ifca i«rf, wb«t« MtltirtM or greMly montl^A uro renri j uuf} oagut lo 
■Mn ttttiB. Tbo ooffftb Md oilier oi^ainmA nitiiatoiL od the outer 
mI niodvBrd ado of Iho roof roc«iTo tbo flmt nod boat eapiiljr; 
(ktymo Qaa cttdowod tnih m gre»lur vmount uf uaorKV, aiul gn>w 
Mir Old nore liuuriuitl]- thuro tban mi nihir |>ortiriuH of tha reef- 
Iba dtcitti ai vi^ tboro is tluj moid conidaiLt eupply cri' tlii» food ia 
nvttu frtlramt boacoih the? mufcicy^ bud thcro too tho CKknhle ftrv 
Mad in movt vioDfoiv growth. It b ouly • rclatiTolj fiEuall qaftutlty 
<f iUa pcl«g» Zjod tluit vulon LL« U^uoji. ihit uifruts l}iiLt ihoiw 
iirip|U OD is ptih<a Mog bfgfd^ An]<|ilidil inth Ihe mcMu of 
«DrtMM fraa tbo brvn of TM-boildiDic (LuimnU. 

80 ntay otwritiou vcro mAio dnriiig tho ChaUenscr Ex]>odi- 
fai oa tlio Mkgio fuiM inudo uid oatBulv reufft tlmt tbt-^re ia liUlft, 
if U)/, doabl IB mf IBiiid lliHt t>tt> fj-iil Arijrpl^ U 4 iiuiHl irnporlunt 
ihrtcvfa) r«J&tion to tho iifrQH'th ci oon&U in Iho ditTcront portiouH of 
» focf. Acfaul obocTtntiQnn woro mndfi 00 tbo fudinir (tf conklit &t % 
feed BUij pkcc*. jm nvU an ciuqctoiib obaerrvtio&H 013 tha cU^hjacU 
Thnu ubHrrrrBlioiui liav^ tiomi ixinfiru^ed by Ala:EAiii|ar 

It i* Mit poatbJo to ttAto in vrhiit fona tbo oiubonntc of lino Hint 
>>i*cnM ta lodl aionaou« quimliticB by roanuD orfpuiinna oxi«ta 

Tka fctJowing 1a1)Io dbov* tli^ ftr»rftg<> ^inTrtjwiHitlon of cm*vilIof 
■Ik tb» aaUb uuI b«0M baifig oomtnnftd in tbo way luitiAlly td^pldd 

AiiMiM OoMrofrnoM or fis* B^i/r. 

CUartteorMdlam TT^7na 

GUc«Uo«rn^ntfliiiD lO'07fi 

BolpliAlffornaKbBtiuu .- .• 4737 

flalphalaoriiaio 8000 

flulfdMl«arr»tiuli „ .. 9-4G3 

fooiDkUnf maffTMAiuji ,. UVIl 

ClH^«W«««fUillD D'3H.') 


Li Aa tetiul eorvn wiinr iJicfo aw probiLbly tnwwn of <v«^ knmm 
kl, ud it ii toipoMiblo tu MV ^tiut LM Uio prooiiio uootuit of tliu 
InohlnnJM, Bill phfttiM. and corbuuat<.a'prf>K^it. Tht^orvtii:ally« 
flttty bi; ajuibluvd witU av*^y ucii), and Lbo irLuW buloliou 

JTr, JcJku V >rftf I 


[irat b* b » «a t iow 1 oltlit of Bat w lo in ukmA eeoipoiilio^ J 
WUlo Ibo qwnti^ of ma nlli in o btok TotoBko of wite wImI 
triUi iHMJtiofl, jot itluBboen alMWiilijh&iidiodAof auslyvcs llullW 
.fldou nUo of ufidfl 4&d Ibjno— thftl la, Iho nUoof ibaooiHtitiiaiitacil 
[■M ■diB— ifl MtoMwl In mtUn A«in Ul rod^nM aod 4«pth>, with om 
WT algiiiflcaul vatcptiotk — IbM of taoo^vrhidi U prcocnt in lUgbtijr 
g?««lvr ffoptrtiofi in deep tn^tcr. 

The Uriol «iiioiuil of txdcmm tu * ooUo niUo uf <bo wNtcr u «ti* 
FmM ot neulj SJXH^OOO lone. Tb9 unonnl of tho «um olenunl 
tpfMml ki ■ cnbio malo of rivor m^Xct a« aoftrJ^ 150,000 kotf. 
LAt tlio ndo ftt «-bieb Hren corry <)own w«ber iVoin fbo land it b 
'Vtmutcd tW it wiwld uko fiSO.OOO jt»r* lo poor into Uio oocou 
'■n UDoaut of caloium etiunl to Ib^t now bold by tlia ooma Eb 

llic Mnotmt of cftknnm ondinii in the 10,000,000 n^ooro Duko 
of tbe IjpicB) cotowoaa dfipoaitfl of tbo omah ommJ*, UJircvcr, tbol 
■t jimveut luli iu bolutJou if vo muruLy tukie IhttB lO hu^v ma STcci^ 
ttilokmcM of 30 fevt, uxl fn>m xhitt cMlcnUtCoo no mlgbt nr tbfti, tf 
^b« •ottotiou and Mlctiaa of Mtao in tha oQior Mgiou of uo oeotti 
Vi vaoclly litJiaiccd, uid the «Aldmn in tho ofK^n rvmuii «linn 
couaUuI thuw otmriuuB dcjiouti ^f tho Ihickuosci iuilit:iUd waaU 
■eqotro b«tw«oa nO0,0Of> uid 70U,CKXI jwni Id unamvUlt^ TW«« b 
^ood ondoDOft, honoTDF, that Iho tato of lecnnmlftlion U tnocli aoto 
tspid id Minio pontioaa. 

The UoK Ihna cwridl dovQ to tho nca i« origiiullj dcrirecl frodi 

Ihr ik^xirujKvitiiKi of AuhjrdfvuFt ntiTiirriiU, ahA uomtw fruui lliu land in 

lli<4 fi^rm of carbonfttOt|>hofltpbat4»,A&diu1jifm1r of Umo— the cftrbnnatA 

WinR im tho f;r»tcfft ulmndatiM? iu vivcr wntcr- Un tho oUt^r buiil, 

tLo daI|ihato of lime Tcry gr«Ltiy prcflomiuutoa in i»oft water, tho 

roubouiktcB boLiijf prcMOjt in eiubll iiuuijlitj. Wcp MO not in a pDmlkn 

I to ttj vLhiitlit^ nr n^it t)ir tvim] fioiy^u ukn thn vrbciU nf thn iiiilntftl 

;' to tluuF tlcolotoufi from tho c&rboDat<^«, n« i> geocnUj holkvod, or 

indood to njwhat chmigufi Ukc plooo dufiDgthoprcgTCOiof oonpotiitt 

lu tbo ^roiLUwt depths of iho Facitlc oonl nrnx thoro io sUftiag 
oviflcn« <jf the Holvcnt power of occ^n water. Oar rircdgoa hri&g up 
from D depth <»f tLr<it« or four ixlU« ovur a hundred «ar-tNUico ra 
vfhidrKi Wl rt<iEiiiikiiti] of tbo d^^uHo ZipL]i>id he&kts hot all tho Uv^gu 
huil mi^ixi arcuW Ixjitos of thosu Juiiuciufto ttuiuJuU hATvbcocalAkOflt*^ 
Itrnly rcmniVni hy HdlntiiHi. l[j a ■fiiglri biinl there inny al»u Ijq many 
hnuclrudji of ibjukft* tei'th, aome of thorn larger thuk tbo foaail Ca^Aa- 
rodoh t(v:^th. but ikll that r(iui8iii« uf tht^u ib the haitl dcDtimx Non« 
of iha iiauL<>rou» «uli;Arooii» turfoiKi «hoL]e roach tho bottom, althov^ 
they oro rjuito oh ahunduiil over the reil iJiiy ansa aa otot Ihoao 
abdllowor areas whore (Jirry form Olohigviicix and Ftcropod dopoiatta. 
In ooOHor^ueDMi of tbo fcuihll aiuount uf dotrital aiotidrial rtachmg 
thoaoabyunalnrL^Ofidieiftritfr'^UL coottuoutKcoHuuonoloUicBpherulM, 
mooganooo oodulii^, highly idlurvd Tiileuiiii.' fratpuooli, oud £uuljtic 

\\ tm Slruelvrt^ Ori^n, ami X>Uirtbttitom ef Ccmf £<^', df. 257 

ai«v«la. kfo tboro foiuiil in j^rcti uutnbcn. Almcst ^li tbciw) tliinfpi 
mloaad occaaioiMllj in ibu utZicr rogi<*'iA of tlic cji^cao's bed. but 
Ur fCuMioco Ifl geMTsUy m»jik>^J b^ tlte BixruruiilttiDu <*r iitbor 
hMvl In AoOMk rogiotui ItMlinlnriiiii uiil Diitloin r^imftiiu ftro 
ImdA tm Uuk crAftUtfl doptbA, imd tbcv tvo i&ro Autjoot to Utc 
l4nBl poir«r ^ ha mUox, duI Io » much Ico* citcLl tluia oubon^to 

Aa wa ftftoend to nhallower wnt^n;, a fev ciT the tbinhAr «ibi11i>t 
U» tBot wilb >t flnt, with Icucr <lo]iU;ji tbo farbciinto of 
RMMO lA onnilnr. untU in tbo lixnUowor dopoAitfl tho 
of PteronkU, HulcriipEkla, imU tbu m^nt JolkuW liuval bLt?Un 
■V pnwQl In tVe (l^xwit ut tbu iKilUitii, TLiti urjU»lioii iu Ibu 
HHiWOHOM of tbn iboUa oaa bo wall «oimi in a urim of MandtngH 
rt lifiennt dofUui imiimd u roJouuc ccdio, ^uoh be biia bo4>ndo«:!nbcd 
«*lbtn&Bg11wtMU»crf ihCc'CiilAtoli ThoTO L3 uo kiiomi fmjf of ACCUUUl- 
bi^ te Uua Turlioal 'luti Ibutiou tif iLetb Juiiil bLoIIa eicuj^L by 
■ttllttllig UntkX tbtj havn IriWTi diAAtlvfril h^i'ihy in Eioking lbrriTi^)i thn 
rtntft of vftter, or uborlly oft&r rcochiiLg Ibe bottom : mdcod, 
don of £bo «bi«Jl« tbcmsolTea otmoEt fitowa tho proo<uiH in 
It ifl cmro tu fiut] luij Itmhi uf ludi buuua ui dupuailc otliQC 
tba ololitiiHv 

TluM «oaA:^cTvtiiHt£, as wcU m nitmantu otporimotitM itx tho 
UoiBlory, tbow that i]t<jfyi>vlutv in tbo oooon dodul ctirbuuaEo of Wma 
ittvol«ro0 aIuwIj diMpp«» irhorvTW thnr ttO oxixxnd to tliu actlou 
W «tt miOT, uid ba fiuiwti^ftliQg tbo otolutlaii of tbu i^iiorul ftuitunM 

d CDTbI VOdh it in Jl« Oomusry t:) t^kn n i^ik-ftoco of tlUN filct Mi of 

Aft Mflrrtkm of ouboiut< of Umo by orgHfiijimA. 

Tb« fint daiEe. then* la tbo bintory of n coml uLuid in tbo pro- 
fuakko of m atiUMbte foimdatiun ou nubuici-gcd rnleunia eoncn, or 
•ku llie abovM of ft TolcAUtr i«ilAnd^ or tin* Uud^^ri erf n ooutiuuut 
1ft w em of tbo AloU tlio oooo may Iiavo tom rcdiio^^d l>uli'W tho 
liTftl flf Ibo Mft by tlio iTikTM ftod dtmojphcno icjiLooncMt or bailt tip 
li» Ihft lower timit of hr&ikor notion by tbo vut ftooDmubUun of 
■ffliiifcBfti on SIb HLTinmit 

A luno «am»ft. bovovor, dinnid the reAk bo HittiAti>L} ih a rrgiou 
*b«o tbo tooiporftliiTo ia vafflctoutly hign, tmd tho Hurlocc cmrroota 
ft vniUblo quality cjf ftiod, that tbo rccf-buildcm fix tfccm- 
on Uio liuib- TLu taiuutitu HlruutLuv whiiih lliuy Buc:r4.'lu frujii 
■ ■111 eoftblofl thorn to bnlbl op mid lUAfniAitt ttiofr poAltinii in 
Aft vwy liHW oT ocoftD ciUTo&bi, of bnkokon, of tbo oTorwbolxumg iv&d 
mraffmiiftiii ' 
l_ ^Oonl'* vitli tbc Milor oi loftrmu eurroyor b UHunlly any cftrboaato 

Dv- llroiJWbMa Oufpy ujn, "Itiih^ Ohti alltiril li> ua clnt Cu the Anrt 

uiMV tf tK« M cf nofs ; nt 1b llio u/tlit of the faokfiv UlihO'lan wo find 

IbfAVkf* tohuUBtiti of unn roi^iant rvgnitl tbv Uint^> oi iko^int alcll w 

iartlt vltti tk4 vi^MnKKriH •li'ul. Mrhcli IhrnQjch ll^r ii^nu^^r til llnl-likn 

li bmilJil ■!■ I9 durit l|ib'bm-kj Iu \h\i duifkcoh"— /'iy>r, ftrti fu'. 

JTr. J0X9 y^rraf 


•f Hinft iball or iWita or iMr bnfcoi-aovn ptrtt <■ Coral "h 
m««d ti7 llio iMlimllil ia t nwiciimore roi t rie to J uni; In Uailitba 
knn BoNiiaittb rl>T^ MUadRponik D jdrooonlliftc*, and Aloo- 
nviiM* The uinMlf beloDglBS bo Ifae Unt l«o of tb«o* «ifd«ci 

iprioi ilwr fad<iM «&dar Ibo ngne l«rtB of iMf oonU. Bo- 
fidw thcwi, hovovor, veiy IDU7 oikcr c I mmm of 4aiB*U c>ccitnbGto 
itoltubnilditig tjpof earn) nvh vtd ulnJr — radi ■!« FormuuLJfvnt 
BpOMgB^ PoljWi Apuolinlfc BdiiHwlttTitf. mmI QJomoom Alga. The 
rvliAiT* |fo|«Ttlo>ii 0^ ikMo difllamnt nr^oliUM Id a fMf nry vith 
thi logioo* ^th tb« doptii, ud wiib ibo t««]penttBn, bvl Eocmbcorv 
of wwl iro knoim aader' Uio tcrci of roef ooralj ap(<4hr ilvftja la 

Tbtt anftttlA of tho tra# mrMiDil^in^ vjwcjet naanblv Iba •*™™'— 
M» ukomonafl in Mraeluro mrA «Uo; tho iDdiiidoal pcdyw mj iwj 
I ikoo Ifce bLjtUh of mi iooh in Ji>motor to over a lool. Seoo «f Ibft 
■mctan^ boih I7 oolowvfl idb^ odcmiJ SO fof^t m dUi&rtcr* 

TWro nor ^ %^^^ nriolj Co I1h> opp«onuiou tf iuilMDDrend twf« 
W IWt lifto ftxim Ijankt of % diflbroat niLtitn, f<-na, and tsMoitt 
M, faMM^ Vfw poEbtni oat long uo by ChuiauAot. Tliote nmj bo 
di&RCD«ao doo oIbo to tbr kntltt u4 ibnodttoo of do«^«n oabnola 
liviDf utt radi baokot «i ii«U 00 cliflaroac«idu« bo oamnta, iem^tam' 
loTVy oad o4!hoF DMloorQlcigical cniiilitionit^ 

Prom Uio Tovy fint Iho fiUntatJoiu wlnntod oq th« onlfc od^ will 
^ATo thq •dmrt^c^ beta Ibo moro obonda&t ntpplf of Soo^ tth Lho 
ftlneiMv of mntA m IIm mtor, ^iA loat idoto or low lAJuriuiMljr 
aflbobi thuM iilacail towuib llio Inlon'or- OLftmJMu atlrilinla] tbo 
flurt^uoo of iho UgooD to tlwf man rigorotu arowtb of ibv Mri- 
pbiOrtlly nitnatixi oonJa of » rucf, u oompuod with tboo* JpB<oo4 
lov^rtlii Ih^ muldlc, And in tliid Lo wua to & Urge exbeot r%£l, bnl 
llici vyiiunbiHuhl form of tbo comploUd nt^Al i» clicil; dcte hi Uio 
ftclcilinn of th^ di^ik<l R&tfionLli} of liint^ Ktrui^tiinKL llrct UroatCbft^M 
Bitik illitfciTktoH tho irtxTgalLLT waj in vhicb luch a largo book of 
Cvrftl jJinUtiiina approfubui tlia »ur£xai>- ^hmn tbcno, boir«Tttr, 
nwJi tbc mtrfaoo, ion Mfiuac «lni«Iy a idot« n^nkv ocUiao, iJxiMr 
on tfau uuttir «ilgo onua*c«^ nacl tiltiiiiotoljr f^irrn % I'-ompli^li? Hng of 
oorml rwf, and tlrn liigooii bivoTD<« gnirlnnlly clmrnj of Jit cond 

Sbdiofl or ulftud% for b« Uid fttoU tic<>uuiuit morv ptrfoct, ttko ooo- 
Lion* cf lifb witliin Ibo bf^Doa Iwooxno Joe^ uud Una fanowblot onJ 
a lofgof quftullly of doad coral U ranoTod in aolutikiji* 

Th<i oonil ntnll v nrit^H i^ttqU/ ill mta bud fcirm : it in mnftllj mora 
or iMti oircukr^ tJil mn^ bo ouo or OTor fiftj miloc ja diiuoacr. 
Tbu iroi^ara npcuJ tboir fur^ on tiio <>iitor oJg<^ »nd prtdocc vftai 
U kiioAvo ofl Llici broad fthuro pUtform; but vidjm, trOfv dcvMoad 
to tUo vtjrjr ftlioro of tbiT la^rttn, irhctfu Uterc Id tiu\i>i wnturi aiirl a dlip 
mt,y often nntAr o& tho loo iiidtf of tlio ntvlt ttnd find «&fi^ oncbongq. 

Id tbid cunnoclion it ih iiu[K>ruiit to boar in inind tbo relation 
wUicb oiibta biitwcciii tlio pLTL|iEiory ciml the HiiHirficuL aru r.f ibu 
Ibguuii iu attjUfl *jt iifTuruul bizc^. If tbo ctJiuI |i]aiiUtiou« irluob ni« 

l«tt« top of ft ftiibm«rgftd moiiT]tA'uli>TCMiwMo#oiio«q«miiu]^ 
Iba ott roAOhing Ibo i«r&ofi uf tljv w«Tte Ibon will bo & fthAllow 
li|CMiioD IS llbo conUo oiriiic to iLo laoro r«p»J |Cto«1fc of Ibo •oler 
dip. Snbh an «toi] will hmn^ if it bo ■ ^lurc, foitr milM of «iiitat 
nrf for tliA aopply of oonl and uiJ otbv Mvu, snd tlicflB being 
MiW aad bLovm into the ooo mhuo lalU of abftUow Ift^oon it is 
liUj to boco n o ftUod Qfi Uio rc0ult boing ft Hnull ulAnd with Jrj 

ibntfijuuio rwiluf. uxl ({daiki— «ll ihvm teBtiijiitK to tbo grent 
of IW inland MbJ ^JMDoe of robiiiUraoc t& t]i« ngioD. Ii i« o&lj 
Eb «ith ft dknotor of loM thwi t^v<» miltfa that tbiu bworao fiU«4 no. 
In <4fcof ftDcl Uticior plaatMtioiii*, riiiDft from ft more ettenjiivc bonic, 
fta OMditiiQixa ftro tot? diOettnt. In Uiu larj^ atoll — nj funr 
«b|b ■qnaro'^tlwrft E» now onlj mi^ mil^ of uu|«r r4<»f lu ««flL tqiun 
teb «f U^ooD, iDttftftd of foor ailM of outor Toof to tbft CKi^ «^iuri> niJo 
qflMonft itk tlie BOiftUorftbolL Qalf ooo-fonrth of the detritel matter 
ad £iod enter* the largor lagoon, from the oi;tmdo> per «i^nuo nulo 
■f Iwpwin, mud buftoo uen ui prupurtjuuallj kvn liriii)- ivtril ; tbc 
nh^t ftgWMlM piftdoulnatft and the lagoan in iHdotiAd and doep4n«Kl. 
Qim m lMM Mumw on tho ontct fneo and diao^lvicg anaj m tbo 
tlBMlfttibft mha^ orpaads after tbc manner of d fAirj- ring, and tbo 
E«Mi of reef or load <iui i^vtui ia coos^eiuqqcc Iucr«aac brr^mtid a 
Uf or tfamo-qtiftftBin of a mUc tit widtb, it being nsoftllj fouch 


JtloUa ma^ OMor for atr^y &om any Dtlior lujd, but tt more 
ftHiaHy bwMns tbal tl^ej mo arrmogtd in liao&r groapa, ia tJiui 
MMl tMmtilUig volnoDic inUndi. RilnudTo booln may Vrv vroWfTuI 
wn wmM otnUi, liko tbe NfirdM^m nfiddiTOi; or ft bunk iiuty t« 
ovMpiftd hf ono groftt ond p«rf»ot utoll liO to 10 mikv ta diiuu^itnr, 
&ft ftono of tbo SoothoTD Mftldiroft and tho Pftiimota0p In oomo 
■■fcftBBi tlio Ur^ otolb appear to bftTo roiultcd from Uio growtb 
nd OMkooenoo A tbti HouUor mnrnnnl ilolk: uipmally dnm ilile 
■vn Ift baro b(«n ibo eoft* iritb tfao iftrg* Sonlheni Vol Jiri4. 

Tbo DuMor alcpoft TftirjpCfttlr ic dTlforcnt Kmf^ nud in djffbr«iit 
prti of Ibo ftuno roo£ Whon thtto Im dc«i> vntor txijvui), iLo mf 
fn oAon cxwnda out willi a gmitlo »]<>)« ia a d<jith (i 2r> Ui 40 
IriMBM^ and IN >tai]ilfil vrilb liritig oonil. thci bf^^Mii and Itnt^bd 
hctmfaig Iftrgor Id Iho d««p«T vaUr fortbosi fr»t» tb(> r»f, vbcro 
tb«« MV fCrCftt otcrbonfl^DH cliiTjt, vtuoh orcntTially fill iiTrar by 
tkiir ow« VMfilil and form a Ulnn on wlich the roaf uiay pTOiioctl 
fiilW nrbmrdib OccoHtuEuJty Ihtjiti in a very ntuup tlHtrtril nlmcut 
A (MM from tho o^lor fdgf^ Thntt tltn iltuipAr Iho wiiV/ir bfiirond, tbo 
ttivft tlMrly irill Iho roof oitoo'i Aoawordn. In roufn with n v<Try 
gntt* ilopo ontaido, tiie coirolft aro &T>iiuciiUf oFi^fhanKing at dr|>thjv 
•f fix ur oercci ktbonwt for la tboau iiuttautxH lUu Ifrivt^z- jiart of lEw 
ftft fcciof tlie nwf !■ teiid«irod nnaitituMe r4:ir vigiirftri» goiwj.b. in 
ttrntt^trnton of Iho oond wKlob m carried in by watok coming ot«i 
1W BoaifftnitiTdj afaaUow doptb« oatddc^ 


Mr. JfJm Jf MmvjT 


Am y^totaiL iMvd, tii6 lagoon id many of tLo an)dU««l Atolln W 
bwD SIM up. bofc tiiia iwrcr ftfpov^ to La|.'Pgil in ntoJla with a 
dUowter of otdt two lolln niueM tbaru be dlatinet «rfiilaaoe of 
aptLOAva], In iMrfbcUj fomud ntolln, tfaftt ia, l}ici9D ia ttUoh tko 
mfi ELTv iLiorly contiauoiu Ui»»iig^ioQt, tbo doopvat viliir k fouoi 
lonttn^ thv cciilru of tbo laf^oon* luid tlicn) i« A rdalioo bc4iwa* tUt 
dubth KuU lliR iK<jitU of waWt l^jrond Llw outdiilu rvdk. In Korth 
fttiel 8a3lh BfiuRrtft rueft^ i& tbd 8rmtb Pndftr, vhniv thf^ oal^do 
dt'|jlhii nra tvry gn^t* tbm ue dci|iUut dovu to 17 £aiboEiui ia Um 
logwiufi which aro afipftrMitljr cImt of ourml hendjk Ucfc <vo uaj 
•appuflo thftt Iho eonlnl puis o( tLo Ugooa hwn for a Udig txuu bota 
DKiuflod to Uio iDlTcat wsXi^m of Mfk-wuCcr, i>wliig lo tJto itiw Uta«] 
giutttt of tlw roef u n «1iq!c. Iti tLu fAtno rogioiu the KHttHlh 
and Middlokm v<«Ak uLi<L aiv nlwat the huhv cUo, have onlj fav 
or fivo f^omi v^iti^iu iLu U^;oull^ tmd ihv doptlu <jtilaido ibo roda 
no%i tho duluicv ^f n iiiilu iiionlly vviUiiu iLc loO fuLliom liiicvHid 
KiniDtimuK Ir^B tliiLii AO fjithnicf^ Th<&m ^m alwi manj ovml b*a4a 
tvithiii tLt luguoutt. Htsrv we may sujipoic tbo aIoUi to bo oom 
roootit aud to bav«i <Atoikdt<i moro tuptdlj Uum in Uio <n«3 of 
UincrvK r«da. If tito doptlis bey«dail iLo loefk be takcu into Coir-| 
udoratioOt Uicti lluiro ia luuiOly a direct rolaiion botwocMi tlie daplk 
of llio la^ooa and ita diamctur Tlio groatat dufrtihi^ cron m tha 
largMt atoUi^ do tiot <<xcued £0, or ol most GU, fathoi&a; Ui^ij an 
naoalty mncH Um. In ot>>IIfl fvliicL ai^ d«oplj etbvMirgod, oir haTa 
not yet rcndiod tbo nuCurc, wlucb bare wide aiid deep opcjiiia^ iulo 
tbn lEkgoou-liku npnoui, lliin rektinu may m^ t^ui. Tn tbiH inatanovA 
iXtii iKtTotLOTi uid dffpAcitJon of oartioiuito ol Ltmv may bo in aio««a of 
aolutioD ill H.U puti of Ibft Inffooi;. It is onlf wLuii iho atoU rca^Mi 
Ihc Kiirfoco, bccomoa hkitc pcrfcctt oLd ita In^EOOEi watan consoqneotly 
Icaa £ivuunil)li; to growtb, Uiat tlio notctiooi of tbn doad eonla ud 
caJoar^niH iV'WU eiooeda any aeor&liou tu^d dopoaitiooi tkat vm tako 
pkcd Uirougbiiul tho whoto oxic&t of tbo lagoon; H is tiien mdenod 
tuid docipcDCf^l, an4 formod iuto ik KDOTo or koa pttloci ODp^ika 

Tito vbole of a com! rctf la pL-rmonk<l witb ae^-wmtor lifca a 
Fipnngc ; m tbia ^nt^r ifi but alowly cbangod in the intorkiT piiti it 
biitxiio'^e «Attiratod, and a dopciitioa of oryetalLino cvrbonalo of tiiDO 
frc(|iicutly tcdit£ pUcc <un<<u^ tho mt<:nibic<fl of the oonda and eocal 
dtjbria. lu cunEtquuitcu vt Lbu Holutiou at uirul dt^bria asd Ibo r^ 
fIi.<pf4Mti)d liia« c-c^iipyifig litn^ >s1>]lci>, !nrj^ OAvilioa aro fonncd, and 
tlua pN>octG often Tvaulta in \ovui dApriiaai<iii is eomo ia!<Lini«^ n^^ for 
iii&tiuicci in Eoi^uda. At mtuty poiiita on a reef wbcro orapcnUioii 
tukcv rlai;u ibvru ih a dcpcuutifju of ouicJTi>lu)Utf caibonAUi of IIim 
oataoutlD(^ tho wbolo revf muturuila uilo a oouipaol uungluiadTato-lika 

Tho fnLgmcijte of tho rarioue orf^Qi^iiti Injkciu off from iht o^lhxr 
odgo dtitiug cilUb or fitonna ud pilod [jj> <izi ibc nppor sariaou of tbo 
ttvT, aud uvuuluuJ]; ^rtjuud iulu luuxd, Ibu rcvuJl btioj^ tbi: fonnatloa 



.] Ml Srwncimre^ Origim, atkd DittnhtUiom tif Ct^ai Betf«, Jtt, 361 

nod; «*v or «haU ftl mmt £Macc« bftok frnm tlia oiit<)r oJ^ of 
Iki fwl-^-ilu) flnt rtftge lA Q}o formation <ff ilr> IhihI. 

!%« tagPMfitt of pttDibfl thrown up fnt*^ tho oiyinn dnrbf( fnr- 
ttwftt fttbimriiio enptioBi^ or «rn«lKyj ck^wii frum volounic Uml^ 
«« ftl all lia«a lo bo maA ^oftliog libont ou tho eurfuoc of Ibu bon, 
■od tliaao banc o^ l^P^ t^^ newly Cmuoi iitlct i^roii^oo hy Uioir 
lidolagnhtian Uio dtrcijr mftboriiJa for iha fnniintioii of n imil— Lho 
v>d «utb of oond UWiU. Jiut wftfain lb» Khoro plitfmnD tUoco 
fOMloo frogeiODftA am fonnJ in » frMh oondttion, but aa thu Ingocm 
M apiffooohod thoy dkMpo&r, iLo loil bocomM d««por, ^wl iixe moat 
kngmnl vcgotKiioo mm urgoA tro» a» round oloiw lo llio clI^s of 
tWi hiMr itilrm Tbo knd isMililomeoiitiniioiniftruiiml tbontoll; it 
•Mm OMdlj^ itt |«t«b» TtLO vftMr ptsMi OTor the fttmltoiv «pHooH 
talsMQ tlia islota A»d tbrovcb tbo (l«cpar lAgooii «ntmti<H^(i» iIiom 
IhI boiaf kq>t orpca by Ibo itronif NUid*boAnDf ciiironts whicb poM 

Tha fiiw m<dcift of pIftntA flnd anlmajn vb!«b Enlmbit thoixi comi 
UttKtb hov* booD ^IM ti> tbo now ialtni like Ut« pnmtoo, or 
— TJcJt ■Da'iy of them Ofty hn, by iinU; lastly, anTngo niid oiriliMod 
nn fiftd* UicTo » buiaa 

Tbott fa no ««eriills1 iliff'enviDO iMtwei^u tbe reefs fomiiiig 
MMtbw AdA barrirr rmf*, ^nrl tho«o irkich lfo )niowii na ftto1l«i, 
b tbo fonncr <mao tho ootrnli b*TO oonunencod to grovr cb»ui bi tbo 
ifcoro. anJ oo they gntv oatinu-i3, n vmnJl hoal pnwng«, imd U^co ft 
■Up ^hainfH, in is&rrud uiit Ix-twuiQ Iha reof ikiid llie alcoru by ti'LU 
WMF ftfid 1b^ (mlvmit Anti<~in cjf \\\n wnf^r riii tlici doiuL |iArtA nf th« 
hrif: tliiui Ibr friiLgin^ n>of mrty bn oonTorlcd into n barnor rccif. 
1& MOW inaloncoA Ibo rKfrrJa find a Niiitablo fouctlotiou »a tbo bonlu 
Aat •«mrai>d UkuJa uid fruot ooutmeiiUl t&udta, il tnay be, at o 

Kilfaluioe Aroin Llio coaai, uit'l wbf^ri tlitiy nou^h tFu^ toirraf^v iTLtiy 
m diiftoit borriirr whicb fmcocdfl ficawnrds^ ulttmaUly i>[] n tnloa 
«oJo «p «f mAUffufa torn froin ita >oat^h^i fikoo. 

If ibo foffCBOtng ooGundontioiui bo junt and t<innll4\ tbcn it would 
Uipnr llial ul tbe c)iiii-ticU.Tittli(7 fmluiu» itfojrikl mvfH ciiu bu pri>* 
Mod, ftliko in RUtifinary nr<tifl or in nn^E of clow nlnvntiari and niilv 
rilnoi, by proeoMCi oontintullT <Lt vtirk in tho ocoan at the prnqniit 
tSttt. Blow «3uT«liott or tnbtiaeiLoc wouIlI <iL)y modify in n minor 
■•y ft ly|Hui3 conit atoll or btinicr rci^f, but Hubsiduuco m irasb 
InM <BiiTic't |jo rf'^nniiid on ib^ naiiui of tbn Inailinjr ohamrtrTlsHoi 
if ttonl r«ciiL Tkm oro bbimiljuit t?vidi:iu>ui» of clopnticm in fund 
wd r«fE>*A* i>> roocvLl tiincii, but no diruet tiridcuco of HulKiMunocs 
1/ il liaa beOD Bboiku that ftloU nnd tMnrior rcufH oan bo fv>rrt«ud 
vitinut MiiltfUoncov ll><^n it ih iuo«t imlikol/ ib^t iinsnoiico in 
ioy oay kidJCAUti ro^nm rtf tlio eprtb** inrfiMQ v-hsro ibere baro 
loan vjiic* gi7n«nd. utd ilcv iluproiiiouB, 

Aeoeriiag to iDv DarwiuQ lbt<»rj, wbidi hivfl bnon almont imt- 
vctnDj acooiilotl d&tiuK tha iiuht huK century, tlin ct>nUii commoiLcu 
Id pov elCMr L> Um dmiti nT ah IfllMid or (Miulltiont ; ux tin kiid 


Hr. Mm Vuto^ m OvnJ JIm/^ ^. [Uuvli Ifi, 

•IawIj bJaIu tho oond« BMaDwhilo grov iipwd# to 1ti« flciTfao* of 
tiifi ic*, Biid a inter vfAM — tjbo b^Mi duUDd— It fonood bolveco 
Ilia vbijTQ fif UiQ )»l>iid ftnd tho oncinluig rocf, thn fHngiiiK being 
Ihua cunvertud lUto m bnrnur met. Knfictiuillj tbu cttitrtl isJuu 
■iitka AUn^oDUMr from tight u4 tb« fcwHer reef ia cooTtfted into ui 
AtoU, tbv ujcoon maildfig tbo pl>o« vUotv ihn ^oukie or otbor bmd 
Dno&cxlitod, £iMaitlii3gndfBftbdftlollftu«r6Tir»«Di<!-1 Mbecoaung 
ranllur uud Binifttlei ■» too Milking gow on. aiM Ibu fliuU Biige of ibe 
ntrill U a ^ivrnll ooml blflt, leR* llijn^ Xvrn jailtit in €lknn7«t«r, vrHh Uw 
Uruou Qllod cp nod offntr^ vith <1opo]ait« of M4-nlU b»d gnaao. 

11 lA «t OQCQ flTidcQt thfkt the licvti noir idvocAlod aro ia alxao«t 
all nA[i<fctH llxc rcTcjBu ^rf ihuou doiuuideJ b; Mi. Duwiik'a Otoovj* 

Tha niNMit iWnviivH mv«»tigHlii>iLb do uot appeax In tnj mtf to 
ftnpj>oit tho vittw chftt large or RDOftll tiilanijfl 01100 fillod tlia tpAOC* 
now crccTi]>icd bv Iho kgopn mlore, and tbat tlic Kcfi akow apfraxi- 
matclj tlio |xHiti<m of tho ehone of a ^abiijdf^l bUnJ* Tbo rtno- 

turif uf tLi^ ujrtiufiud cural iFiIatidti, nu £ir fu jut viiuiiiiiui]) hukoa tu 
]t>nd nn timju^rt In iJie DcLrwiomu thn^ry lit fnnnAtJmi- vniMi n 
tcmcmbcT tliikt tbu groat grotriiLg eitrfai:c cf oiLitiug to^h i» tb* fo^ 
viLfd Inca fr^m tbcr mu £iErfACo doim to tTront/or farlj laUioBie, thai 
Wgo quanlitiui of txtrul d«bna lauaL W ■llBially nnoml from 
U^Lnina ill t(^ibi>cmiiioTi buI »i»1at{on, Ihut nvffi ffmciT latosllj and 
rcbiun nl^nji ^nt « fow hnodri^ yardt :ii n^idtht tha: tk« Ugoac» of 
finUhcd ntolk ate dccpcnt in tbo ci(jQtA» ani nro rolativolj ahftllo* 
cumgmrod witL tLu duptb ufT llic ontor rriciJii tlicn it sorms impOMibU 
with aur |jro0uut ku^nk-il^u to mlmit tLuit awIIa (>r Imntor rem W* 
ever Ijtcti doTfOrtpnd aftflV tho numQar icdirniod bjr Mr. Dimrin'a 
•uuplo and bcaiiUiul tb«ory of corBl rocdk, 

[J. M.] 


Friday, MaictS8,lEf88. 

^ViixiAU ^caoI^^ Kaq, D.C.L, LL.D. RB.8. V)Oo-Pr««dcbt, in Ihaj 

Bin Fuia>EBiOK Bn^itwELL, D.C.L. F.U.S. Htm. S^f. dmf F.P. JSX 
A LcctMrc teilh, — and wtiftotit^ — ynni, 

[T!iB dijtcouwe miiiulj conBitted uf a iIomtmijLnkt'itjn of iba seHoi 
ioowjvom&QCGB nturndiiig tliu lutupium in ordinarj^ life of tLo *^ ~ 
ind Mobicol SystemeJ 

C?f»fnti Xntktp }[<fthf. 



Ucttiftj, April % 1S8S. 

OftHimooi Bttowvc, M.T). LTJD. FJK^. IfftUger, 
in Ikft Chair. 

WmUai ArtLar Brm£I«j. M.D. MJl U Jt.0.9. 
ThiMiiM & D»llu>A;«r, E«i. 

BoboH BCoou, Em, 
Pftqwtridi Pned, Bill. 

tieetod Uucnb«n of ibu Bojral Iiutitiition. 

n^ 9p«cUI TfttAikt of tho Ui-iutien vetA rHtomed lo Bu GfifiO 
Ik Dca ov Xo«Tsnmma«I^ KG, ibo FK«idoni, for hia pr««ai1 
d'Jam^ of tbo Hoqm of Poro^ (1030-11^7}. B^ E, R do 
FofiUftD^iH^ 3 voL 1687'; vi4 to Licttoiuait-CtoDcrid rirt-ltimni. 

VJ. I. 18H7/ 

no FiMWW f«envod raoo th4 IaM Mootiiig woro laid on ti» 
lMa,tBd iboflHiilDi^ttftlionbcnntiiniod for lli« mxuix tu. :— 

7UStat^arm^/8uU4/f^r ImUa — RvPifit tif b Tuur io Un l^lJ)JAb nzirl lUlpCtlAiia 
tftiaO-^ Dja,&.W. OwtJok(Ar^iMoLSarrTr3r nffnlLAj, tiu 18^7- 

Tlf Fn&A Ow tnmm f — ToypCTMhig lliitohano da Vuiu J*ull Kwiob 
Ow^JwililB At rt'mlmvt/ Wr K A. iMr *l I. U. TlMmud, 4to, 

■tPtiuL inr. 

^^■^ M LTwCBesL, A«»*AIU.icrti:QuiiiU: RcadiocqitL Vol. m 

rflf ■b»wr>»c. ICLII^ &ro. 1887. 
htimk S$4 JW-w ^ rb>*iK fW<i->Ufogii«> Tome XLU. 4fo tSfllL 
MiMtet pii»«dt* nr UT«n ^t&it^ Totiw* XXVll. XXVUL XXIX. 

Hik lV«i-7. 
fen^doHADoimitla. ndaliJhbl'OtvQmUDiidu ruago dp Tdni mu Io 

Mt M^ hofl iVAtim Branr!li}-J^anhl Vol. XXU. So>. I. 3L 8ffDL 

I an. 

iii»irar^7xLii.rvti. iio. lata 

lbiiM«JiM^M^«/-JM«nl,VoL£X Forts, flvo, l^flA. 
InlEHtlnd^ AnhJidDCultftCk «to. Itt7. 

^U General MoniJU^ MeeUng. [ApiQ % 

Britidi Auaa'atim for tA« AdpanoemaU of BdmoB^BepOfi of HeeUiw at 

Manchester. 1687. Evo. 18S8, 
British AttAiUcU, Royal IndiMt o/— Pfoooedfng^ 18BT-S, Noa. 10, II. 4to. 
Chammint Dt. (^ ^■itJbor>»-L« CannutB de Ifl FoluiU duu I'AiAUiit ol duu 

ie Co™ Hunuio. Sro. 1887. 
CJwmtoiJ &KiVir— Joomal Tor March 1838. Sro, 
Ck^tthOk Meatn. J. and A. iUu PvJ>ft«^i) — Joonkol oT LuTDgologj and 

Rhinology, Vol. II. Nob. 1, 2, 8. 3m. 1888. 
Ci'pif .^n^neeri' JniK/u(idn— Hmntes of FnncediogB, Td. SCL Siro, IS87-B. 
DamoTi, George M. Esq. F.G.8. (the ^ul/u>r>— K««kiool Peopto itf TtoocKiTer 

laltiDd (Trana. Bojal Soc, nf CaxiodA). 4to. 188a 
T^u : Soditi de Sorda—Bahotva, 3" Serffi, DoDci&ma Ann^ Tzixoflibv ^, 6i^ 

fiZi'for* — Amerioan Journal of SdeitDe for March, ISBB. Sto, 
Analyst Ibi March, 1838. Bwo, 
AthoDsam for Maicb, 1888. 4to. 
Chfmical News for March, 1888. 41o. 
Chflmiflt and Draggiat for March, 188a flro. 
Erigineei- for March, 1838. fol, 
Knginocrin^; for March. 1888. IbL 
HorologicAl Joitmal for Manh, 1888. 8vo» 
IiidmitheB for March. 188^ ffll. 
Iron for March. 1888. 4ta. 
Hnrmj's Magazine for MaJoh, 1888. 8to. 
Nature for March, 1388. 4to, 
ReTue Soicotiflqua for Marcli, tSS8. 4to. 
Bck'Dtific N«wa for Marah, 1888. 4ta. 
Teleemphio Journal for Mamh, 1888. Svo. 
Zouphihat for MuTJh. 1883. 4to. 
Fo4terj J. Etq. (/fu Editor)— A\amm OxonieniH: TheUenibenof thfiUDtTer^tr 

of Oiford. 1715-188ti. Vot. L Sto. 1888. 
FlorentXt BibUoteca A'arionoXe CmtraUf — DoUcUdo. Num. 52, 5^ Bwo. 18SS. 
FranfcUn JniiiJitte— Joirnial, No. 717. 8so. 1888. 

Oeographical Soeuty, Boyal — Proceedingi, New SerwM, Vol. X. No. 8, SrOk 
Supplomentflry P»pors, Vol, JI. Part 2. Sto. 1888. 
Qteloglail IiutituUy Imptrial, Vienna — Abhandlungrai, Band XL No. 3. taL 
Jahrbnch, Band XXXVU. Heft 2. 8vo. 1B88. 
Vfirbandlungen. 1887. Nob. ^18. Sto. 
OfOrgitjUi. Realv Accademia—Atil, Qnarta Scri«. Vol. X. Diap. S,4. Sro. 1897. 
Johtu Hopkint UnivenUu — Amoriwn Joninal of Philolcffj, VoL VUL No. 1, 
8»o. 1387. 
Studio in Hietoricat and Politacal Bfuenoc, Fifth BerieSf No. 12. Btil 1887. 
Univftraity Circular. No. SH. 4to. 1888. 
Liniwin Society— J onm&l. No, 102. Sto. 1888. 

ManehettfT Qeoiogieai Society -TiansactionE, Vol. XIX- Puts H, 15. 8to. I8S8. 
Atanchegter Literary and Seiantijic Society — HomoLni Vol. X. Third Sena, 
gvft 1887. 
Proceedings Vol. XXV. XXVI. Sto. I8S5-7, 
Medial and ChiTvrgi&^ Society, ifo^l —Prooeedingi^ No. 17. Sto, 1887. 
Meteorotogieal OJEm— Weaklj Weather EeporlB, VoL IV, Noa. 4S-52. Appandii 
l-4.Vol.V- Nob. 1-7. 4to. 1887-8. 
Hoiirl7HeadjxigeJ885. Part 2. 4(o. 188S. 
Monthly Wo&thor ReportB, Jan. Feb, 1887. 4to. 
Miniatry of Pvblie Wotlit^ Rome — Oiornalc del Qenki Civile^ Beria Qainta» Vol 

II. No. 1. 8to. And Dihe;!Tii. fol. 1888. 
I^orth of Erwlnnil Inflitule of Mijiiiw incZ Mechanicfd Emgineert — TiUkBactioiv. 
Vol. XiXVILParta. 8vo, 1833. 

Geixrfll iftnU/f MtttSn^, 

B. Jo Fonblnrif|iirk S rol 
No, 4. N«w 

tl Ik* ti««M «f fcfvr OOBD-im). Br K. 
OfaUhfJinf ac*i>fy f/ OfM< ^f#«iii— Tniuutirma. Vol. XS. 

ft jfc r ap U e flxiry-Jiwii*]. Vol Till. No, 5. Hvr URJ^. 

mnni^a, B. IT. J(f,|>. FM-8. iUm AMiu,t^~TUii AKlr^plitd. VuL V. Nu. IT. 

rrr^ffiBM" rm^trfji/ Inr Ttiini- 1 III, V^l TTIf Pui 1. «>To. IHSS. 
taii4 71«fb«.ttirK«,lir (i7^«/bf^r)— KatibiLnlMnlc^flgnlntllnrnMan. 

liar, K<^\6, ^n. 

TooloOM, I NAT. 
■iacd& Nmiiilte Stdc Nti. 4. ila TouIuqim. ISBT. 
^tktmJorA»AhtiilivH of I'lruoc'ivn — Tbfi Biivfra Aq^iubI t^riAtnry ImlilnUan^ 

Ho. latis. 

ftaif^y ^K^—Jniimtl. BUreli, ISS8. F<Vf^, 

m, JtartWovM'i /r^^ifipAfaf— »'-prls Vol. XXtH. 8*A |««T. 

A Titei^awy jAu£Anj<i Iwjt&iakt dtm ^cfr^nt— M^nx^iu, Tdiuo XSXV. 

r4Y^ p I g uf f ww, iU^^ 0/— JmimBl, No, 70, Svo, HHfi. 

TW flMUhik jruMm (ATafvrat iTfrfOfVl— CaUlottuo of JJknV V^L SIL SvO. 

(bkfef«(tfF<MlMuMJm«]k TiiriS. firo. 18^7- 

ThBBM ^Ittti^M. A Ji*T. <IJW ^itfAgr)— Etyg flit Itraltb CcUnr^. Bf O. Juv^rr. 

TiUlwiw fVwu jJ. fw. Q £ (CAb Jutbor>-Tlio yatuibL Law uT rulaUun 
btfvcn JUiaCfcU »n.l Vc^uUbb Lifcx Sro. l9JtB. 

VouXa (KaSS.) 

(»/f Mitr ^vtfvr 


Frl^k;, Ajirll lA, l^ftA, 

KnwAiD WnoDH. Fjq. U,TaHtC_R Ti«o-PnHiilntit, in tlio 
PnonMoi WnxTAH Hkmbt Floiteb, C.B. LL.U F.B.8. 

Ir 1« itv!1 Inoim tliat tho nationt at *atiqDt^ eelAH^ned ft 
•imiiid bclid' ill ilio ciiatrucxi of b r&c« or new of ImoMii beat\_ 
viMolIngW dlnlDQltTri vutum, who i\wt*1% in sovno of tlt6 raDot«- 
SM3^6»I M^OfiA id tKo «firth. Tboto n*»« called Pymim, • aunt 
nld tobo^onvcd frcmi 1717^^, ^ieh mooiiK a fl*t, uiil •UoftEnoMioo 
oflougib. tLodittUnco from ilic dhow to Uic knuckle* of aBotdisftij* 
■i0«d nun, or ntbM- iuok tliftii 13 {[ichttL 

Iti Uio OMV^ng of iko third hAok of the /Tidrf, tlii» Trc|ui horti 
Mt» de«nnMd u oonuag od with noino ftod nhontin^, <' liko tho enmos 
which floo from tho oonnng of wintor Ktd raddttt nu», notl Hv vidi 
RUtaiiiir iDWunbi ihv Htru&juh uf [xiei&u. honiiig flftnglitnr and filp In 
tho Pygmy nen, aqiI fa nftrtj irf<m ^flbr cnid batUo/' or, 9m Fe^ 

"So vhoQ ind#r»oqE «int#vT<x tbc i>lHin. 

To wBnnf r mtt llw «nnM anitHdliul flj. 
With Dot«e aod cfdof thinu^i ihf a^llnsj tkj, 
To Pjaur batLftiii wootirb ADiil dfltlj lI^ct tins^. 

hntwGon tho pygmioqnnil tlm crntiAa urn ofton allvHect 
li> }yy 1At^^ ditsni^iLl writcTS, And ftre not mtftonnaull^ dopi4.^tod 
ufi'iTi Grotk tuicc. Id oqo of tJbceo In tiio Hope collcetioa at Dv«p- 
dcaic, !a nhicli tbc figitrtu; aro reproeeiiM irith groftt qant, tu 
]i^'^inii-ri uru ilwurtlmh-lvrijkiizg mt^n with Ivgo h«wl»^ n^gn f^AliirM^ 
iltkI ^loae woolly or fyit^zl^ hnir They ara nmiod cdth l^ocMi 
Noticofl of a loee potrliccJ uid apporeatJj looro «donti6c character of 
tho oconrrcccf of mcce of tctj emiJ] hninan boiugo ato met vritlk in 
AriHlotle, Hurodotu*, CI(iaia«, Pliriy^, PuiiipuuLLui Molo. uiJ tithtn. 
Ari8l»>fJ*i [ilaoot Jiis pygmi*« in Africn, ni>nr thr Hnnrnftn of thfi Kttn, 
whilu Ctoai^ ^EHcHhcs a raoo cf dwArfji in tho intiniorof Tndiii. Tho 
ihcooiint in l[Qi^)tiatt]s \t ao cironmatantiftl, and hu such an nir of 
imlhfuliKfis ftU»ut it, c^ioctAlly iQ coonocfcicm nithrooet^tdiecovodc*. 
tbat it JH wurtli iiciriiin^ iu fiilL" 

" T did bear, indeed, wLat I ^-ill nfl\f relntA. from certain mtliTDC 
of Cyrcnd^ Oq«i upon time, tlioy «iid, Ihoy ivorc on a Tisil to tho 

* HcfodDlum Ikok II>i ^ Bn«li]iiion*B tmiiilatWD, p. it. 

iJU Pfy^f Raf<t of Men, 


nnW iliriQo of Animori, wlirn (t rtmncHl f.liftt, fn %}*« fonno of 
meoiikita viih KitcuretiiA, tbo AavnaonUn idnx. tlio Ulk Mi onoii 
W5Uc4 bov that ita botitcoi vcrv OLknanti to nil matt. Ek«T<lt«a 
tlOBllii ttimtloui.'d ILaI bddjo Niiwunoni»Ba Iriul uucvi oamo to liU 
iH\Ml w1h*ii iwiVril a ih^y i^alil give Any iufnrinhtion iwiKGnitng 
A* ttUMbitod portA of Libjo, bivl told Ui« foUomEig UJi^ (Tlie 
liMimiiilii «i« * Ijibna tvc<j vho oocapy tiio t^jrtca, feml a ir«c( 
itMfml >i»3 towiLras Uio f«BL) Tbo; wiJ tlitTro Ivt/l f^awn np 
VaiQieB viuio wilil ji.>uuiJ: mcu. Lbu hiiih uf ovrlaici L'lik^fj. vrlio, 
thntej ouxM to mftDC Ktato, In^al^^ in aU ituhiinnr (^f ^vlmrA- 
^icia^Hul vnong otbof tl^in^ ilro^v Jots f^v Src c^f ihoir niiiuUir lo 
|»«dil afilorG the d«octt pckfta of Libya, and try if iXwy O'dVI not 
Huilrate fvrUivr ihac ui^ Lul duiiu pnjTiuu&ly. Tlii> ruuug men 
^m fo l u dia^tfiTi^l on ttim t^mLTnl hj Ilirfr rrxiinbli.uj wJCnupT'iLtiroI 
■nlj of wfttov Rtkd provifli<>Q£,tmvcjll»d al llnil throtigli ttif iiit»ik]>J!ud 
nfMOh fMritiJC wliic£ thor ««mo to Iho wilJ bcAat trtot, irbcnco tlioy 
hdkj vcrtma upon Hio JcMri. u1ii«li tbcj- pr««A:tlc<i ki crota ii^ a 
diMbw fhnii eut tu w«et- AfVr j»iiriit<yi»^ r<jr trmiij ilAjra ontr % 
tili «ltmt of fl&nJ, tliojr i^ttmo nt Irut to a plnin nboro iba^ obMrved 
taM ftroniag: Apprcttolziiig tlicm, and EtfoiiiK fruit en thMn, Ib^ij 
pvnboicd to gMltor it WhUc tL<?y iv^ra tban cnj^god, thdro OAOio 

Stbcm •uoo 4mrlLili lui'ii. tiuJvr Uiv luUdLj MgbU vrho tmtxcd 
Mid oirriad thttm oft Tlio NiuiintoTiiAHfl n~»u1d not nnJ^rKCftDil 
■ vofil of tboit langmga, nor had thuyoiLy tuyinaiuUmcc villi th« 
bKM^ <kf tbc Niu&incnuuic TJlc; wata lod octoeb cxtansiTo 
tsMo^md l0Hi1ljciuiiuioiitoi«]!)creftl] thumou^iTtucirtlLcj UiiieUb 
rflWir cmnitacCmn, luid bluuk-ooii)|i1-.^iE(iri^l. A grti^t rlvi^r fiownl 
hf lit lovn, tVttBing from VMt er> nut, nnd cnntamirkfE <?rrH?^]il«H," 

It U Htivtectory to knov that tho narrntiro ooncludoi hy imyiiig 
lUl ikcMe (tonoDni of African ciplonktion, forcrniiDcrii of Ilntco ncd 
fiik,u( BuiL. LiviiigHloiii^. 8{)ukr, Gmul, ScLwuiufuHli, SLuuIi?j,niLd 
iW nM, ** gol ufa iork to thiiir rvtnntry.'' 

Kttwirioa of Icncivlcdgo of tlio natum) prcxlnotd of the <iflHli, nnd 
•aorecnti««1 irpirit on Ibo p*rt of Dntbors, lol toftttvmplstoftocoiitit 
lie iUb bcdicfi and tbc fU^coTcrj of nuxs <Lf iiii'ukujFn — of ibe doiugt 
<f vfckli, it taQftl bo saf'l, uiciro or \\?>v^ (iLtriLlnu8 »it.irk'K wrro oftuu 
Wpwiad bj fnvnilani— gimoMUy milii*rd tha anwmtmlniarA %im\ 
MCndiiti of tbo lAit oontnr/ to uptftio tile origin of tLo Ktorbn of 
4| tMiDftM. To tbiB Tiflv tuc ffMul ftdttioHlj of Ua^nuu ca^touloiL 
B&u inan lwwiil1y-ttAs|uirua tuforJuHltijn uvi ioiUuucliiali'UEiilitiuu 
if A^ bmaii fvipnlAtiJin nf t)irT (rloho liu. }ic)vr<iTcr, Ud ta a rrvliiion 
l| tW biiWA 1l)kon tLo lal'jcct. And to mtvu c^atofal uid critical 
WvidkM into Ibo ftncicnl af>cuiaL'(i(H, M, do QciutrL^fu^^Dd, tlii> oiui- 
iflUaJTolcffviiProfonorof Anlln.ii'^diiify nt tliv MWtmi d^TIiMuirft 
KllMulIc of PftriH, OAjHUOiallyT Ijiui curiaftilly oiAiiiiund ilmiI rnllatthdoll 
iUfftdijinio bMriTJg upon tLc qtioitioti, uml deviled iiiiU'b in^nmty 
^■fflBmt to profo th«t tUo tnci l<xvktitK«i jh v\1iiuL iLc anoiont 
ftp]i«v to fdfto« tlidr |>yfrT[ij<4i, tin] iuUrii^r uf Afii<:« tic«r 

T 2 

Proffvtnr Ftottn" 

[Apnt 13. 

th4 MOMM <d Ifa* Nil6t »ikI tha ApdiWuDotit porta of An*, ■nd 
Uw eWftObn ti^of aiwjttt to thcok. indinto ui ftctntl kaowlodpe of 

thaciijitcuns of tl)ctnri> gn)ci[w gf lUUiU pOopIo wbicb hlill it^liAUl 
thc«o rpgiunjt. tlw hitftorv' tif wbidi wilt fvnn IIkt AuLji^i uf thi* 
lociUM- TlideTidoufo wliieh haBaanrinciad H. 4o Qnibtrvii^Da, »nd 
wTiicb, I liftTO DO <liitib&, will iofficc for tboH who l&ko ploft<«ro in 
iliitcoTorinjE rni tiridcilying trtttlt in tU aqeL lcg:«DcU aii4 lojlhA. ot in 
ttiD man: gnleful UkIe uf rvliubiliUlitL;; tliu vuncitj of tliv fBlkcr* of 
Mtarmtan uid btHt^r^, wilt Itt^ fnimd ciJlnctn! 4n & vnry rmulithln lorm 
in ft littln hook publr^hoH loat yo&v in Xho ' Biblktb^qtiD ccicatifiqn* 
Cdattciupnruno,' <tdiod *t^* Vy^t^micm,' to wbich i irjfor m.T bma^n 
fur fiilUr iufotmatbn npau ihv nubjocl vf Uiia diaouiuvo, uul 
tHpudnlly t>r TiLir»4roiitf n^rt^iiOM Ui lhi> liWAliirn «if ll*o «itliJ«cLi 
whj«b, ft4 Ui« book it ncocwiblo to all wbo iH«h to pimuo )i fiuilier, 
I ecod not ^vo bcrai 

1l U tftUI, La-voTor. ta icy mmit. on open i|M«tioii vbotiur ikoM 
t>H Hicitii» m»y till U; rhiMfuil with]ii otbinv. Uiv oCbfvi^ 
of th4> r<^(1>k JrjvuTttfon nT tt<i liuTnnn hnvin, Ihu pntAnc^ ai vliioli m 
nil <!TJ]{iQ fti Tofiha Ims:, I thmk, vomoUtDa* bwa too iim«b QiMbfTtbeiL 
1 ihAll, thorcforc, iiow ub: Icovo of thorn, uid oooGno mptolf to giTiD^ 
^□u. M fur ut till: liritf npucu uf tiiiiual mj(liapoflalfl<lE)ita,ui aoctjuxit 
itf iiiir jirliinl knitiv listen <;f ttn* hiii;i1 Uihl Ffn^m 4if iikon attljcir MxbillDg, 
or, tn far aa vo knnw, «T<tT havm^ coated on cartli, utiil itbioh nsttj, 
thcrcfurc, takinj; tbc word in it* current thciugh not Utonl mom, M 
cnliod tlic '* pygmica ^* of th» spocJoai. 

AtTiotifj thtT vttriutiH oTinnurt^m by wliiult tlio iLiSbrvui fMiM of DAU 
4n (lifitiitf^iTiq}i(vl fiyiin nno aTiotlirr, nsn in nndoQbtMTIj ono of oon* 
nidorjfcblo rmjH^rtimoo, Nf>t bul what in Hwli rooo tbcro J» moob in- 
diTidunl varintion, eoirn; porstrna boing taller luid houhj uboitvr; ytl 
tlif«u rariutJuiiA ]Lrx\ uewciiiUy in tlia puror or loM im;ied FiPlt 
Tr^irnnc'tx^il wilhiik c^i'tain limifji, flUfl Uiiirn in n gntiRTol ftvcnigv^ both 
fi^r ui<3i and womon, ivlit<^h Ciui ^ nACorUiu^l ■rliCn ft ■uffifikoft 
number of occnmto mooBuroraeul^ have born rcoijrdotL thtX tlM|4t- 
TftUing iiiaBo of n m«i is o reoUr deopljiMAto*!, mboritftl eliwMcr- 
letlc, and di'^H^ud^ bttt b'ltTu tjii uulminl i^tudit^oiw, us abntiAanco of 
food, j'lnnftii*. Arc, in f>oToil by welUknown fncU, TTjo bJlMt oaJ 
the sbortekit mueii in Eoropg arc rospoi^tively the Norwogioaa ood (ba 
Lo^ptt, ]iTiii;jE ill iiIiDoBt tho HLmc region. In AfiicOtalKi, tbcdiisiito- 
tivi* ItDfiLiDuu uud llm tihlluHl rauu of tli[> ooiuitry^ tbc Kid&i*, fti ■> 
ch'so nr^igbbonriB, Tlin luktivi^fl nf ibe Anfl^nuui Ifllondii and thoia of 
many TulandB of tba oquatoiikl rogion of the Pudfio, m whloh tha 
conditions aro oimUar* or if anytfiin^ more Cavuambl<> to the fOfUtf, 
ore at upponite uuhU of tbe vcalu ^f hui^Ll, Tbo»A &ot occuMomod lo 
I)i4i d!l1iri|]i<i4f Ixjih of ruiLkiii|^ »ric] rtit^untiug iHi^li nteikaiirciikoiiMwill 
■mrticOj- btj propni-i^il, bowoVi>r, la l^am bow mongm, unftatinfftoloiy, 
and unrolubfa oqr kuowkdffo of tbo ptatuto of mont of Ibo rofW of 
luunkiiid iH at prcHbot* oltbuugb imquoiitionAbly it \ma booaoooMdc^ 
ably i)ti^L-(^iiiHHl wttlim tt^m-ut jiunip Wu muMl, bit^vuvor. LJitkc WC of 

Oflt Ae Pjfifvff fttift* of Uf%. 

wb ntx^riiit &* wc» pMcritfi, a»i3 iJwtA to th^ futuTo coTToction of 
vmV'Hbcrii bettor opporlnnjtic* occnr* 

h 1* ooavetiioiii Id iHndo moa. occortlint; to iLtir Ijuigbt. into 
Hdv ^n>«|« — XmWy luttlliiLii, vkI shiirL ; iti TuE'tuJiriVH tiji^Mi^* thi> 
tod Inuig tlionn ilm avflrago ht>igh1 (cif thn int^u) of ^'h1^■.h in iibovn 
1-709 BMtofA (5 fc«t 7 iiiohcjn), tho ImI tbi^Ac txila^ 1-GOO miirus 
UlBd S iDcboa\ KnA the mid^o diriiiicEi those hotwcion tiio two. 
uftmihort diviHiou ue iiicIuiIevI opibuii uf lim HuxiguZiuu ur yullovr 
on* of Aidft, ftA tlH> Sanioj4tilHfl^ th^ Otitlftkn, thfi Jni^niirRfi, iho 
^tmm^ %ttA tbc AnuLimtw ; oLio tha Yoddnlm of C'ojlou (Lod cvrt&in 
rfA««ild hill tnbo«of Southern Indin* ThoM oil rAU(;c botwoou 
1"&S5 and I'COO nctrea — my hctitiiui £ fwt nuJ & foul S LuohoH; 

1l k of DUflMi uf tliMi" jKV)[iIt» Ibat I iLiiL ^iiiiJ^ bi H]rt<ak to-ilnyi 
Xjr t^tfmicA ftro ftU on n ciill AnallCT Dcaln, tlia nv« rags height of tho 
on buuiii iu aU outcs bclovr 5 foat, Ja sumo caacsT iv^ wo uhall bcc, 

RwMwi llitir dumuuLtvti vi£v, I mtij note ut the ouL^t Lh^t Ihoy 
•I] bftto In A Htronglj-mU'kttl ^ogroft the oli&fnctdr of tho hair din- 
Wagwahul u> frtsftly— 'L o^ ip^wm^ in vory fine, olo^ ciirlci, otid 
iltt«Br4 or cUipti«M in Kctioa, luid Ujanfutv, wb^bi^Tcr otliur 
dK t tun J ^iSbrmoos tbujr pneuut. iUrry bll Iwluiig W tbu Huino 
firtftBiy btttfirli df 0>ii huiiijiii riik^ii^ ii8 the AfrioATi nogri>ujiI (Jio 
MwUiiwAiti of Ui« WoUrm Pnci&o. 

1 will fint diioct ftmr uttci^tioti to a ^r>ifp cf ialandii :n tbo 
lidiaii Ontw — tho AjuIuiHiDB^whcra vtu «W1 find a nirc in uiuij 
Mfpli of iW K'—^m* iHiwilik^ inl^^iVKl Ui Itm tu]t1iii»iift1i)|cthU 

TbM* IdanA* uvt dtiutcil in ibo l^ay nf TWifjnl bni^vcD tho 1 0th 
■■d lltb |«rKUd' of tiaitb latitude, and i^ou- tho na«ridiAii ^3' ooiit 
itf Gr^nwith, ai^d ooaitirt of tbc CtvaX and Littio Andunntui- Tho 
t«— I uftLot^t 1-fO i^iiTc« Iiriij^, oijd hiiH D bfuidLli [icwlit^ro <iiocviliiig 
V BtllfMi. tt in ilmdcal \%y rmm^iv fihaimHK \^\U\ tliivi^^ <-ftlliv1 nv 
pydilJTutjr Hoirtbr Utddlo, wid StiutJi Audurjjjui, »m\\ Uiorn nro liUo 
fri f «Mi«Jl«f Ulocdtt boliiif^iLi; Iq tho ^onp- Little AikUidou li 
a Joltrtc^ iolaad Ijii^g ^bouL UB mUoi to tho aotttEi cf tbo tnAiii 
puvpw ftbaut ST ukiW ill b'lLgili nnd 10 bf \X !)» hnmllh. 

AJtbomph tliuui iiJitndH havti kionn inhAlntod for a Vi>rv ^roftt 

Xof tia» bjr ])coplo uliosc ifUtoof cuItOTo and ountomt Imvo 
«o littlo ciT no «LLn^, OB pr^rcd bj tbo cauminnltDU of tbo 
mrtmlt t>f tbu uld kik'Liu-iiiiddijiiH, ur rufuMu lioupH. romi'l Iu mmiy 
|4ftaai Id tbnm, ojxA AUhoDjcli tltny lin bc. niwr tlio titw-k i>f civil 
«ud eo&morcD, tho jAljiiidji and tholr lj;babLljuitfl ucro practically 
■&lno«ii !*> tb<t «orid until w roco&lly ibi Uio yiau- 1^58. It in tmii 
tt>i Unr eti^luucu u* lui^ubiutLtd by Arabic wniure vt tliv niuOi 
PMliiry, bmI win by HjvcoPob^ »|jd (likit Ln IT^H m^ nitouijit vjui 
Bid* li> Mtlftbtinb % Munl colony lipoid thfoi by ibr^ EnKt Jnilm 
OrtiifMij, wbt<J) wa« AbaudiMioi} % few ycuri Eiftcr : biil the ]»d Npn- 

* >KklM<ilad'4Hl)L*lT.|>i»|n|£lc(;^iK:ml0<' IWCh, iK%^ p. 1(13. 


iVo/«Mor /T-Mrrf 

[April IS, 

Mma iht) mhaliituLta Ibj aoqtiirod fin ibvododA And uduMiultUo 

flifon to Ike cAtvfLilljr «iviiji(.it, uiil ni> ponnst^^ml n^ttlcmont or 
ni1ation« of uiythtng liko a fri^ntittlj- cbanvctor, or likrly to fttTi:pr\) 
■ST nsvful tnloTiDalJO& >4 to the rhuiictcer of tlk» Uaaia or Uw in- 
luMnluttot ytvn artftUiBbctl. It ui fair to BMntion tkaL tfau lukvtilitjr 
lo for«itfixiiiw i«lu^'li fvr \tm\i, itk* uue of ihi^ oluuf cliancterislictt Inr 
wlifch 3io AniUnvuinui vom knnwn 1o lli« nnUt tmrld^ fbniul mncn 
jtutiflfiftdoa] in tbo cnol «t|i«riotJOiM th«j auSbrod from tbo ma]* 
pTftotiooSt d<jkkiul1Jj kidi^bpiiif; far eUtot?, of Uw ChoBOM tad 
jlftjaj inildra wliu TiBilod tiiu iaIauiIh ia w«rcli of Mcikf i^ pkt Ufl 
ediblo bLtii«'-iu«tfi, It U h1m> (■■ IIjlh cljun^tajCatJc Uul th* in* 
hilubuitii o»o B> mnt^h <if t!icir 3riti^n«t to us from * ■"»^*'*^** pt^nt 
of now, fat iro Laru Lorc' Lho rmnj ouu of » papvMion, confined to a 

f<nn fruiu all cvul)bt:t vrilli cAtfTruul luduenou, tL«ir jilijfucal 
rl^ivmi-Uni TUiniBX*d lij rrrisBiiig, nsid thdr oultnro, tlinir iMlittb, thfur 
kngoflgo oBlireljr ihttr own- 

Jn IlifST, wLvii tli.0 bvpoy luatinj 0&U«d tlu> «tkLtioai <tf tlio 
luitiAu GuiMiiiucitt to Ibo i)04»'«ei ij' ufn 1ialiilatio& fortLiALr aucDurvua ^ 
CLinvicl pni4(incrs Ibt .\uiUiuiut IrlikiJi^*^ wnm Agun thoDaht of fof M 
tho parnftH?. A C*mi»iii*ion, cniiniftling of Dr. F. J- Uoniit, ™ 
Dr. U> I'lnyfiLii', and I^iuat. J, A. Hoallitjotu, -xvm voot to tho tttUsiIii 
to ropiirt u|>u() thdr cnpuLililkfl foreuclt tt piir|wc<i and^ acting ii|ioii 
il« n«oiiiiituuUliotJ«v ^■•ttr\y in tho fjJloiriikf yoor Uio Jalui^a ^tmn 
t&lciTii ptjuaiiuioii i>f ill thu hraao <if tlio ^nat Initio Onmpany hy 
Copbxiu (uow Gouoralj H. Mnn, unci II(] lErilitih flaa hoisUd bi I't 
iilair, ctior tlio »uutliurti nod of Gr^at AmUuujtu, vfikli 
hiCMDO iLo uticItua of iLo fvttlcmcnt of inWcrs, dow uimi 
abimt 1S,000 pcieau^ of hIioeu mnrv tluLu llirot^f^iirUisani oo&lll 
pnionors. tlio rr-Bt Hjlcltors. polios, iknd th<> UEtcol ooooDpoiUEtoiitt 
oFo militury ctLitJorj. 

Tbu (il^:ct uf lUii» iarcttil upon tbo imsophiMticaUid imtiro po|iula-| 
tlMii> uio, Uji'ti^L tipi'orkil over tlio vbolo nrca of iLo ialBJida, wno fi 
lotE nniELoroua, may VAstly be tTanginud* Tt ia lainplj dotorioimtioi 
cf oluvaotar, moral and phTsicol dooay, o&d fiatdly ulinctiuD. The' 
ikfwl^-latrodtiood bablta of life, vjocst t^nd diAcobv^ aro BpTeadiiig at 
A fi'Aifnl rule, nml with dondly < fiVi t. In tlm m<l Lii»lor,v iLoro arv^ 
Jn)W4JViTr, two n-(|(.Hf:iiiii(" ft^Lkturon vhivh diiditiguWi our n<¥-(i|>iitlon of 
tlio AmlArrmvii ftiiin tliAt <>f TiiAijinijia, nhuro a huciIat tmg«dj vu 

K\ay<si tiul duriijg tJio pronout c^^nlury. In tbo firet pUoo, tliO 
riti^li QoTomorAAnd rcfiiJcikt^ AppoAi frora (Ijc fjrt^l tv Lato Qttd 
uvury olTi^irt tii dlitam fiu* Uio t^ntivts tho moKt nArtifal aiuI cxAisIdcrato 
triTAttnoiit, AQ(1 til AlloTtftte ar inttib as por«blc tha oirilE irhioH tbaj 
Ijavu uiiiutLMitiouiJIy bwu lho meixun r>f iclliolijig oa tbcm. Second]/, 
OKiftt t-nroful tiuvTib havo bo«A |>n>A(jrv<id of i\w phjeical cbaiMtOH^ 
klio iHiciiil ci«LAtj<m«i Llio urU^ nmii(jfitotLiitT>i,lfiu1itkiUi% Ajid luo^wigo of 
tho iKHipIo hvhilij siUi in thvir prttiiitlvo cionditum. For tbfn rai 

m Ae Plf/t»y Itttcet r/Xn. 


irop^rtart ucurV, ft voric «bi^^ ii net ^oac^ woold havQ loft A bUiik 
n Ibr biflt^ry of tlio wodd irbicb c<nUd ii«vrr hftvo bccQ rcfiltcod, 
«« ftn iiMWbted ftknottl cvtinlr %o liw wdootific ctitZjuaiiui^L df duo 
in£fiJiiB], llr> Eilwvd [lonoe otfea, «ha mo«t fi>rlumtl4:Iy ImpiioDo^ 
hf 1h in A iHidtton (oa AudaUwt KujukHnlonduni of \h*s ItUjj'U, ami 
■pecUUv in ctuTRe uf tlio tifttircrt) xikJi «Dab1cd him tv> ubUiu Uio 
ft^ttbtja ukfonuwUon willi fa«i)itu:*i trhich nobobly uo onu oIm 
mud btttb Wl, m£hI vkoM ubsumttiuiia ' Ou Uitt Alxjrif^ii&l Inbftlii- 
ttfibi of ihn Ao^nmftn IaIatiiIV fjnhlUhrd hy Ui^i A mlirnjiologiod 
'attitiilo of Giviil Bnlaiu aad Iraluid, or** most valjiMo^ iiut uuly 
fmftkt iBConnAtaon Uwyoontoin, batMConcotingtbe auinorou or<i- 
Mdvs uul nritlgndntg nUtomouU olrcnliitcit rpgunliiig tlioao poQ|jl9 
bf wvvk)^ ukl 1h0 WDt]<^ii/iintiL'«t i>r ItiM j:riticii] niilhnrH. 

TliD Anh vTTitAT of th« Oinllt con(ary ['Tovlou^ly )Ll1iirlt<J to, 
>h1<M iLftt '* tlioir coiiujili:xii>a U fii^liifiil, their Lnir frizikH}, tL^ir 
domlaoAUCC vtd CT«r frightfuJ. tLcir f«t very Urgo^uid ahimn; ;« 
rttbit in IcnglL, aud LLuy f^j {|uilu jiLikul," nliilu Miirt^fi Toltr (ilittiit 
Iltt3^ MLja UuU '* l1ii4 |h<<>]i1o ftr« iil> bi^ttirr l^tiii wl1<L b^^iutH, uiul t 
yon all it^' iniiik of l^in inland nf An^j^maiuuii hivo hniuU Liko 

4ofOi^ wl tecUi and CTC« Hkotrino; in fuct. in the Cicc th<?y axo JE»t 
h'be Us onMiff daftv* Tbeon ■iiL'aiinam i^f ucdiiuvul ^uibn^poli^i^r 
tn mlni<i*t rivnl)*«l bj ll)i> tli^wiriiii^iTiH nT thtt Mtxittini* nml luuriLl 
<b«t«0|«r of Uto auDo |)oop1i> pabiipJicni nji rooontly jla iNtiU, bnatd 
•Ucdy ua inl>rnuti(ni obloincpd from one of Iho runaway M|>oy 
nmeW^and wtiich rc|)rc»ciit tli«m oa unoog ibo lowoit and uiMt 
dr^ndod of hutn^Ti fwJngK. 

Tfao i»tiv^ of thtt Andnniana arc dlviiil^Kt intL> n^DO dJ^tiuot tribOB^ 
«A isbikbiiii^^ it< own diMlj-rcL Kight of llii^ui Livti D|)on tb<» Unwi 
tij>mn InUada, and ooo ni>on tbt^ hitbortu almotit itnoT|il<iT«d 
LmIa Attdamtfi. Alibongh ouh uf tbc^EW IribcH jka-msh li dij'tiiii^t 
diitirrt, th««e areall lnM»»bI« to l)ii> HAnin K^^nrri . ami nn.i ull iu ibo 
Mm ila^ <if dt^«lo|iinMnL Tlig vbt<«rTattond that bav{) Ih>iiu mudo 
Mttirta rdato Ukoftdy tr> Iho tribv iutabttinff th^ i^outli ihknd, bitl it 
Iw ftot ftfpcftr tiiat tboro i> any crvut Tnribtidii c\i\iar in pliynicul 
cbwmcl«n or nrannvrn, oDKtoms, belu uuUiir*} hUMin^ tlit-m, 

WtCb rOjpu«1 to Ibv imjiortant Hiaractikr of «i/f\ w« bftvo inon) 
^tadant wl mom ooourajo informaliou tian of niot^t cith<[r mous, 
Kit Ufls giro« tJjc racosnri^monl* of forty oieht men and forty^no 
^^mK KHitig Ibo amnige uf tliu forujtr 4. fuut 10] inuhL^i. lliat uf 
Uektltf 4 fM 7| Enoheft, ft HEfTer^nro Uiorpfomnf .^^ ii\c\\i^ti l>otwfxin 
Iha PMMiL Tbo UMcflt Tiiivn mift 5 foot ii inchan; Uia BbcrrUiat 
llM G incbcA- TEio Ullcet >^i>mnn d fact U^ iui^Lcn; ttic Dhorto*! 
i levt 4 iuclicM. UcaauiciauoU mvlo u|hju tlio llTliig BubjV«:t urv 
«hn^ IkHa fo urrora, bnt U ii« pnH^IHrt that in m I ii-[0^ a vL^Hivn 
Ibfto wtlJ (if>ni|fcci>atii <ooh olbor^ and tluit thnnifuTo Ihci aTcragon 
"^f bo Nli#d u|xiii' Uy ovn obaoiTatEonn, bauxl npau Iho motfarw- 
of tlio Ikmuv nloQo of an ninn^ od tivi:i]ty-iiiuo Hkclciloujt, giro 
[T aTin;*!:*, tiji. 4 foot BJ iuibuB fur tliu luuii^ utnl 1 fuiit GJ 


f/fii90r PlofKf 

lArril 13 

EncAwt tor iho wcmwD ; but Uuw^ it raivt Im r«ou1la:bHV vo lal^ 
BuUtffd frcOB thfl leta^fh ctf tbo fuouu, auon k ntki wiiliTh. lboi3^ 
Mttllr Dorrcvt for Eiiropo&n«, nuj noi bold good in Uut «mo ai olhor 
nooi- Tbc bur u fine, ULd rcrj dowdj curifid ; voolljr, m it i* 
gpxM>«llj caJUd, c)r» ntbvr, frirAly, oud uUiptind lO poctkiti* w iu th« 
D«groML 71]« ciiluar of tb'.* Mkiri in TOrj lUrk, ftltlinngb laot iiIiib> 
loioly bbok. Tb« hmA U of r^nnduh fbrnobjmpbflli^) &nn, tb« 
' EsoTihttlw indox of tbo akall b«iit|{ about 83. Tb<i ocbor enuiUl 
cljorru^krH 4UC fiilij doBoibod in tbc paprm JLint rvictrcd i». Tbo 
Uwtb urc btrgL-p biiL tliu j^an um uiiljr fdigbLlr pn>gnE4lhuuH. Tba 

r ftelQiM PoMtw Httto of thd nogro tjp« ; »t «U OTcniA, UttU of tbo 
movt nuUM sDd coanor poouliftHCioa of tbAt tfpo. Tho pjojootin^ 
jftim, tbo prominoul Ihiob lipfif ibo broad uid flattAQod twmo of (b« 
gi<EilliliD no^TLj w pu HufUnuod do^ru in tbo AlulniUUiHiD ka vcvfixd^ 

ti> li« rerogiuBod, ud yot ill tbo nOittiKi i^inportioiuof tb«lifnt>-bofi«b 
eflj>Mi«lW in tbo ahortoowiof Ibo bumtiru* compftrod with ibo fon- 
ftun, B&d in tbo form of Uio polvifl, Dcf;;r<> oAuilic* &ro mott strra^j 

la unmaking of tbo cuttore uf ibf> AudAmantnv, i>r oonnw T onl/ 

Mfer to tlieir <»oditbij b^foro iLo intn>i]tkct!<^n r^f Kuri>tiuii ciritiii»- 

ItiOQ into tho i^Uiiila, Thc<j liro tCL «malt villojc^ or onouopaunlih 

in dwoJlinga of limplo and rudo coantmctimi. boilt on!/ ofbtvaobM 

uid Wtob of lr[?L<i, Tbb)- uru uuLiniy i^^uirruit of ugHDmltttrB, nod 

Itoop no boiillry ur cbiuiobtio itrifiriHlA. Tliitj mftka rnda piiU of cbj, 

eua-drioJi <<r jtBrfinlly Ijivkod in lU^j Uro, but Ibda* tfe bftad-uitdo^ u 

tbcj nro ignunuit vf tha hho of the pollers vboc]. Thoir eb^tbing m 

of tlic BouitLoct ilcHcriptitm, &iid witat littlu Uitiy buTo iwrTfa cbicflj 

I tvt decomlive nr Liniiimeiiui! piiqH»MMt, «ud not for kH<[iitfg tbc bndy 

! nrftnn, Thriy nifibo ii'> utc of lb*? ^kiuscf umaiftl^. TJi'y bnvd lurlj 

I Yoltn^o lEu^-oiit ukuoce and outri^^rs, but fit (>uly for nari^liDg 

I fho nnmerouB cii^ks oud etrai^ botnccn tbo i^laudu, uid n^t for 

Tuya^^K ill tbo tipen ae^. Tbey oro u|Pvrt sffiuiHH-'tji und divrt*. 

Tb'iT[^b cormUTitlj' rdug tire, Ib^^ aro quiin ig^ior«nl of Ibe art of 

fl^HUciJ]^ it, and hnve Co cnipoDd luucb cato uid labour ia lomtiog i^ 

a (xiiiHtuit Hupply of bitTD-iELg or Bmonliloriog wood. Tb«j ftro l^nonul 

vf ftU mibiTii; but for douic«tic parpuseA oioko gmt iino of «b«lb, 

MjieoiiLlly ih Hi>*.HM(«i uf (^/ntri'- rnuurl HbrimliLEtLy on iho tharo* «f llrfl 

lelaDLts, aUo qnnrlz cbipi4 ilqi) ItikE::?, uiil bAinbi>t> knivM. Tbt^ hsn 

itono oayil^ nod banunors* nod tboy iqiUeo good etnuK from vvgettbtfl 

fibroe, ae wtl) oe bofkote, fiabiDg nete, keeping iiuitA. Ac- 'Hiutr 

priucipal wijapouh an? Lhu bo^f and urrow. In tba ufw uf wbioh thoyftr« 

ViMj kkilful Tbey buTo biLrp»nj4 fnr billing turtle ACid fUb. but 

kind of eJiield or btooatplato for defoocs vvhcju ligbti^g* ThoiuA 

* I4i-D *-Od llu^ OMflolngy and AIGnttleB nf llif* Kjitirwi oT the AaJ&uMii 
Ifelanpla" V'T'^i'ii'i' Ai>tfirnpitlng.oi] TiiAtiCtitis' Titl ii p. 103^ l*T^*)'. ftnil " Aiill- 
lloT\a\ llliHrviLLiimB oi] ibv OntaJo^yof iLo N&tlvu of Uiu AnduiiUi l^kikb* 

(ibul, luL Xiv. |L ^:^ 1^1). 


011 iit* Pftyf^f ifcwM o/ Mfm. 


<f fbad rII Ike jimr nMa^UM |jiirv«9itu( ctf vliidi nfTcirilH tiocvpution 
mi iMiwrimiint iior tbo fcmtor pott or tL« nudo fjn|i(]lnti'>iT. Ttin 

|BMlatimB,dagciDg- HiilorcMioiuillr ij<>qiv>]K> Ef^&UAA. tiiilUn. lurilM»' 
«nk IDMV.J kiiHS of fifth, jirsuiiH, iLi4il]i]hk«^ litn-* uf Icirgir WLKid-boriDg 

«bA Mvdift. 1m food lA iDTDhkMj oooJcod Uforo oftling, 4ii(l i^cneiniljr 
ttW vtivti ntraodx Ik-L Thciy irorc igm^aiit <if nil «liuialuita i^r 
tolitalhlg flrinks — in ttuA. umIit ihu llif^Sr wily hcverm^D ; &di( 
Mmso, or 4MJ oabctltDlo for it, wu quito imknowxi till iBtrvdnood hy 

i» vUti nil ctbct hnaum Uio^cn cxiiting at prrev^tl m iLv wutlil, 
Wwtfcr li>« is Ui« Kttlo of oirUiHUiiju, Uic sdcijlI lifci uf tlm AiicliLiria- 
tam it «o«ielo^*d iti » oifirpl«« nuAo of mmritE^Ti law ur cu^ti-EUf tlio 
«lo(*caoi of ^hujh vo tucid dtfK<Tull fi>r' luiy *flraij^-i-r to imnvd. 
TWrtliiioui tboy xnftj or ninj not niftrry. thr f^xl iL^j nti: ttbligcd 
«lDrbwli1«u to i^vrioko 4if Rt pftjtknaW cjioclt* trf life in M^iuufiiH i^f llm 
;^ Aft vnrdH nti4t3»ui«A Um/uv ur iimj nut |imtioinicn ; »ll lU«a, 
liv«Bis tbttir tnditiowi, 0i3|>OT<titir>|]M. ftii^ U^tivrn, thdr- <j4-(;t]pnticiiB«, 
^■M^«id«Wi80Di^t|i,^ ithicfa thcry Mxm ti^ ImTohrLdiiuliLclE, vrouM 
^ fitf loo lonf to dcftcrifco httn ; but before ioftTiBic tbuw uituroBiiog 
pDflt^In^FqucilftAn t^jftnrtuUub uT Mr. lUny whiah, nnlnm 1ii>1iiw 
—I lliftrn wilfc Uo *yai!rtiT-/h^re*i oyosigbt, tfarowv n very faTour»Ul<t 
b|ht itpott tau |TtT»]tivti nDMOptiiatko»(od JiTe of t|]c?<K] poor Httio 
MMfe^ BOW fto rsUtUwJ J broluoi i&io uid (k^troyod b/ lb* uxigouclfi* 
tf mr tvcr-cxtcoidLUg vuijiitxi. 

"h hfttt brc«i RMirrtivl.^ Hn VaU wiyit. " tlint tfia ' iSommiiTml 
turrwflo ' ^nt^'in ['TiivajIii uaong th«Dn,aiid t)mt ' iiinmuga m nothinj* 
MffB QiiB tftkin^ A fttnula aJato*; bnt, <M> 6tr ftvm the conuni:! 
Vd<HfTgprW M m merely tomponuj nrrftaifcmunt, Ur Uu »L uido ut 
At will of lulliirr lATijr, tm iiiuuiuintibililj^ nf l^^iijNir itr €ithvr oiuu 
b ilb>«"ftd to iti4olT« th# iiTifiiM ; ftrvl wlillr bi^imiy, it^lyf^iiiim 
piljliidry, ODil liiTorco ftcn uDlnkmrn, oi:>i}i[i;^L| !i>l(4ity Ull Utuib it 
■It dw ftviciitioa bat Ibo rmK^nd luntiimoniiil ilill»ruui.vjji, whiclit 
ho— wr, ocvor but rmrdy, fttu cikuly MtUcd viitb (»r ^vitlnjivl tbv I'u- 
lawilkiB of frieniU." lu CmU ^Ir- ^fiu gmv on to nay, '^Ono of 
Oi maai ^trtkiii^ tmiun* of their eociiiL roUli^nM is tho marked 
•|li&^ muA tfuction vhicJi ■nbiiiitA l)ctw«tL 1^iu»Uuil and wife," utd 
"Iki <DMdik!ntLon and roaroat with irbicb hoieidh iuv trtiiilrd iiiigbt 
«di HlvKiilBgQ be fliiaulaU-J by t^i^rluii dnuH in our rtmt bin)/' 

tt ibonld ■In'^ b* lufliitkmciil thAt Ofiiii»b^«m and iufiuiticittd, two 
«4 CQUunon uscidnata of ura|(o Iif<>t worv uo-rcr practitud ^y tbvm. 
Wo mwl nvir pa» to tbo itDportaul fioicnti&o qiiofllium, Wbo tkco 
lU lEitJvM <if tlie Audflmun Ulaoidjt* ncul wl^crc, among l.liti utliiT 
rvr« iif tbo bimioii W|im'ii% »1ia)1 u<i hnAi for tJu-ir i]car<»t nIatlonH f 
It u dou iii»iJily to tbo oiWidaoDfl roftuni-cbv* jdIo all Iho docu- 
■ttuUfy tfiilcncv ivlHttniE to the iniiabituiilfl of Suntljcni Adip uwX 


Pf^fimar Ftawir 

; ^1^113, 

'OoB^:^}&^Mt uk vome ooMia willi tko nwiiiaTiCO cl liia coJkamo^ 
illL BuD^i thftA llio IWi* T am Mbjat li> pit bfrTgrD J<ai ham boca 
^promiiuuitlj bronglit to ligbi, uid th«if nigitifiet&oci JcmfiMtrBCfil^ 

It ia votl knoirs Uiai tbo gr^Uai- jiart of th« Urgo i*liui'] cf ll<r« 
GniaoiW odiL ot tlie oboia of uUnda •xtoDdine cwitvraniH blH Hootb^ 
, wnnlH frtnu Ut iudiidinif tbc SoIomuD UullIa, Ih^t Kw Ifetiriilvit 
aiid Nrw Calidnnia, aiij qImi thn Fijui, am Rtill iii^mliiUi) iMLUjIjr hf 
pcoplo of dark ooIodt, friiilj buir. mid nmny tli&nivl'.<riiilica alljing 
tbcm to tbc n^flro»a of Africa. Tbtsu Uj^^etilutu tho ntoo to wttkb 
ibo tonn Mel«W»iui b ooauDooly applM in ihi« txiuulrj, or Ootmjc 
'negroaa, llio" raiH>UM"«if QtutixirAgfa. Tlmtr itnihat t^i^ tlAowu 
Biom oxtimflivr^ thivn it it miw. aird hiut fic«n ^'ri<atlf niM-nMiihcd DfDn 
by tbo bmnu. straight- bairol Poljuotfiitn ncu with Halav aftoitiiv, 
tioiv iiilinljitinjj; manj of Uic more )cipL>rlaitt inUivli uf Itio fWnfiOi 
luuj thu iiiLU;j;lii;jj; ^jt nbiuh trjtb (lio luuru ibuniciiiul M^'lauwiaaa hi 
VArlnnn j-inijviitifiiin hu bnin a oinm, amndg ntlmn^ of tliA dirimn 
MpocI of tbc popalution o« man/ of tbo iaUntU in tbu otteDdTa 
Tci^on. 7b«o npoiMit«r Mobuioeiuia» bowcvort cliS:r grcatW ttom 
Ibo Auil&inauMO iu luanj eualj d<diii«d cLanclors, vbich »r^ 
«*ipuciallj', Ibiiir bki^ra^T Mtaturo, lb«ir Imijj;, ruLrraw. »^d bigb dcollit 
and ibiiir coarsAr aiul mor« nogro-likfi f^tiir«ii. Alt>inT]/b nciiloabu 
oiIIt nUicd, vro otuiaot bak to thom oa tlo noiLnict icUliciu of our 
littJc A&ilomaiiGJtD. 

WbbU %\iv Sjiikuinnli vijiiitaottooil lliu ooKiuifiatluii of tbo Pbili^ 
pTn<iA^ ttifiy TUPt w^iUu In (lie tnnaTttnttiouii fi^oa in tbn IntdiHor nflfo 
J^und cf LusEon, t>cjiiMuE tbo prdvoiliiui uaiiva pajjulation, coQfiMiug 
of T>^;aU<jf Miil&f oripii. wry arjoull ptioplo, cf bLick c<;>iDpkxioii,. 
witb Lli» frijfiely Lair «i tlif; Airioau iitigmB. Bo etruck wtitQ Ibej 
with thr^ ri:«uiubUiiiw, tb»i tlury lulLf'il tTifiin "Ntt^ilua ttol Umbo 

Ilitilc Nogrooaof tho mountnin I- Thdr IocjO namo wva Atfft«a,tf 
u&gtaH, eatd to Di^mfjr " bUKik," and from vhicb tbo word AbU, 
jQonotally novr applied to tLiiii), ia doriTpf^ Thoao p«Op]« liavo btfolj 
UBaa •tudjoil by Iwu Fniia^h Uitvulltic* H. Murvb? Htitl Dr Hubbuio; 
■VA reanll of Uinir niamitcmnatE ^iv»ti 4 ft^id i4} Iiicbvs oa tba 
arorai^o lioij^ht of tbo iude. aud 4 foct GJ irtt^fica tbo nvora^ for Ibo 
ivoLorn. Iti many of thuir muml cliarootcruucn tbof reaomUo Ibo 
Auduuuutw!. Th^ Afltufi ATo faithfu] l^ thciir miuriaso rowa, anl 
bava but ono wifn. Thn BiTr^iitin of [mrent^ for rbibirerr f« vmj 
■Lroagf and tl^ci lattoT tmro for t^wir fnthor and aicitbfir mneb Urt« 
and roapoot- Tbo miLrriit^v c^romo^i^, nccardiui; to H. Montour, w 
wry roiuuFkullu- Tlio nlliancf^l ^ir climh two dcxiblc trcoa pUccd 
iiiskr Ui 4.uuh i>t>fi^r. Ono of tbc ol'Ure nf lb? tribv lxTrji]» thiun Inwda 
OLob othor. Whon tbcnr briiL4)ii Ladl^Ii, th« marru^ is Ugollj ao* 
oampliflhod. A gnat f^ta, nith rouob donomg, oonolnrloa lb« 

It viaa aflui-wkriU fuuiiJ tbitL tbu huuw rut'u oxiKtctl lu o4]]«r |arU 
of tbo uri^bipolago, TAnaj, MCndaiiMi, Ac, fuid ibat l]i«y ontirdf 


«■ Ao Pt/^jf Hare* ofMtn. 


lowliiUo IflLuidif— oniofig oLiiara, Hoogaa laboidt or ''lain 

As ih9 UUndb of tbcfifr cMtcrn kbk \mx4t hceomr. Ikcttor Vno^fit, 
fartkot dlMtfrones of Uio txiitcuot uf a ms^W Nt^^iut ]>u|iiiliiticu hnva 
fan lOftd* Kn F«n&o«ki ia Ibc iatoricT uf iidmui, Sikj^Llnuvd JaUnit 
(SuhIb), XvUa, Boiuvtt. Ooiwn, I-^uj^n ^uk^i. Limilkm, rauliLT. 

lBGW«#tfi«in cxoc|>t K<iDo ili.tultTuI ori fl»-broodB, Hid buiuu rcuaiun uf 
la hiT^Ti^Tj vhirli itppuafB uut to Latu pociavd bor^d ihu A^ i^f 8ti.<iici. 
The SuiiiIa lakiida fono ik^ soullioru liintLof IIh.i Niigr]b> nriKd; 
Tvrwcm, ibo tut lo l}:<t ncotb, whoro tha raoo Iihh |irriifTv<^ nil itn 
d»i«c(<ir«. Bat bcfond ihiM^ u i& Loo Clioo> and oven in tho aottth- 
tmi partMTD of Jap«li> it rcvooln iia fomii^r u^uU^tico hy tbu buoca it 

tfr frktK thv iM^nl&lJmi of Non OiilnrA U iinqumlinTrnMnv Ii^ many 
wW cf tbftt grtfti iiOatid, hju»11 round Jiondod tribcn livo mote or Icea 
U^l from tl^o lufgor uid longor icodod ]Mwplo uho maUo op llu 
balk ni Ujo |H>puUlji)&. 

But it » iM»t omlj tn tho i^lttiKift tfiat ilie Ni^fH'Elo roco dwdl. 
l^VMf of tbera Br« foaTid alwo on llwi nuiiTilninl of Afiia, hut 
ttaywb«ro under Oto buqo Cdtidjliaiw ; ut »catt<jrcd tribofi, oecnpyinj^ 
li* toonr inftCGoxiblc tac^ulaiDuttb rogicnB of countrifn ctLint^iiio 
MtaJjr iidmliiiod bj utbcr loi^stt. and ^uoriitlj iti n f^unilitioii inuru cir 
l<Mof degiadftlioii a&l bArl>firitjn, rrfintllrg frim Iht' f>ji|iti-AHii.iri uUb 
vUik tfcoj hsT* bwn tnat^i Ly ilitsir iuvitdiu^ &>r]^^u<in<m ; tAUiti 
IliOTUr, K> ranch mixed tliat tticir oripiuol cliarciGlcrh oro tcarccly 
fBODpib&liJc. *rhc StmAUpi uf Ujc inluritir cif MiJiiLx^ii in iJi*.' Thlttlity 
pnlBmlN, the SkkJtyk frtiiii Pcmti, t)iu Muyt^ uf Ailhauj.uII h^l>^v tmcui 
olllceHtcB b1<MHl. In India mo]wr, Ahjifmlly hmoLg tl]« lowest uid 
intl crviii«od thbp«, ni>t aaij of tbc uoitrcd ftnd aooLhftra diAlriub. 
Wl ftlsutt to tbo foot of tlic U muOny lu. in tho Futijftb. uid tjvvu to 
AovcBtB^pnf tbalbdua. uccuidiugluQitulrcfut^u^fH^xly lutir, iiiT^^m 
faalarai. Biid b»&1I ftatnrE^, iLri> mi coirtrrxiii thnt u Mln^u^ iLi-^mticiit am 
It bMad Ml Uiom for Uic boliiff in a Nognto tuoii funriLii^ iiiu bn^ts r^f 
ikt whole |ir€>ArffrQ. or DmTtiiou 00 it ia ^ditL^rAlly CJil1ol,jM>pnliLliu[i 

•J tb» pODllUlullW TllD ClOMlllg llut IaA liken ]lllilM] with OtIllT tlU.'t'H 

fai doohtlivs grvfttlj bltt^rvd lh« phynJuLl rhumi'U'rH of Ihii; ]>i>op1o, 
ttd lb«CTuJ#»uMor tlda klt^inilton iuiuiil\Att|]rtTiMti|v4'»-iii luHii^ wnya { 
K»otinM« tbo cnrltfiow of tho tatr i^ Iniit by %]» niluijiilnro viih 
vtew^tolwire^ nxcvairbitu the bU^k ccjiufiluijoii nnd i>jjje4I htiituru 
>iaun; vmnetunftt tli« »tttluru U iikiiuimxL but Ibr mlfnir^ nlilcb 
iNM« to b« <jno &r thfl nioRt praiit^mt of cbankott^ri8tic4. rtninina- 

I'he localities iu AhuhlhoNogritopooplftiLrQfonnd tn tHuir^ntut 
paiilr, cillicT in nlmcwt inftoccBablo i«l&Dds« a» on tbc AmUuiuuB. ur 
tlMbctv ia the iiujiuitaiuouii niagus of Ukt iiit^M-br uiilj ; ftU'L Llii.-ir 
Mfiil RTiiditJon and tn^litLoun, uJiori^v^]' ih&j tiTi^t — atl jxiint to tbo 
iM Ifcat Uwjr vote tbo v&rliost iuhsbtlmitA ; nnd tbftt lb^* Uucgoliui 



[April 18, 

Umi lUi^ ftem on the mhI, anil li>c Ary^m on Uio veal, alitch at^ ■ 

kov HO T«|iUl/«i1aniuiMiin^ Aiiil nplnciTitf iWm.&rc' Ul^rumnarslnuV 
Ui* UnJ, UDKiUj •«, in Uio grvAltrr pirt of the i'Hifii? UoMa, terntorf ' 
NbnMrly oocuptod by Iho aborii^iiuU tturlc, fncAljr-hurod X«^j<M 
UoluMMufis liui hc«n icradanllr aiui nl^^ily juv»lol by Ibc brvwa 
Polynvwii^ irbo in tLc^r tufs, bm by « iiiutJi mum rvjicd pmciidw^ aio 
Ivjring rvptnM>1 by GaropMfi*. M 

Yfit now »«• tthaZoanitUnloathe mkt iaCorest of tbo AuilAmoactt V 
lutiToa toibontndoalof Uwotlinutoidc^LbisUrrrof llio Eosletra world. 
Tlh^r loog iiKilfttian ba« Oiade Lbuiu b nrmarltAlily Ji]f[m>^ir(R'«ii]K fsoi, 
ntftinping Uumti all with & crummim rc«mib1ftneo not wen tn tlxi kcund 
nhuua gMiamUy met \TilIi ;u <vntiiiMitiLl arutui. Fur aitbon^b, *m vith 
VDiwI )MTafi!i«. niorri*^!* witbin Ibo fWniily (vaiug tho toTTCL tn a ytrj 
■ icic H11110O] nrt) ni^Ht ftbnoiJy fjrbiildoii, nil audi allifturcA hati> 
uixvujiHly brcn cc^nlinril Ui ruilirfii of tbn iicltLn-lH. Thny fim ilid 
loftM inudifit?(1 iirbrt«.'i]titiv(!« of tbo pouplo ivho vorvii to 6if u «r« 
know, tbo prinutLVti iubabitAi^ln ci' a li^gu pt>rtfu& vf ihtt Mrtb'i 
iBUrJkco, bal wljo nn now ror^iiig <rn oitiuctJoiL II Hi bovf^m. Ooi 
nOCHHUry U.I f^iipiHiMM tliAl flid AriilAiiia^j Ikbttultir* gii* um tll« SUCi 
^duuuotom an4 foituriK nf all ttu* otbcr brAiicUt-A nf tbc rmr. Dilfbrenccv 
in doteil donbClovs oxi«toi1 — di&rcsnouit nluob a^ uXmptt tlv^yn atm 
to ur'ito whoncror nooe bucotav ifulat^l from «ftob olbor Cor Wg 
pLiritrilti ijf Lima 

In mftny najm iha rbamctnm nf llii> Jtumrtit ftibabiUnU of n luul 
ban bAon niroolcd t> nn by ibc j]i>.^^>iTiidon of ibutr ^rtunl rovairtft. 
Unfortnnati^ly vi^bftTuni yijt no <iioii ovidmifle ti> toll luof tliofonnor 
ciiEiilition fiT ujait m Suutbern AuJk W« mAy. bonovor, luob «poD tb« 
Aii<laTm<iii.'riiLi, llii« A>.'lHh, ftiiil tbo HiinAiig^ hu livioK T'^^ilii; uiil If 
tbi.-ir 111'] ix'iijk^'tiaro th^ ooiidition of tha wboln piipubiimn of tbo buul 
in niicicmt times. It ia poniblc, n\o>\ to folUw (juiLlrt^^ ftnd to 
im:o ill tliom Iho oHpin of tlic tsli>ricH of tLu OrioiitiJ pygiuiffl rdftUii 
by CUaiiaH aiiil by Pliuy. 

Wo riiiw ji^H ui thfi iv^ntiiinnt of AfHm. m tbo Jnlcriar (if wbiob 
iLv pyguiiit of Hoiiior, Ilciodotui, «ud Atiitutlo b&ro ge-ucrally b««ii 
pWi^U. Afric^uiw i' 1*^11 knifiiii.rfl Uiu Ijotau of anotbcr grc^ bn&dL 
i^r tbo Ujtuk, Irufly-bniml. *jx ELUiopmtt diri^KJij (ff Ibo Ltuaui 
ij"r*'icK, vhtcb 4ui>K, (jr iliil till IflbJy, MrJi|»y lite 4<r(ub>Tii two-tbinU 
oniiii grtiRt <iDDtiii«iLt, Iho iLurl^Ji^rit ihird Itcin^ iTtba1jit«iil by Hivmiti^ 
»rjil Siimito brftuohc* of tho grwil vihito or CaUtimiiUL |>rirniiry cliTifioQ 
uf tbv biinma »poC]o», of by mcM.^ nvultiiig fri^tii Ibc uiiiliirc of tb u e 
^vith tbu NugrotB. But bLwiiLiA Ihu triiii Nu^^rii, ilivvK^ ]■«» lung beeu 
lEndwn to (TitHl tn tl:n HriiTEbnrd ptrt iif titfi rnrLtiniTiii n (mriaimly Uiniti- 
tiicl typL<, i> WKlinft uf tfjc^ Hi *t ten tola, Aud iho BiuliDen — Bi^«^ob»c«i 
(lucu of ibo wcijiln) of tbo Uotib colon iBtft—tbc l\siUt of h^uia, toi 
uGvuuut of tbvir sEimll mjw* toiuci withiu Lbo botjix- >if iUa yrttfcuX sub- 
jwt. T'lifiy loiul thu livL-K of tho mt>si tV^uM of havogcn, Jntdliiig 
HETioiig llio roulty ai>d morn tnrLfOcaiLblo tuountiiuui ^>f Uia intcHur, 
uLubiii^ bubibklioud of tLi luUand caToa, itobiuatini: oaUruly by ihv 


o« fU J^f Sach e/ Mea, 


PttiBMa lUiil i.>utofti>t4 bf iLo hUrmuikdiiig And mar* citlUittl trAw^ 
thoBflcwkii imtl Itordk they tXtaxi li|tl« r^wpirt for vhon othnr fpuna 

«( Wwn, mj* iii&ny flf«oiDBeii« tnto buen brougit fto iCuropo Aim for 
bfortH^o of i.TxLil>ilicA. ThoWr ittitMra tliotitremoof llio trizzlj 
lf|i; Uft74n|!^ Ktukrt^r an^ )m ahimil&nt tlinn lliftt of ihA ordmarj 
l^o, Ubiu tbo D|'pp«niJ}co of gFUwing in upnrmto Irifu. uvbich ci4l 
^(MttfMT in%<i r4<iiTt4| balU OompftTMl tu " [^pjic^rooriiF^ ' 'I'ha vt-ihtv 
■muiioa dilTvra froa) dinl of U19 Nvgn^ tm*}. a>iubtni:(l mtli iLo 

«tfc dimk-lMiii>«» ukd foim of tho ojesi «c> much nx^tls tlmEnf (.(.rUiu 
tf lU p«m> yollfiw rocctt thAt Momo ftothr^pfjAfrifdit nm incliTiod 10 
lft» tvikD M^^nf^olian sfinitus md ihdnuitnro. [Jiliouf^U the citroiDd 
crufMvi of tho hftir omIica audi • Bupposiliua iklmori impoBiiblc. 
TbvidUft itf tLc clfvuk-bvuuft liud llitr iiArfuituciH vf tbt? furtlKtti] aud 
iW data f^iiw ft Intcn^^ib^liajkn tn iho frtint Tifrir nf Ibo fmv^ Tbi> 
hfttuaJ in iiromioont uid Etrvght ; tlw 1100a citrcinoly flat Aud 
toiti, ttUtfc tto tbiui m uiyctbar moo, utd tho lipff ]Lrciam<jnt <md 
llbck, fthfactugb iLo jftwA arc Idu finJ^uiitbouii tlinu iu Ibu trtiu Ncgn» 
nv& Tlia omijiini bu iiuuiy Ki»e<.-ift1 c)iJxrBck<rK hy ve\Mt it tmh bo 
mBf 4i«tiligVlbiiod fron thnt of unj <'tbcT. I; ha^ gnnoiuUy a Tery 
fciiain. ftlm4r«t infkutUOj aii|K>Aruiois though sbo caporily of tbo 
aukl CttTJlj id &0I tLc HmAJiart, exoMdin^ ihnt of ibo AitcUniDnciw. 
Ift 90Dcnl Cuxiu Ibu cmituin id indivr uUviig Ujilii uvid, baTJiig 
flight hMiM. A ITaI tip, dJid 44|kfsrlnl]j a pfirtfnii fi^r^ltond, wliiiih 
Ml vtrmi||kt frocu tbo v^iot (jf ili« u^jbo. It is nicdoratoly doti- 
cbaecfliiho or nthcr taoaati cephalic, the iironi(Co iiidoi of Ion 
ydnt m i being 76'!. Tbv bcigbt in iu aII oouBiiIutKUy Ic^iutlitin 
■ainulili, the AT«ngv iu'ltri U<iiig Tl'K Tbi.^ ^IkIkiUu juid iiifm- 
«lvit] tid^Mon- littJad*Telnprd» jTKvm in iha c»ld<iiit mnlcis. T)ii> 
Mikt boCKiA project maob forwardHr and iho apflCA between the ('rbit^i 
liTCij vido MM flat. Tbc nunl bonoH arc tibrt^iuoLj^ umAlt oiid 
4iynMad,AUil iLu agierliirti utdu ; (hi?uvcni^b ujidol iuiIuk buiug ftJ'^ 

^^ilb tfi^jard to ihii nutarot no baro not yot pufiloii^nt mAtortAti 
hr ipTtn^ ft rcliabln ftrcmgc- (jtiatrcd^co* foUowinff IWroir, /lvo« 
ifcd Q ui<bva fjr tbo 1110a, and 4 Ant for Lbo ncmtiii, nud tipv^lu of 
dto indMiluid uf Ibo lAtlBr Hex, nbo maa tbu iiinLltiTr r>f wvt^ml 
cWiM* mfAAUxing only S foot 9 incbo* in hfdgbt , but l^tct olAorvA^ 
>K«i (rtiU, boToTOT, uiffcSioiimt in niimbor) ^to a rather lArgor 
•Mu«; tlicu ^tdavd p^AOoa tho ATongo At I '404 tnntro, or 4 f^u^t 
T|iiicWa; iiid FHUuh, vliu ruouui^ aix mtilc Bii«Jjtiiuii iu 3iiiitb 
IMa^ I'oeiDid thnir moan hHght 1a bfi 1 -444 iriiirc\ or nmrly 4 fnnt 
ttMb«w It LB prulntla t2mt, t^ing thom dl to^tbor, tliQ^ dJffur 
bit bttlo in aivc Crom tbc Andumciiiiceio, olUiuogb lu mlour, m form 
t'bBMl.iD tetnrMwaod in Ibe proirortiuue of Hie bwly, tL«^ apa 
■Ud^ mnovMl fnrni tlwim, 

Ite* in «T«7 rv«wofk to b-ilioro tlinl tba«o BaAbinou rcpropcut tliA 


Prcfimitr flomr 


QArikal nco of whAok «^ liaTc^ or m oror Ukclr to haro, anj Iehoit- 
lod^a, vlikb ioh^liiloJ the Boctiwrn Kvti«o ui Uio Attla^a ooaLioeL^ 
bat tLtl toD^ bafoM th* airo^ of Eiirop«ftnft i^coi the annfu tiuj 
faftd tMvn Inndad fram Aa norih by N*gM tribM, wbo, b«i»g ■Qpvj«r 
ia »o, vtroQ^^h, and cririlvBtioD. bud takon finrnnmriiiTi of l£o grMlsr 
pvt of their tcrntoncc, uid mmcliag free]; with the ftbori][iBn«* W 
producBil lliu luuul racv c«ll«il QuttoulaU^ who rebuond iVtr c-nltam 
Mid MtiM nutonJ h&liite of i}i« N«gmi^ vlUi tamy ftf ihc i^hjddJ 
tatUTM at uw BiuhiMti. TboBo, in tboif tarn, «noK«ich«4 upoii bj Uio 
|tiii'&-fand B«J3tn N^jefma frovn Ihc nortb, and by tlio Dotdi nJ 
SD|^i«li frank tlie auiitb. ara r^uv (^rcntly iliii^inixbtil. hmI luilr^ 
ibmkuoil wfth till.' «UTir fut^.'t iLat Aill »iin<l^ mthiu V<fnl1 ihc «=ftn^ 
raDQAiii«f tbdMrlylnhftbltftOlit wboitiU nt&in Ibeir pTi>iutif«M|H 

At pFMdiit tho bftbitftt of tbo BucbuKin rtea U oonfiuod to cutH 
duitricU in the A>iith'-ir»t of ArHcn« frr^iu tlm oo»£nc« of iLc G^p* 
(*uluajr qa fjir nurtli uh tlii; nliurui of Lnkc NgutTii. Further to tha 
noHfa the gr«»t oqaot^rlfll v^on nf Attack U oot^npiod by Tnrioiu 
Nogro tribno^ nsintf tke inrm in tu broftdovt Ronso, but bblon^ui^ to 
tbc JitUmim vbioD, <m ncixiuut of pccutiuitico of Ua^1Vl9^ hoTO bM 
groopcd tcigctlicr oc I^uIli. 'I'hcj nil [)r«riit tbo c<iinnioii pbjiricil 

ftp^UDy nfinticiii«(l ]i(»ro — mt^tum or Ioi<iz« stature, uiJ doliebO' 
ccg>1jA}r0 flkall [aviink-ito cruual iii(l«i about TZ't). 

U tH nt TikdoTiH Acattcrcd pl4C4tf in tbc luidAt of tbofio^ tbot t1»e 
only iitbfj itonll iMiojik uf wliiub I ijiiill bnvo to ipoAk, thn vmilnblo 
pygmiM itf HiriKir, Horixlotus. mm! Aristutle, ucunllog to Qiutro- 
h^a^ nro dtilE to bo nxl witU.* 

TIlc fixvt ni>t]oo of tlio oconmtioo fjf tboiio in moibira liuMoIaooo- 
t»mi^ ill ' TliL' Mrango ndrenturiA li Audnnr B4ttell at I^j^h In 
Ymex^ Btuift by the I'ortng&la iiriftCTitr v> Angult^ wIid liTed lh1^^n. ud 
fcn ^oo4jolQtDar«ffloD«iLO»otghto»Q yoors" (IGHH to IGOT), pub- 
Uobod in'PurchiuiTLid PiI^didhVIG^^), lib. vit.filiAp. iii>p, (^83:— 

*'To tbo ni)rtb-cA*t of Nitni'Lct«k^ *ro a kind of littlo jkxiiiIo, 
cullod JWfifi'mfcfUi ; n-liiuli nrvnti bigger tli^ii Kdv<* of twdm yiftrm 
otil, btil vory thi(ik«, Kni\ Iito only unun ili^xh, whivb they kill ia tbe 
vi>^8 witb ihvir b-'Wi- (lail darta. Thiiy finy tribnEn Iri Mani'Kf^ttkt 
ond bring nil tlicir Ekipliont'i* U-cih arid tuyloji to him, Thoy viU 
Dot ootur iDtu uiy of Ibe itfcjramZr{f*ir hmir*uA. wt will AiifTcr *nyln 
como wbtM tboy nV«U. Atul if J»y i-lrHTiOi any 7lf'»r'»mirt or pfttplo 
uf L<m*jt> poflR nh«r« thoy dcv<^1L tht>y will foninka thai phuio bad go 
til oiiiidirr. The women carry Llo^s ixnd Arrowd na v<!ll il« tlio luoDi 
And tjnc of tbcvc vdll witlk iu tbo woods aIdcio ond kill Uic I^mfos 
wiib tbcir jioyMnod ArruWA." 

" Tbp Mtttoiwd ialbrniatJmL ii]>t>ii i1ii« tuhjMi «m flrrt ooHn'tol k^W 
bjr lUmf iu hi**'RMd dv iNw^r<)mji.tjnii ili^ SAKtAnfLDi r^mirkont Twucillli «ur 
I'(<t1iiintngii> dM NMhll'idi oil l^^iTii^n i\ti rAfnijno ^uattfiAlo." 'j^U S^ 
tfrAnUirc^offio da rarii,' lomo IS- (wf- iiiX 1879. p 79, 

CM Jie ^yy«V Aii^ff a/ Xfn^ 


Will'A n^Fr^ir4)L, it nhgLiri bo aaij, i« gtoMmltj admitted m 
WqigMldrof rvnkcity *l»uC it natalAM;ra oouplenoas in tlio Htoricn 
rft ml k r ft of Ikiit tiiDou Itiodtlilios tn llMinbHorv»Uoiif4 iitH]i<i liuiiiiui 
hMiairta, U ontitAlitf 6Xi»11eiitdii*crf|itionKnf nnfmnln, nRlhopiirkfivt 
m pnlk, and tbe »rbr«, now w«U known, but in ha dnj nuw Ut 

Dmct. ui « WDik oftUed 'D«cripbiuu ila la Baiavi ELhiipW 
pihiUM In \TnHtotd&m in lfl86,BpRMkcoranuw ArdnrjhrTiiifiilihliTthg 
iWbviv rvAoiia, vrhicb bo Cftlll Jfi mo* or iJaft^Baiitd, but nUbiii^' 
lirthtf «tt«l»cafdof tjM90poopL«iiutilquie<»ri>«]itttitiic£i. A<:(:riiuhti 
■iniliBr ez|iodiliciin to J^Mac}j, IIlo roiiula vt tvlucli \rvTc itMinhed iu 
At 'ZcilMuifl fUr FUtwilijgiv^' 1874, uul in HnTlniJiTiri'ii work, ' Diu 
WyidM." obt&innl. nl Gbinohojn^ phr^toj^mpha iini^l <l<dcripti<iiis of 
• ivitftoib* Ollod "Bftbonkofl," wlio«c Ltindi vuro proporticiLulJy 
luMo*^ of roandi»U furm (ou|>lu1ix tiidcx of aIiuU, 7ti to 81), Ono 
irtfidMl, BvppuHeil to bv ftUoul futty jnrt uf u^r-, mciufuml 1 'S^^ 
Matnfl. r»thpr ikuIm- 4 fri>t ^ InrJinK. 

Ur, TcnrljiuJ, is n " Notbo imr 1o Oiilicn]," nnliUAhrtLt in ttio 
*BtV«« Ukritimo ct CkiknikU' fcr ISCl, dcBcHbc« ma ro(^on( d^^rttriic- 
i^ of A ^piilatioci caJdibliiJifd in t1i9 intorW i>f thin Dguatry. and 

■uHiiid Vj tfco M'PonAu in tbnir ctipiinnioik li^iwanU t]ii> wett. Somu 
«f tkm, Ikov^Tt^r, rciiMUfic4aiiftlav<BU tUri tlmoof tli'^ vimt of Admiral 
FlMriol do I^&glCi iibo iu iS'j^i photograpliod one (oi^LLiuiijitj ubout 
I fa4 ft iofbiai mgU) ftud bri^itglit humo Mrjiub idttiUa. vth'mh vtcta nt^ 
by Hamji tftd all i*roTwl Topy omflit and siilvbrftrhyoujihulic, 
ApHHt tribos^^ M'UtiidoUP, iidmLiting Llio coii«t d->l'IIi ul' thu 
rUer, Uato boco d«iiortb«d by U. AUrcht^ m probthMy tint 
frialtiTQ ncn of tbo comitry* Tbaj livo in Uttlc Tillji^Qii, k^^^^ilng 
futinlj' la LhrnnHflvHii iLongb Hnrruandml by tfiu Lkr^r nogrn tnluc, 
H'l'ocf^o* and BftlokhU, who oro anoraaohing np<iii t>iuiiL so dunoly 
IW tli*«T niiAbcn 4ro m^idl^ din;iD]Ahin;c, In 14G0 tlioy wtru uob 
bM* ifcsti SOOO ^ in I$TC* tbcy trtrc miicb Iqir niimnrouflH Tbiy urn 
ofiA intliy-bra«ni mlinir, nnd rarvlj uEouml l-tfCiO mnlr^i hi hd^fbt 

2ftal 8 tndiea). In tli'> rirli ordWtti>Ti« nf akuLlH maio bi; Hr. 
& Wftlbet nod by U- Dn Cl^llii, from t^i^ <-j>i^I cf t}ii» rt^un, 
wmtMMj wb&oh Mn rcnur^cablc fur thnir iicadt miio and ri>tLnd t'jrnu 
Of aMiy olher notJcw oJ tribcw of nr?gnioEi i>f JiEniuntlvo mytJ, livlnji; 
Mv tb« *««t eoort<if E<luab>Hft1 Afrioik^ T ri(«>i1 nnty montiun that 
tf Vm Clkailliit vbo giriM vi intoroflting ouooimt uf bi« vitit to an 
CboBfo vilUgo in AftbULKO land, bolwcon tljo GaWn and Ihd 
Odms; attbctQifh vnfortnnblely, owiQg !«> thi: oitromo M^jnoM aud 
■MtiAtt of tho inbabitacUt bo wok alloAuI IRtlo niipoftiiuity fnr 
Mlko^logwnl obaOTratfooL H« •aoe«odad, bowevor, m moiuiinn^ 
4iBaM and six vromciii ; the hoigbt of lb<k ttamat vas 1 kot *? tur^boHj 
lb»«M of Uw Utt«r 4 foot 8 Loch».* 

■ A JwTwy Ui Aatian^lond.' iaf!7> p^ AlX 


iV/btNT fViMMr 

[Apra i$A 

Tv firthnr Into Um liitriHor, to^jtmnb Um ooaM of tbo radios 
cotiUinod in tlio f[t«at bcixl of t)io Conffo or Liviantoao KifCf^ 
B4a&lc7 be«ri of 4 Draercm* and iiidopcntUst popnljOkai of draft, 
oJlod '* WatinMk" wlio, like Iho DatimbM of DtOUJI, an mnat 
limiU-rH 'if cloptiAiiU. ftinl UAU jtoimnuil urturB. Ouo of tltewt bo wet 
irii>i aI tlc*>Q{1a, vRs C fivt Cff UrrhM ht^li, ncJ of ft cliio»>Uto bfoira 
o<4<>[ir* Moro KJccodf Br. WnLIT d^oriboa nodor Um DW3M of 
- notoQAs" (pcrbftpa tho Nunc m Siuiky** WaivM)^ » P«i>plo of 
lighter DuliHU' Uuw DiW w^ihu, auJ ticvi^r ^xnwiljiig 1 ' jO molfiA 

f4 bet 7 CmIms) Ugb, \n% vrho^ ^TV>n^o tn nut uioro ikMi J'S# 
4 f<M4 8 iaoliofl), vh^ ooevf^ fAoUtod Tills^o* tealtarod IkriMgk lU 
iCrritoTT ciftbc 11ab«Dbi«, ttilb wkoto tbey ncTor louL.t 

Pcrictntln^ into lljri biairt nf Afiii::^ fiDni tlifi nnrtli-Mtf^l* in iSTiX 
Dr. B<>lii*uinftirth &rvt iniulfe nn iLrquAiuinl vith a dimttLVtiTe r*w 
€f |«ip1o vlw liftvu SKbou ftltai&Ml m <K>ndi<l9nMc nathropoksk*! 
ti»liinoly. Tbo; MOTO to g(> b J l«-d iMmoa m tlieir own cottsbr* 
AH'i iLTuI Ti'AXi'ftUi' tho UUor nauinilmit q» covioiulj of Dappn** 
fWlckrvliakki', and the fomiDT, taara HUi^Uriy Ktill, hmn^ bNm nad 
bjr tho luArced li^ptoKi^it, MaHolto. hy tbo tdilo of the figun of t 
dwivrf in ono of too ni'^imitiiiiilfl of lltu cnrly Ei^ptian ompUe* 

Ilnu»l.bhoooaH<»f >riM>iifui, kitii-uf tbuIkliiiibutUi. UittlScdiirttB- 
hrtb ftr^t mnt ivith IIlc Aldtim. Tlio^v fipiKihi Ut liivr niutpr Ibe pro- 
loftios of Ihal moniLroli, vho lubl a re^mont of them nltw^b^d to bii 
■orrioo. bQl their rottl coautrj wna furthor to tbo ftr>iitb ai>d ve«t, 
>!boat 3° fC. Ul and 35' Eh long. From tbo Accuanta Ibo trftTtUiv 
rooMvvd, thoy txxnpy a conniLtcniblo torriliiry, uud aro diiukd laBo 
fittiD diiiiiiat Lribut, n^fa haidiifj iu own kinn ar diinf. Liko all tbo 
otbor pjgmj Afrioan tribci*, ihoy iivo cLiuBy hj tlio ohiuBC, bttac 
gfiooi buntoTA of tlio olopbjuit, whiob tliuj bUao)g with bow o&d 


In exdmti^o for nno nf bin doge« SchAdnfnHli nbtjiliinl ftvm 
IklouTtEift cmo ^ tbcA) littlo mou. iTbom ho lutondod to hnji^ 
Ki]ro|fd, bat veho died i^u tLo b»u:)(]^vAnI jourucfy at Borbor. 
fottniifttol; aU Ibfi moiwiiraruoulA ohd (.ilts^.^rTAtioiifi vr hie h wore 
in tbo Mrnibuttu cftitnlry hj Bphv^^iuf^irlh \)i\r\h\\*H\ lu tlio fln 
dratroye.! Eo tnnc^b of tho viklnnhk mntorinl ho bftd OolbctAdL Bh 
doBcriptioce of tboir pUyeii>rkl chArAcrLcrn aro thordoro ehiofl j vgooUao- 
tioiis, Other trckVL-illcrs -LriTi^, AIatuo, mid Vowiou- — though 
jiGootraliiig ue fur an iin^ Ahk^i ixnuito, bnvti i^itvu vbounatioaa ii| 
injliviiliiaU nf iho nw« tJicy h*vc mfll with in tlinlr trav^ljt 
llAlmn MtAitt, followbg llie foot«lupia of S(-*hwoiiifurth into 
Monbnttu oonntry. alao obtiuiicxl by tmrt^^r two Akka boy*, with tb* 
view (if IjriiLfrjiig tbciii U) Europr* Ho htajRlf fvU o victun bo tbo 
fnLigiiRH iif t1i»> juiirrM.y uml djiikjitf^ l>iit luft biit Lvilloi-timiA, inulmlinf 
ibejfoung Akkua^ la Xhe Italian Gc^^gmphiedl Scicioij. ProJMbly no 


* ■Thftrtigli tTiA Bbrk OnntfoMit* vol, K, 

loliTUMll Ctt A BkTC^ rwo luTo bc«n ao much bi>iiuurod by tbo 
of dkO •oiootlfio wnrH t'irat al Ckiro, nnd ufk^rwRnU in 
lU;,T«ba(oTThibiiDt) AD-J CliMnhlUli, m tbfiy imro tiaiucK ^vcto 
teribed. mr—iiri n1, aiiid pbcdosniphitl, biiil Iiavh laion llio ]»ii1)jtict4 
c^iljlrnrj rif uM<cnciin, thoir tnhliagnptuTM indndlnR tho iieuhl** of 
Oven, Puteori, Con^Uft, lC»&|p«ga»xa, GigUoli and ^aTmulti, Brooo^ 
B^7, iftd do QoAtrc^flfEo*. On tltoir •Hrriral in It^lir. thoj voro 
fMaibii to tliio kiBg uiil qiioon, iatr<Hluoei<l iuto the uk«L ^luoui^blo 
■drtf, «od ttiwllr Kttio) dctnn &■ moniborn r^f tbn luiniuibold (if 

tn^Oiii ttdnofttioik, utd potformod tbo diitioa of pi^;^. 

In roplj to Kb ^^3""7 ad<1n^s«otl Ut xay tuniii Dr. GE^IioIi, nt 
Jlenaeet 1 hcnr thai TTiitiuit dltfil of «i>iiAuia|)ti<>ii ca^ Jviuary 2Rtb, 
tdffl^ bofng lliwi ftbo«l Iwfuntj-lvci jtcatm of mge» khiI wmb buriol in 
lU Bt m tl ai/ at Vorcoft. Utitotnufttolf no eciootilia oiftminntfnit of 
Ihfl bodj »«* aUotoJ, bul wlrthor CliAmtlnh Htill livo^a or not I bavo 
■dI Imo able tr> IcArn. Aa Giiilirili )ii&» iii>l hoiLfil <hf bin doatb, bo 
PRMOnnv ttud W IK Bill] liWtig it^ d>izni Minionalcrbi h juiliun), 

Ob* otiitr •pfloitntD of tbtit r^u hiu biM*n tbu «ubjuc1 cif car«fnl 
fda^fali'iifc b^ fiiifop«ttn mitbropolc^iste— a j;irl oftiuoi] fkiitla, 
knn^ bone kj RcaoDlo Q«ni (Gi>nlim'a lioatiit^Mtt), nnd wTio i» 

MalL DC wwi Utely, llrin^, al THftdft iw utirrnrit to M. do Huuii. 

Tbo v«H(>iiA A<:*U(«ral vliBcrvntioiiM bithttrtu miulo ixru obvi.nuTf 
MdUtnt tA <l<<rlit<vi b luotji bctgfit for tlii^ moo, tiut Ibo tii^aro^t 
HlinBie tbat QuAtnT^^iiii^fa c/^uld obtiiu i» nV'Tit 4 fo<il T In-^hoA ft^r tho 
ita, ftftd 4 foci 3 iiidiffl fur tlir uuiuin, ihriidn]]/ iufcTmr* thorcfcnri, 
lo thfr AncfadnftniMA With mcnrd to lb(>irbl1nT obimcte^W, tlimr biur 

ff «C Ibft BM«I frf xxlj kind, Uim cmophsadotk ligbt«r tbait OiAt of tn'iit 
H uprotia. boi tbo progofttliiBm, widtb of ntWCt And cvominn <if lipi 
cJMfSCtc^rivtic ot Uw EUiIoliiad brtvncb of the humjui family aro 
ir/tU lo Ui citmmo dfigfm, H^nnnjin J if Miwciiiifiirtirii wkfitijhrji ditJ 
ba OwCod. Th« «n1j Msuntinl poiut ^^f di(rrri.<ikci.< froiti Ibo ontirKLry 
Kvgn^ «Koopt l^et ais«, in U16 tdaJujicy Ut tilii>rtoiiiug ftud bronittK of 
da draU, «JthMigh it b; no mMna uauinoa iUo ''Almf>8b oplioricftl " 
allribDl«d to It liy Sobwolnfuiili. 

ftuth«; Infcnnqtifii abont tlie AkkiiH \%\\\ Iw fuund in tlio 
—uh, jttrt pnUiahod, of tbo intrepid and uuooTnplivbud tmvell^r. (n 
vikOM woljom vc aro hat •■> mnob intort'iiU'il. Dr. Eiiua I'mtha, 
Uofdrtt'a laat sarrinug uffiuur ali tLu Si'iMnn, >iho, in tho oourto of 
Ul txploraiiou, nwat arjinn little timn Inftvl^ iu thn country uf tSic 
Mflabrttti, Iforolw 1 

not only mM vitb living Akkav, ono of vbftm bft 
uucnUr aliU tciIuiih an o domtmtio in hiii »K.Tviu6i and of vrbniw 
nanaioM bo iiaa acut mo » mubt ik<tAil<«3 acci^uiit, bat be aliw, by 
MtUag tKa apota vhero two of ib(^ni bml bmni ijLlcrmlH biiccooilod 
m ittrinJBjc tbolr akaliitcinn, whir-h, vrith uiTmonmn otbtir objiMilc of 
Ml taMitifio iutoTDat, Hifoly arrivod at tlic BrUi«h Miuuntm in 
llftaabar of laat year. I nowl laitlly say (bnt aolud bonm, oloon, 
■pttUabltf, ^^tuaj to bu uu-mtuiul uud ouuiparcd, not oao<:> vnly, but 
?ftt.Xn. (No.«l) o 


[A|vi1 13, 

ifliy Bnmbcr of tiiDf>«, fomiMh tho m<«t fteeepteblo mdvnco dul vu 
aBllmpoloei*4 ofto jKJBBCM «>r lEuanj of the noot isiportuil fihjdeAl 
obanoko of a nc«u Tbm wo Wto bote vbiob on ftlnji Id 
•Mnled tu ID «aj»[t>rt of slnWmoDto uiil £nfrf«nMs ImmJ on iIscl 
H«d^lit, ftnpc«tioii« of limli^ farai of faimd, «bi^7«cUTij of tlm Eu« 
0*00, an oU more rigoroul; dctemjfkod from tbc hoitr* thui 1^ 
Ma M on the liviDg |)cnoD. T1ier«furc\ tho voluc ci tbcm Rmuu, 
inpCfflsct o« iLoj nuforluzuilelir bkv and i^f cuun» uEai6!kKtil n 
' Mliahi>r for tho pnrpoAn of «ii4lAM&^ing ATiirngci rbanvt^t^ Iatpij 
froit indood. 

Am I baTo ontwcd fully ittto tbc qncntioD of tbeir po<mliviti«o 
e1«cwhan>i* t C4a oulj give no* n f«Kr uT iLo nxot inporteitADd 
PDDOl t*Hiion1]r lo 1)0 nadoreloorl leitultool iLoii- vuitaf nation. The 
flna potet of ialorott U thdr tixo, Tlio two oludotooo wo both iLom 
of fnll tirovra poa[>b. otw a mui, tho other a woman. T^cro ui ft« 
nasoQ to Boppuoo tbjvt thcjr woro spoci&lljr o^ccled w cxccptioaallj 
Bnnll ; Ibi^ uvni cIvhjIjt lliu uiily uugs uliioL Emm LjkI su ojipor- 
tnaicv of pmcaring ; jAt tlioy fnlly b^^^r oiit, m^ira Ihan b««hr on^ all 
thai LaH t«cc mid of tbo diminotivo nK> of tUo mcci. Comparicig ih/t 
diuK^nfticma of the bonest ozto bj one, wilb tbo»c of tbo miniorvii* 
AuiluxnAUL'iHj tLat liaro pzined tbnu|Eh lOy baodH, I fiti4 bmli of tboM 
AltkiiH tTMiilhTr luit llinn ttie avoTA^ bnt afnalW tluui iVj« unalWt; 
HmaJkir atwi Iban %ny Bxmhtaut wfioao nkoloton I cjq ac^iaiiaUd w^tli, 
CT «hoao ilimeiunoiia have tonti publUb^d with >cictiti£c accuracy. 
In fact, tbey ate both, for tbo/ dju titat!/ cf o aiic« tbc cuallcat 
monual bniuan nkoleiontt whit^ti 1 }j»vi4 hmiu. or uf wliiLrb I qui Ihid 
ftnjr ncoH. T »aj normal, bo«nnaft th^y aM ihorougblT veU-mwrn 
AiLd pmpnrlioncdf ^tbrmt o trnco of tho dcf'^nnrty akooot ^irtff 
onaiKLiktoJ witii indmdniU dwiu-6AbDc«ii In a toiler moc, CNiooidy, 
ihnt uf tliu fi'iW<>i Ih BijlHduiillj- pcirfvcl tta niticubilioii- Aftcir d 
ftUowftrirc for RTiino miuijiig vi'H-dirm, nj\(\ f^r thn Int^rrerlcb 
E|ia<ios. IbG sktlotoii tQ0»iQi%i4 ftitiii tbo crcvn cif thn L#«4 to lh# 
groniid (iXQcUy 1 ftxt, or 1 '^IR mcitro. About balf an incli nora for 
tlto Uiiakoe^s (if tbc ivtdD of the hood tan\ boIcs of tbc feet Toold 
c^umpK^tu ibtt lii<iuht wbvu hliv& Tin? oLlitir luudti) ttkislnhm mw 
(jndging by tho T«ngth of the fHeniiiT) nboni a ijoartor of a& ineh 

Tho fnll'gTOvn vmnaTi of whom Emiti givto df.lnilcd diinqaHoai 
jft ntutod til be uiily 1' IG4 cietn^i oi bnicly ^ fevt 10 iuvhuL^ Tbcvd 
h«igl*1i4 ikr« fill iinqiirwtK'Dably hvta tfjfiD anything that hM boon wl 
oblaiued boAed upon suoh indUputAbk data. Una vory iikt«ff«rtu^ 

* Ilk a p*poT TcaJ bf4:irTi tbo ^^utluvpcloclcal fiutltaCc of Qrvol Drtlila aol 
Inloodi Fnlituiuv Htbi ISSS, wbich vill be pobliBtod in tho Aoj^iul niimlKT<f 
tlw JcivmoL. 

t En bin ImUth Kmirt tjirnkt nf in Alika rnAft tf "3 FMl C inftit^" hiffa 

itboTD, I]v nVB or Lljis liiHU that hiB utiiilo body MrHOJirvr«] li/ ttilvk. iCElThi^ 
almut tibi: fdtfiu waa the ouc nltU oU Lbc Akku ho h*d yot exanihiKJ, 


fin ti^ PjtT^H S^^*t of Vf"- 

■Ikd ilnDflfc nncxpcctciJ mniilt of ft cMtfoI cxntDmJiUoEi of thmo 
skHotoni 1ft that Uiuj o^nfimn in Iha rrlatifi* pni|>ortiuiiE£ nf itv Itcnd* 
tniah; ^qiJ limb, not loilwtvrfK, but to fiiU-ri^^LJ ]i»i>p]e of other rft«««, 
u)d thajr ajti tbaroforo ^trikitij^ly iinliko tfao filiimpj, Jonff-bodiod, 
abofft-lJmW!.]ar]^c>hrnil}<] ji/jinucflMo tfnphicttlljrcmMQtDaaghtuig 
with tbvir UjjQ(M ugHUint tlit^ ctnmut <m aiiciuut Greek Tva«. 

Tlie «4har dunctor* tif tlL4<K4< kI<i>1<<U*iih oxm 'Ufarfnt^ lo an tntoiuto 
^'Si^ v*^^ qoilo UMord wtiL wlifti Ijoa b<>eii aIaUmI I'jf tJii>iT oitornaL 
ftppouvnoo. Tbo tcma of iTio ^Imll* too, t^M thnt AEib-brftchjcuj^l^y 
vhich htm boon mIiowh hy llam/ tfi (ilmrcu^temo nil tljo Hinolt l(ii)[r;k 
pffpttlnlfonii of Cfrutral Afrits. It in i|iiilv imliko tbut of Um 
AaduuQMtL, <|iitta uiiliku tliLl oT lb« BiuUincri- Tliuy «r« obviounly 
N«0roo« of ft AMoiftl typc> to vbieh Hvny Zuw giTt^n Uio ftrproprinM 
lona of JVfi^rttfii. Tlicj AOOin t» luro much tbo Hkioc rolattoii t'l Ibo 
iHger loug-hi3ftdi!d A6ic«ii N^^tn th&t tba kiuhII mund-fionitn^ 
Ntfgriioi of tfao Indiui Oowa hB«o (» ibf>it Ur^gra loog^htwlod 
HdtowJM D«igbboiir«. 

Al ftll oTtttK th« fnct Ddw (tAtfriun cldhflj iltfnoa«bntO(1 thai at 
TKriocia ■polii ■lOTiN* tho ifri^at Afrii^ftn coniiucuL, wJlhui ft fovrdegnsn 
»cirtfa mm wmth of tho equator. oitcndiTi^ from tlm At1i\ntto oovt to 
Mftr tlMihovMof thti Albbtt Njftiixft(30'^ K, long-), himI f>«tbapi, froni 
MOO tedk*ii4)ikfl whlcb tiiDO Villi riot Allovf mo to rntcr into nixr (but 
wUeb win bo fomid in tbc writiu^K of [tikmy uiiJ Qitntrditicc*), ovua 
Itartbur tn tii« ohA. unnth tjf tbo OilU Uiul. ^m ttill vun-iTiTifr. in 
MAttet«d diitricu, oommuvritift* of IIimc wiaU N(>gixiuit, nil mu^h 
MMcnblifig «ft<^ iiUioT in nxo, ftppoftmoocs uul btbilB, ftttd ilivulliuf; 
DkMilj' ft|«art frcoii tboir IftifEcr iKticbboim, bj whota ihttj pjo cit^ry- 
wlvnt niTrrrutidiKl. Our iiifnirmniirn nWit th<im ip ntill vor/ hcmjIjt, 
■b4 ta obiiLin more wimld be & ivortb); obJM^t of ftinbitiofi fljr tUo 
■Uto polottioftl UuTollor. Ill muujr P*^''^ oapeoiftlljotthc vri.rt, thajr 
■M obrioDoj boMiu^ tbou- own with difficttltv, if nob (u^tunlly JIa- 
•no^nnif, uid ibcro 1b xoncb ftbnnt tboirci^QdiuoiL afuriliutiou, ami 
iMtdta^onHln nrbidt UM^ftrc fbttnd, tnitidui'fl tmtiilcjokiTpnn thuin. 
•■ Eft tbft «■■• of tbo Biwhinoik in tbt* w>utb aiid tb<^ Ntt^iti« in tho 
«Ml.Bfl tJio raaftimof ft Tiopulfttk4iuLiGboocDpt*dlbtJ lund boforc tbo 
BQconis^ «f Uio prMcot doatnuuit rftOM. If Ibo ooconDt of tbo SntA- 
■'*'""*'■ nJalod bjllerodotiia bo ftooejitol ■» hi«(nricukl, tbu rxvur tb^y 
<iftmtt lo, " 6o«iiig from ««l to ««ct," mnftt haro boon tho Ntgor, and 
the nottbwftrd mngo of tbo dimriUb pouplofiu-marooztawirotiroEity- 
lkn» Mfilttrin ago ibftn it \» «t tho ptM«&l tiino- 

Tbio Tiuw otwiu ft Mill Wtcor qiK«tioT), ftad U\m n» Inrlc (o tbo 
^gbbosrbood of thn umtb of Inrli^^ u tbo cciitro frciui wliicb 
the vfaolo of tbo grcttt Kogro moe itprt«d, G««t o?or tb4> Afrieui 
CTnliMmt* acd vea4 or^r tJiu ulftDd* of tho PKoifiiv ond to out UiUa 
Atvdftiaooosofrllov AubjodoM iif^bftblj t);o loMl in<>]illed doiooniliuita 
of tbo priinitiTO [ijuulHTni of tbo (fncat bnui^b of Ibo bnumn ■jKV.m 
C^HMAnMed by tb«tr bltck ftbioa (bud ftxtMly bftir. 

[W, a F.] 
c 3 

Sir WiRi<m B, Grt>06 




Trli^j, AprU 20. 1884. 

Sdwud We«D«w E*q. U. lut Jl Vtce-Preeukcl, m tbo Om^ 

Tbe EkkL Hon. Stft Williajc R. Oiovk, U.A. D.CX. LL.a 

inoiilli* ikgfit K>iort1y nfUir T htiA r^ffiied lay 0000 of Jn3a/i 
Uw lli((li C^it, 1 vikji iJipir«iiLinp to a fnood poj luftr cf Ibo cfi 
cf bflTiiti; DO cotnptiUotj cxx!tipiitir>T), vboa ho Mil, bj VAy of con- 
vbUtidQ, " NcTur mind, ' for SaUku fioJa •mdo muiebitf «it)J for Ullo 
IiilikIm tu ili^/ " Tou muj pu«ubly in tLe ouune of thlt ovooitkg Ihii&i 
Lu vtt« right 

1 h^To cluwcn a title for my Icctnro wbi^ mty n^i foll^ oobf^ 
to yam adiiit th« ecopc of tho rivirs which I Ka (foinj to Mibaul |o 
ji>Q. 1 projwiM lu&'IJai;u>oiu»ar^auiQubkiiihi>wtJuU"Anta|fMd«aL" 
a word ^I'li/mllj ntu^d to Aignf^ vnnuitbift^ (UttgrvMble, pornhdoi ■! 
tJiiiipi; that It lu not ibo Itujcfu] thing vhtoli uiftnj oontajorit; lU 
it prm!uc« Al kiuit quite lu macb good u erU ; but xkvt^ iihaktnr 
be iln vQuot. my ihvorj — D&ll il, U juo wiU. Bpoci^ti<.in— in Utat it ■ 
u iioctHtfity of HlEfalr^rio^ Hiicl <jf tli(k orRBttl^t of tliu nnivfrrM Na hf M 
wo mtit^nilAiid it ; thai m<jtion an4 KFo cjumot gu on vrkboGt il ; tlnai 
it ie not a lucre dumal luJjaiict i>r ^attiro; but th*t ^tlki^t il lbi;fc 
WDiild bo no Hftturc, at (hU oTinata ita we coomTo il ; iW ll u 
iurtil&hljr aiHJuiAicil uilli tuiUiijiiiiiiicd ualloT, uitli urffmiUnd nuUic, 
ftDd «4tli nontifttii bvlngn. 

I ftza not ftwnro th«t tbi< Yte^, in tbo bftwlth in which I BUgpal 
it| bii boon ftdraQf^od Uuforv, ^^>lllib]^I1g idc^ Unoivin «bl] roiMoto 
in tbo prcBcnt period uf Ibc wurld'a Uutury. It liu bona wM oj t 
iloiipitnilJri|f ItoMHiriiiht lIiHl " TTitira im nutliiit^ tiw, Kiid aothlOff tnui, 
Atiil notliin^ AigDifidit," bat t Oo not oEilir^Iy ngnso with kun; 1 
bcKara that in vhtkt I un nboot t^ snbiait tb^-ro U 8'UDolLizii^ nw 
ft&d tmo in tbo point of Tiovrfrum wbiob I regard tboKuttcr; wlwdM^H 
Il tiijHiiillL« iir IH}1 \n fiiT ytm tu jtiilge, ^| 

Tliii uniTAFAcdity r^f ontaRiu^ifim luis not roodved th» ftttcntiaa il 
McmB to roo to doBPrvo from tUc factoi tho eJomontof r#KMs or rntlK^ 
vf tbo oonqucring fcmr, being luAmly ottcndod to, uid too littlo unto 
tiikvu uf Jju dtiuivnt of roflEbtiuicc uidua» tto Iftttor »juii|umliRH Iba 
fnrn\ nrd thtrn it iMM^cimnB, |iopntar]y SLjioaking) tbo fbroe^ AAd lb* 
f^nuor iuraa tbo rcAUtanco, 

on Antagi^iiiimM 


Him MTi pTTipr^tinnH nfiplf itig mnm or Iom to vhtd 1 tm goiiig 
k>»aftcivnc antiquity. 

Bcnciilvw, qiic4od fcr Prof. HqiIit, aaid : *" War ii Ujo fallicT 
Ml Int of vll Ibibga. Hob1>M aaij «&r is tbe imliunl *U\c\ ot 
PH,b«lUsex|*r«ffBi<iDa1iATo alxiut Lliom lunucliulo jtiM^mty. Tn 
Chiptor L of i£o * Do Oorporo Polilioq * ho nj^ *' IrmsistiMo tnight 
iiftrtUt oTnifttiiro Uripljt," imd "Tlioctitutjxif maa id thttt nuluml 
fibattykw." BqI«ciiU(.ci117 titiiAvs^ " Amoa giTua up bii nAtur&l 
n^t, lor vImd ilivtri* Moii liuvJi^^ li^^ht not uid/ lo nil iLiugH ulw, 

to «aia tnnlbEo-V |>Lnoiw, if tlioj tiso Uid nunc there nrlNAtb UiOTvby 
on tbo ono ptirt «□<) rvBiitftuc^c on iho othor, wliich if; ivat. 
■d thti^oco Mnirory fif M« ^» <y' ii/jfurti, fAr aoh whtrco/ ^oiuinteth 
h ■aljwj Mtoj," I an only txpUin tlita ft)>p»rout iuuuueiflUiDc; hy 

Ipirfiiglia movit "lavcf Nature" li> tm miruilljiii^j lUfTiTntiit, truui 
"IM iMtnvBl otUlQ of mui/' and that tli^i mixtciug pciLCo wiu tta firat 
lAat »t oontnct, ov Ui# b«giiuiiAg of law; but lli«^ vby cnM it tho 
"k* </ ifaiaiv," vlioc* bo MTB migbt i« rifiLt? TLcic ia mdido 
ihKwitj to tbopMil^ 

Tlb» P«ad«i ammtJABt Ormuul und Alirimnn, wcro tbfi unppniud 
<V ropwwamiwj* of g^ood luid «vil, itlwaya at ivar, and oaLiuiug 
tW MttticittoQA ftncglOB b«tve«Q baniAii U'lrif^e uniiDatud ro«pwLiTcly 
I9 IfcoM Mroprinciplcf. UndovLkdlj ^ncxl ami ctiI atoauta)j:*jmaLia» 
Hi aaligfsoMii, w I viovr itf in a« nnouBary tji giiul an to rvil, aa 
lo OrnintU aa bo Atiftman. Zoitttator'a roltgirm of n Uiritia 
ond faviMaiblet tmi with t^ro Rida«> le^ to mv miuJ, a moro 
|Ailo«opJikal oODcoption. Tb« viowa of LamnKrl^ op tho inod&6oaldoi& 
of ammlc bdnsa £/ dfort, ond tbo ciaiaUit<liiiJuiit nf tb« ihtctriiid of 
Dtfwm M to too eff«clH |in>d[]r><J 1ij t)ru ttnigglu for i>Tttl€<tTm and 
dottiaAlioo^ ootno mnoh &Mrer to mj «TihJ'ict. Dnnviu Laa sho^im 
ham Ikvo Wtng^^ haro taodidod tho ft^rnin and babit« of i>r^aniwd 
btbn Ukd t^od lo iccrcttaod di^cmitiation* and Prof Iltixky 
affd ilarbaii fl^Qircr hnTo ptmcrfully ]jn>]ufrtod and »]HUidoi) thntin 
JritlrUwiL To Uni laikr w« ovft 1t}i< Imjijiy pbrnw, ■■•urrival of tho 
flltMl," aad Prof Hnxlay Um roooatly, tn a pai^nr in tbis 'NiniJ- 
Ift ia lh Cmtnrj/ antidpatcd aoxoc pointa T pbould havn jvlvork^d Ic 
M Id iim BOoiikl atiu^^li^ ff>r eiudcnt^rv Tfi It aEiticijiali^l, aiul \iy a 
Mij abvt period, ia almiya trying, but it ia niftrti trying wbm what 
|M fMMwU lo Mf fcaa bdon «tid b^ ynnr pri>ib>oiiRaoT in nioru turitu 
b1 afpnpriftlo lanfC&aita Iban ymi liavc at yajir ccmroaocl, 

I propoao to deal vritb "a&tagoniam" indactivoly, i.a nitb t^-in 
^krirod nora bhttervation almie. and nut to iuikUIu witb apiritnul 
mtttn or with mm»mtmiom. 

IM u bcfin with what wo Intow cf tho vlsiblo QTtiTorao, ris. 
^i^ fiTtt*. oomcto, mctoL^rito^ and (hoir cfTccli. ThfiKo aro all 
fiUng ai OKjh oUicc, aud ruualiug that pull by tho action of otbor 

Any ohuiso ia tbia tmlling ioKo prct^norfi a ohango, or, oa U ia 
<iIM, patttmtu>a, in the motii^n of tbo b^i^ly p(iHi>d. 11:0 {ilanct 

286 Sir WUliam B. Grm [April SO, 

Neptone, an yon know, was discoverod hj the effect of its polling 
force on another pUtiet, the Ifttter being doflooted from its formal 
conrao. When tbia pnlliDg force ia not connterbiJAnoed hj other 
forces, or when tbo objects pulled bare not snfficient roaieting poner, 
they fall into each otber. Thus, thia earth ia dAily caosmg a bom- 
bardment of itsolf bj dnwing amaller bodies — meteoHleB— ^to it| 
20,01)0,000 of whicb, Tifliblo to the nakod eje, fall ou an BTorage ioto 
our atmoephere in each tventy-fonr hooA, uid of thoee visible t&on^ 
tbe tcloacope, 400,000^000 are compntod to fall wiUuii the same period 
Mr. Lockjer has recently given reaaons for supposing the laminottty 
of niibulie, or of omtiy uf tbent, ie dne to collisionfl or frictioTi amoog 
the meteoritoB which go to form them ; bat bia papei on the sabject 
18 not yet pobliebed. Tou most get from Mr. Locker the details of 
his views. I hope be may, at one of theae oToning meetinga, giro 
you a remtmS of ttiem from the plaoe I now occupy. 

What is commonly called centrifngal foroe doea not oome from 
nothing ; it depends npon the law thftt a body falling by the inflaenoe 
of attraction, not npon, bat near to, the attracting body, whirls round 
the latter^ describing one of the onrves known as couio aections. 
Hence a metoorite may become a planet or satellite (one was supposed 
to havo become to to this earth, hat I beliere the obserrations hava 
not been verified) ; or it may go off in a patHbola as oomets do ; or 
again, this centrifagal force may be generated by the gndnal acci^ 
tion of nebnlons matter into solid masses falling near to, or being 
tbro^ii off from tbe central nnclens, the two forcee (oentrifogal and 
centripetal) being antagonistic to each other, and the roUtiTe move- 
monte buing continuous, bat probably not perpotnal. Oar solar Byatea 
is also kept in its place by the antagoniBm of the surromidiiig bodies 
of the EosmoB puUing at ns. Suppose half of the stars we see, i. o- all 
on one side of a meridian line, were removed, what would beoome of 
our Hubtr system? It would drift away to tbe side whore attiaction 
still existed, and there wenld bo a wreck of matter and a craab of 
worbls. It is very little known tbat Shakespeare was acquainted 
with this pulling force. He says, by the month of Gr^mda*— 

"* But the HtroQ^ baao and bailding of my love 
Ih oa the very coutre of the earthy 
Dmvlog all thinga (o iC " — 

a very accurate description of the law of gravitation, so &r as tbis 
cartlx is concerned, and written nearly a century before Newton's time. 
But in all probability the collisions of meteorites with the earth 
and other Buns and planets ore not the only collisions in spao^ I 
know of no better theory to account for the phenomena of tempoiary 
stars, such as tbat which appeared in 18GG, than that they result irom 
the celliaion of non-luminous storSf or etara previously inviaible to uSi 
That eiar burst suddouly into light, and then the lominoei^ gradually 
fadod, the star became more and mere dim, and ultimately disappeared* 
The spectrum of it Hhewcd that the light was compound, And had pro- 

« AMiaf9ni$m. 


VMHAt^d firom two dt9ar«&l soorood. ItirMproMiljof sveiy 
U^Mipcniiarcv If iIuh Arwr/ of U^tiijxinirj' Hlarv lie apdmittod, w# 
fAftnakmiAof -irAxtonrorttirdafi i^n. uid Mom^ygat fnuh uutnncofl 

■— lyinnllj^ U30 putidw at ur nov* tltf iiuHbf<T iLrti iu n.iLttniijiiif« 

4ybsinuiuxL«btijly or thton^ tbo awdiaiu of ve^i/tiktioii. Tliia «Jmj 
k Mdtiaiiimialf loaritttf ap iU cttrfii«i) and oljoii^iiif; ib cliaioctct. 
BnAtiuD »ud coiHlcaMtiDn, prodadug run, buiZ, ntjd fttjnu«, 
BMUj dkttngfs It. Pon>e aud r^mUiico un tvawliiut]/ at pUy. Tho 
*M«fodc« Tocka ftwt rabft iJj4^ ii^b> (und. Th« idft ^uilK ta«iD, aud 
lata IvBOoa uf ito fonnor prc«icDOo b^ tijo foMil QUtfinc abulia found 
aov al1u|;t& ftlttUidoL Itoaks craiiibLo dova ftodbrMkcthornxrii cir 
ui broluoi hf lluiui ; ATftknabe* oru uot uniTuiDmiiD. Ths kbdar <if 
Ihv aulh •aomft lo ho in ft peqietvwl *totu of ounimotlon, Ibougb only 
l » wim i to our c>b«*mlif>ii. Eftrthqcflhoe in taHoiu plow Srota 
lin» lo time, ^ad dcubtlon ntaay licncfttJi bho ma of vltic^h wo uv tiut 
tT|)TJi*T'. IMF (if oihor gtaduul L]pLu«inl« imd ilcjirciHiimK. Tbroii^i- 
<fll it ikoibitia liittt WD kuuw i;f u aI rwt, dud imLLiiig tun inuvo 
vtolMivt diaa^g tb« poddoD of wmAtbffig oIms And 1}|U U ftut^wuiiiiirQ. 
Hii<h rut %i Its wnftoo, aod probabljtLoy orlliuroiidos, cbldridm, 
Ac am ID AcoQtt&cicmfl »t«lio of chutgo id Ibo iclorior. Nutliin^ llml 
«■ Icnowr of U jiUtiuuBr)'. The tmrtti lut il wIh^u uvinH ki 4t Qmt 
it, but ibi iiirf*vc i^ iiii>ring at tlio ra1« <<f t^jnio ai^tituUmmi utiluii a 
at tk»oqii»tnri iui<lft(Aiidttig al ^'ittjoTof tbo polu* — an Mpuri- 
MI«Idc1i bOobc buiyctbAri an i'[r|)crtiiiiitjof irjin^ — at^mu wuulJ 
Iv laraod round hia own aiin ^ritco ;ii uviiry Intuly-fucir hctun, nlillu 
Ika ^irtb'a motion roTCid tliu >un oarriivt un tbrrjii^^lt hjuioit muri' tbui 
a imUbmi ami a liatrofTntleo adaf. 

Tfa« alrova oliaofctv produce notioEi in otboT tltln|c«. TLe cnrtb 
faAa lb* BUD aa J pJanoU, and i& di6!brD(it d«grcc« at dilfciront portiiuiB 
afilH orbit. 

BoEoro I paaa tmn Inorgaiifo l>^ nrgnm'Ki^l niaTl<.T I Lad bottc«- 
dai vitb vtial waj iioibftM etrilio you m tL« mimt ilitlk^ult pu-t of 
Bix ml^Qct, riz^ Im^t. When:, fOQ may wiy, in tboTc iLUt]i^i>ii!«m 
ia iV A«Mt of li^btt Light omruiwa ita force up>u dik-Jj niiruiki 
pirtiooa tit aoattar that nutil tlio petiml of the diHun-ury <if iJidIo- 
pa[ibj ita fbynoal aud obMOical mtofn^mris almost iiii1ni»v», H*i<ih 
tftrla u bloarbiajc. tuitioic aomo p^vwt^ and A£rv<.liii|{ ih^ c^loLtrLng 
ivltor uf Tf^laUoa, wctd pai^allj ktionn but litllo altt-jidi?d t'>; 
hnl phiktr^inpbT cmtiil n autv tirii: I nlinl] udi'urt ti» thin |irrwTiitly. 
Tbo tb«o«ics vi hj^ity bowL'Vur, LTiviiU^^t iiinit'<r aul) iiU'tiuii. Tho 
c«nf«*coLir tboorr, im yon uv.ll kt}0% utjppiMut that f':io<tfwiToJ;v ^duiJI 
piftrrbn v«m cnaittcil (mm luminoun 1hhIJ<«, and bnTf^ll<Nj vritb 

vatocttj' TZiu DiuluUti'ry llicory. VF^iit^li jiut»iJlaiLtml it| 
Mmaed tbat Inmtiioui bodiua cau«uil uudTiJaiiuiui or vil.rutloiu in a 
bdgblr tco&oua inBltvt oUlud otbor, wLicb b aappoaod to oxiat 


Sif WiXU^m A Ojvm 

[April 90, 

^unoDghtfiit tbo tnktplaiMlDry «p«oH »iid duooglnMl Ifco dniTcti* fo 

^br ma wo knov iL 8OTm mfjuDHT thm cidur to bo «f b sptdflo 

-dAnwtor illCWincE fnttn Uut of onlinftry gsMi.olliarfl tlitt it in in tli» 

AUcfc of • hielilV Alt^Qtutol ftiw ; bat, whslomr it U\ it mntiot li» 

ta&ctod hj nunktiojui or Tibntiona tntboat faeing EaaToil, &nd vlma 

psuttaff IN nHvred h^ Any foroo it maBt ufftv nvutaaoc tn tL»t fbroi^ 

[tnd b«4ioe w^ gM ftfiUgicmlam Ivlwom fonw md tetfvtane*, I^gfat 

;«]ao t*kM tune in orofoMning thifl xiai'rtinoa, i«b in poaliiiiff Mido 

[tiioctiior. U tnTclAjiiiaduTiU, at a (tocid|aod^«bodl 190,000 dbiIm 

iti a •ecoad ; bal «rco at this mto, a^d iritjioiit betng |Articakr m to 

m fnr tniUioDB of ndlea^ U tabs tLr«« jritn ftfid a i|uvt«r to mi^ na 

from the elw wMoh, to fu oa vo tnov, £■ ib» ne«m«t to ni, ni. 

'« Crtntum. TboothoTiOf nbntovcrit may be catUcI, tcttiaoiu tf il ii. 

V nr't antttporiaut, Ifcouffh it bu □»( bavj. Withnot lliro«bodi 

liaru OD li^ut mill ]HHfSjl>lj ao Ltut. ajiil tLt muiH.H^Ui<«um tj \u 

Abmnon wonl4 tm rmtltcir fcirTEii4ftl>ti>, 1 t^lUro ynii baTi> luvnt Dr. 

I TjndoU on tldi «aljcct. SupjKpHiQ^ the vi&ibiA onivtrrw* to li« h tl 

I ia aovr BapivAcd to bo, i. ^ in no pLrt n more vuatnn, ihoro can be ua 

[ftircv wilk>ul rvoiatajico in auj |mrt tif iu 

But p]'tgn{M' rarriiii \k* fiirlfmr, it tifaowa na rlut %bl 

<>n mattdir clKminalfy. that it i< oAjiribln <tt dMnnposing or f 

Muidor tb« co&ttitaiukta i>f eboaucLU «cjnponiidi^ a&d it tLmfotv 

ribroo met by nnttaaoo. In tb« xr^r 1^56 1 nado aome espocbniRiti^ 

t poblulied in tLis ' PbituaoplacH] ftfiiniu^iiie ' foir Jauuury l^fiTi wbidi 

: VMlMd tn ni4« to nury nEill ftin)irT whikt T mny 0*11 ih« mnWiilor 

tffthfc ImIvmui lif(tl ATid cbctDical affinitT, and atnaugi Ihi^ni tlni follciv* 

itif^ Itottc^rs cut untof I)n|)«Ta^e|ltaoMl>«t^Tc«:&tv■op^IL«llcd H^nu-a 

, vfgbM wtti tiu-foil OIL uio outBtdn. ft ia tbm vlL^trifod like ft 

* lipjden Jar, farn fr.iw «t*ouiidH. ibv gUA«-« iwpmW, t}jrT ktilrm blovn 

* Oit, and li<< fnpldn of onr rf tlm pluitoii mining vnib pbatogi«|ibio 
OoUodinn- 'Vhitt in Uic<u cilikhlhI to diffhf^ daylif^bt, and on baitiff 
iniTnonwd id tLu nitrntoof nilvcTl^tli tbu pnrt ^ibicti b»d Woi Dorvfcd 
tf lib tbu |rbj)ur ivtui.B dul duik. ihv m liittiudt^r (T ILh pbitu beiag u^ 
ftfFppt4wt. t'n»lR roanh wim sIkiwh by tbo H«trio Itglil Inn:*™,) fa 
tbm oaso wo wo that nnotbor impoQilprable fcm?o, olietricityjicTitibly 
otfLCitii tbv durfaco of ^likU in tmch n \eay tbat it ci^qtc^ t-) vicklhd 
pubntiui^e of JuEiiiitu tbickcoea, vix. tbo jirrpund ouUtHli^D, & change 

fll Ibr irhvttllt'fll ITlHt[tjn« <tf thi.'l HIllwlHTir ( (iinlul^h llf «))vfrr) jHTTHditlg 

it, vnnblinFi l1 t> rc«iat tbat docou^f^cAiDiri: hv h^fht nrbicb bnt for I04b« 
tinnc'iTin luodiGciition of ibo surface of the gWa plato it wiifiild bavA 
Qndcrgmic, and ao doubt tlo force of ligljt bciijg tmabU lo cdbei ila 
L»bjtict irttkH tbllurlcd vr t^b^purtto^r and iualvad uf obniigitig Jta m<ide vf 
THoflnn in offnotinj? cbomicJil d«rfinp(ftition, it aftt^ oflT nn otb«r 
biuuncm. 'J'liD Ticiblo oQccI in m tho collodion film olotio. I hato 
fltrijiprjd that ofT. nnd tbo impriDt rcmaibB on il> tbo surface of tbo 
^lud bviug. flu far HA I iroitld aAc^irUin. utiaQoctcd. Tlum in tbe fllm 
ovnr tbft finrt/^cUid pnrl, light, iion^iiierncbiiniWI nfflntlj ; in tbat r>T0r 
the non-protocUd {jart, c)umic«I Affinity nwitbi and coqiiqcib li^V 


iBSWi t» niKlce «kn IguHoJiduuM rLtrMl. It m ^ onriouB clicipt^'r tn 
iiUAorj' of tftio ttCrtigg1« of ini>l4c»Ur f>rf*r-j4, aik) pmhnlily tiiiillur 
M^iK MnocTi lij^^lit and olicamon] oit pfajidcal attrnrtrond jio tn in 
■if ulatKl plicnoiDcni, mtqo fot:n* <if bliffbt and fonio liftUthy 

Uini OottflititPiiiftf <i[<H'tn4'a^ lit* i>tli>tr«ifin^ iiritm ut.mnAjih'mt, 

lilWttiyw P**" '^^ to ur^«uic? hia. A hlsuW ^^f f^t^as [iuTbi>, 
IMiiwi, Mifl *A A 6f;urc of »pco«b, im fi^htLDi; ivith ik ncighbonrfl. 
HiiiefaUne tlicim, and Ikt.T nr? Ujiu;; to ruLt it — no ogrrc^ont or 
aikMlt mtiifily furc« r»jipi.i;Nr.t] ki fi>rci\ TIiih «^'gUi it« ^ihhI Tor 
t»gn«; kf it ^nt toA much iiTitrimDm h irntild Womji diuAAnd, 
ni lansicXo koopfl it in hcnltb^ Tba riaiiiff of cap in Uatn, tlio 
Muktkici of ocuboiif tho procou of f^^vth. tKo Dtrcn^licMuag 
IkaidiDB to roiint pnM&laul aiucbt. adJ iuulj uiliirr iiihLiticcB lui^lit 
h* ^*M. which Blford rmunjiltfn of the {iilomfll and ettcmnl itm^ glcs 

I will now proceed U> wiuidi^ Ammui Itfo^ flud in Uub oas& 1 will 
Wm willi Utc ibt4!iiuLl Lifi! of anira&lB. wLi<^h ie & txiatinunl atra^l^ 
Tblgnttl ptiiup llw hftxrl I* iH>iitiiii)iiiJHly iHUklirii^^tliikL iS niJji|iLrx- 
iif MlMiiii«e. It IB farcing tlin binnii throngb Ou? iLrti^rics, tlxny 
MndiDtf in ffi^iiMamg it oawnrdE- IT tlicT give wnj*. the iLuiiDELl di«B ; 
if tk«T bocoDio netil utd renal loo tqugIi. tbo luumol dtt?B. TIhito 
nra^wm roguktud ftiiU^o(uftiu,a rhytliuiJiAl jjuLmlimt. tLti vurjr Uirui 
InMlfio^ Inrcr and tnOKtsmfv. Thu thn art of hrfnMn^ In nntngn- 
>fclir farnnljnfrila argmnout. Tho mnoctikr aotkiti t^ tthieh tho 
itetn tittdo to open oat and oloiui altarniLtcIn inordtartointialoiin*] 
vUeWVi tfultrtlMT pbynulwtiMil cL&utCL'n wliioli I cannot liu» ;^ 
iaio, neeeniteto acontlnnnaii^gbt tor lifr. Bii with dijfCHljuit, oma* 
mnaHtTT, and other fmicti'mH, morhaniciLl and ohcmicid foTi:t\f and 
rnictancH odidq iirtu piaf , 

Hi&M tius Icctoru irna written, I LbTo Leud of a dincorf^rj made, 
1 ^m bifunao^ Ij Frof> UuttmlujikijfT. nul nLidi Iiah liruu^'bl ttj lijjdit 
a aittmilar iiiabu>c«» of mlrmnl aTitafi^>r^lHni, Hn in naid to liavn 
| *Of< 3 Uut tha whit« v^jnusclofl of Lhu blchod ar« pcrnaiLUoiit cnuuii^ 
«l Buleria, BIkI bj ixK>Cidatio& will abmib i>oij]c|ioiiB f:cnDH; u ic- 
cwnut mr, aa it appear^ (fuiug <Ji It i wotp IIjoeq. If (Lu torpuM^le 

^^BtbeeonnncIcaaraTaii^iiiflbid. thr pnti«nt dioK, and thn BoctcriEi 
^^pot ai all waot* for « time If tho tbcoiy is foimdod, it a^brdu n 
^^■fe^itK ■ddilfooal argHDOnt to ibo dootriiiu of itiUiniiil ELuti»;£ijnidn3. 
^^VbaiUy Lf Iberu fnittuo Bud«Ha, Bud iLu ixjqjuecloH hai iMljtEtg to 

&I, it voald bs viofaa for Ihnm and thn nnimrvl whnm thiij imrvrf. 
L«t na now conitdor tha o^teroal lilo of animuli- 1 will toko ii 

ta malajtoci, for a rtoaon vrLicb yon will uoou om, tbo lifo cif a wild 
, tiUot It U tliitiugfiout tta liffi, oxoopt wbuu aBlucp (i.if wKuJi moro 

pr^mllj)^ iiiiliig ^t^rtiun, tirnmitng ^■'^ nt unr ^iLh vc|^tjihIcM> i^c. 

If it giU a loranouii r>aAliir« it Air* of ropluticu^ If it gotn tou httic 

it iua of inanitioo. To kc^p itKlf iKultLy it maU ciuH itetJf for 

290 Sir Wiliiam fi. Orove [April SO, 

itA food ; thiB, vid perliapB tlje avoidiDg ite onomieB, giTea ite eierdae 
otiil cart), brings all its orgaos into ubo, and thna it acijnires ita moat 
porfcct form of life- I havo vitDoased thia oSect myself, and that it 
thu n^asun why I chooae tbe labbit aa an oxample. An eatite in 
Sumcrsetabire, wLicb 1 onco took temporarily, waa on the alopo of thA 
Ucndip Hills. The rabbita on odo part of it, via. that on tiie bilt 
aido, W4;rc in porftct conditioDi not too £at nor too thi»j aloek, actira, 
and vSgurone, and yielding to tboir antagonUta, myself and toiily, 
oEcoUont food- Those in tho TaHcy, where the pafiturage was ridi 
and laiariaut, wore all diseasod, meat of thorn rniQt for hamau &od, 
and many lying dead on tbo fields. They had not to stmggle for liJe, 
their abort life waa miserable and their death early, they muted the 
awcot nsofl of adveraity— that ia^ of antagonism. 

Tho same story may bo told of other animale, GarniTon, bMita 
or birda of prey, livo on weaker aninnalg - weaker animala herd 
togctber to resist, or, by bettor ohanoe of warning, to eecapo, beuta 
of prey; while thoy, tho HerbiTora, in theii- torn are defltroying 
Tcgiitablo organisma. 

I now oomo to tbe most delicate part of my subject, via. man (1 in- 
cln^ic women of coiirae 1). Isman exempt from this continual straggle? 

It ia needless to say that war is antagonism. Is not powe so also, 
thoii|!;h ill a diffuTont form ? It is a common-place remark to say that 
tbe idle man is worn ont by ennui, i.e. by internal antagonism. 
Kiiignloy'a " Do-sfl-yon-liko " raco — who wore fod by a sQbAtanoa 
dr(t]»ping from trees, who did no work, and who gradually degenerated 
until (hoy became iuferiorto apoa,aiid ultimately died out from baviug 
nothing to do, nothing to struggle with — is a caricature illestratiTe 
of tlie matter, llint the worry of competition is nearly oqaiTaleot 
to tbe hardfihipB and jtcrils of military life, seoms proved to me by 
tbo readiness with which military life is voluntarily undertaken, iU 
ns it is |>aid. If it were well paid, half oar men would be in the 
militnry or naval sorvico, and I am uot sure that wo should not have 
re^itncub^ of AmazotiB ] The Jticreosed risk of lifo or limba and the 
arduous nature of tho work do not prevent men belonging to all 
classes from uutcring these services, little rcmunorative as tbey are. 
Others take the risks of travelling in tbe deserts of Afncaor wintoring 
in tljo polar regions, of being oaten by lions or frozen to death, (^ 
fulling from a SiviRS muuutiLiii or founderiug in a yacht, in preference 
ton life; of tranquillity ; and sportsmen prefer the danger of endeavour^ 
iiig to kill an ajiimal that can and may kill them, to shooting tome 
2>hc]L8auts at a hatfue or partridges in a turtiip-field. 

TheUj in what is euphemistically colled a lifu of poaoe, buyer and 
Holler, master nod servant, landlord and tenant, debtor and creditor, 
are oil in a state of simmering antagonism ; and the inventions and 
so-cnllcd improvements of applied science and art do not lessen it 
ExereiKo is autageniem ; at each step force ia used to lift up onr 
bodies and push book the earth ; as the eminent Joseph Montgolfier 
said, that when ho anvr a company daucing, ho mentally invort^ his 


MlOj^pOilioTmlily *1iJ> f[i>l(i«>l. Ijih |;reftl iiiiriilJuii i>f fidlunaui tns 

■l|ltTilAUo«i. [Io» bcuij ft dttifoJ btubftoJ, WU WOi^ bit vifi/0 

iapA, vbo wikf« a^itiK *^ " ^^ ^^^ obvcrrcd Ibc hot ftir ffcm ikc 

bbhWil tliu lii^bL lOAUmU, nUcL nitM vp in n mrt cf fi^TrvailAl 

Imb^kio tnmy sma^ of jott bftV« notioitd ihi* form Ln ilr»>M ! ^ TIiIa 

pftum tbo tdu* of Uio flr(vb(iIkicii],wbi«Ji. booHHa Urgo |i«pvr-CBdc«r 

tf Amd^Ji li4> fuElhfritfc «sponinoated on^ luid icncc wc i^l ikiKU 

MripliuM Tlii« MUcJoto niu loU mo b; bid ntphcw H. ^x^llji, 

4inn ^finn* nuu. Rtin vliHt v»caU s fj«liml dntli ht* gTf«iar 

4v^|l» ttMA tlmt which otbOT iminib go through, u4 <«« in tot« Uio 

■MitrtifieiMl of «11 doftthtf. Tbc Utvar amamU, prMrticAllj epc4ikiiig, 

Ji oxptntnoo ft nfttnral dcolli. i c. a Yiulont or utiibro«D«n HmiL Aif 

VM M tl>rir power* duiLiiti tu sjl^Ii &u vitvut Uiut iiwy tKniiat biku 

prt Uk Uko RtJtiggU for fiifltaiico, thoy din or krc IriU^.I, cR-iiC4sUjr 

fttddx. uuL U»<ircaflBrifipttOiMtpioltwt*dby thaArtidcittlloituitt 

<lUi( frum tlx) nbdcftTOor* to proJong life. 

1a na nnw p«M fn;tta iudividtuU tu commaiiilitm. U Uicre Uiu 
•MifDfti*ui now tkftzi (tf vii4<iy Do tbe uftlioiiv of Ennijn now form 
ftbiffij fuiulj^T Ato Uici ntnjLmiiiLti of CnRtinontiil iiHti lUt, vr u 
tt« ftMTj «^ ILm coiiuUT* IcH tiiui in fbrtnAr r«u« ^ Tbo Tuj dx- 
|i— iiBi " iLo OrcAt Poircn" IrrmlTiiA anUgu&iAin. 

Am witk WATS uiil nvu^uUuw, nx ue I Luic inlJ« witb ric|r»rd ta 
MlTHnaU, dan&^ uar f^wralU^] pc^m, ^^ ^g^il 1* (y?ntinuii>u« lunoftg 
■Mififciri**^ if tLo wtUit- dom not boil, it vtpvDon. Ifot mciolj 
nlboc tiio«incKLf»«>fvoorAg»iiirtrieli|nuiigci^ 
|«WiMl ftsJ prcHsuiJicBoe an wuaUut- Tiu.^ imbja||nti)il parly or toct 
MtkiftHtfoiT to1<4Ailiodi, thvi fiirei[UAllMkiioti< Vf\ tbvn fordfliuiniiiipiL. 
W« oaU oonlmUnniil n virtue, but tti* inr^nloaUi (litt>oEit«iit. A 
faW raprottobM hii mm for uot cKortiiijc bimeclf to lutproTttLui 
p^'tl'TT^ ftoil nl Kibix*! mull co1i«gft and ul Bubvcqnciit jwKurU v-t Ltfis 
at wt*n&cvtui?utItjtLi]W>uuiHiiJL-iut ruoumtumulcA IrKliiidiv] 
c1u« antagoniKQiiv polUicil, tntlfiig^ and tvligiuiu 
tak« tba plaoo of war. Cab vox ciilkiLit n iui>rD vi^ruua 
liAenl antafoiiiMB tfaan oompotiliaiik doea ^ TaJ^u thi? <x>]Ki^'e 
with mineirbQahli ; take tba baftkiujil troiliMJiaii with ruiruii) 
IvAf! lake Ihs aajiimilH of ftaUon tiiraiug niglt inlJk diij, iLBd 

ma, tama «sciiie for thii^ aa vo ao rorolj *«« Uw latter. 

Qtit o«r vatj atowwanooto ar^ of a conbatiTO otiunicUir , oUum> 

lUtf, bdUiavda* raciu|^ crickut, fujtball, Au, And tu oil lEuvin wi\ in 

CoonMRi parlaiico. «Poak of t^atiay oar oppooout. Efuu d&aijmg i« 

ttvhaUr a ruUa aM waninJiomco <jf var, juid lintao c^f ltd funnA uiu 

M a mu£taJ7 cWract«r. I ciui call to miad iii^ly oixc ^iiuju wUicli in 

rOjmballTa» nud tbat u tbo (r«u« yvu or? iu »ii:[k<] tiirt uokv playjii|f, 

.* Mtkooar^' aiiid irith, 1 fitAr^ioBit^ du(;ruoof iuiMnuJ aataguiunnl 

7m, icua, tliM oi^ii»t7 taciioals i>f a daj** lifo ia Luadon : 




l^To &ot M yot pti votoL Tho occDiaiita of Uu osb*^ nau, Ai% kto 

LVUppoMd to ul froin frve vHl but in tlio fn^orit^ of nuce iLef u« 

MB ttoch 4iiveo lu the lmr«««, Ii»olT«Dt« trjlna to ra&flv bilU, rich 

' Vcn bTiPff to fBTo wbftt llidj tiavc ic^l liy ««Ting ludt »n boor of timcv 

[Jioatfuio. if JDO Cflc. tko frktLi(i r)f fill this, uid aJd the bftrgaimng ia 

uliaf«T thn iiicntAl (TfT^rU io cDHiitLOg-liijtttHai^ banks, Ac, »ni) tml 

^TffMLb-, tH>w « pomiftuoDt Aud codiUluoiiu iiitttitQti<in. Tsko out ndl- 

im^: -tioulaT «ffiiii» uid r«ciAl«iiOM* DriT«T«, ng&iLl-iaoD, porten, 

Ac.^ ^nl llio foreo itrpinrttng from tLo wn milliont of joan Ago. ud 

ltjch«t up ID tho Goal'fiddi, u SUvliimWJa nuggcBti^ now «iti^<i;ftd 

lu uvi<nMiirj« tiib iDortiB of tnvnfl Via to nalce tut<(Li push the fliilli [q 

I Olio or Ihftt <tlr«oUo&, Md tiuooiAolvoa kIod^ iih •rnfwo. T»k« ibo 

^ daily itragpilo* in oomracrvc^ Uw, profCMiontt. Mid loguhiion, tod 

KODotimot OTon in *cEccico oad liloTfttUTe* rulitico 1 gaddoI 

m^aa her% bnl mmt Imvo you to jmlgu irhbUier Ibun? U oui 

i4*gn« of i&tagonjwii in thiit punuiL Id all thin Uieri> is pl«ntj of 

-aaShjl «ite«intt&i pUntj of ufiolo«e— muoh to plou« Onaiud and 

VkncL to ddlgl4 AliriiiiMi; bat of tho t^ro oxtroEocA, otcr-ifotk or 

uCagLathm, tlio lattci wonld, I tblnlc, do Ahtinuu'a woak mon 

■JM antJj tlinn tbc former Wo ur^ |«aoe irlun) ibnro la na poaoi. 

^Wd Ibo vrorld, boironir, 1m buttur if it voro oAonrifloY la tbfr 

; Kirvftna a pkanag protpoot ? 81<wp, though cc^t nitboat its troobloi 

And intctTJiil oittupsnlam, i« onr ticaroftt approacb to ii* bat vo obooll 

hftnlly wihIi ti Iw nlwuyR lulfwp. 

8link4tf|ieafo ntA vnly kuow nomotlking abont giaiitatlcnt bnt bo 
oJao know eoiaeUiing about BntasmbDi. Uo eaya, by Lbo montb <£ 

^4flMBC^fiA0U ^^ 

*~ AltA Pmvf AAtim IhnI liAlh j^mut biHfnrn^ 
F Wborvi^r vc bA>« rwcmJ, triiil ilid tlitun, 

I l\]DJt tLiL>l Ibtvarti aol ftuwrrinK tbo vim, 

P Anri tint anbodioil flflun^ nf tlio Lboii^l 

TtuL g^Vt lariQEKNt tlitips " 

Tn iw CMC Ih tbo frIotTou of \it« i1ii>n'n mnra ifiMi In tlic pe 
UOB of ""dut^/' \- 0- nn swi of n^Jf-rfuiifllniicr, a voril Wry oOiTanwnJf 
QMcd ; but tho roUination of it is b^ do moofifl » frvqu^^ul. Indcod, 
hiih ia it« podcna^moo sa yiclib lo oocpticisin thnt it ia atudlbal 
wLl'U a man Ulbi of doing Iu« dulj» Lo tH modiluting huuio knnTiali 

Tho TTonU ^cod <md ovil aro corrclativa : Iboy ato liko bdghl And M 
dcplk, parciut and oHd|inDR. Ycm cvinot, im f ar aa 1 caq tcc^ coh^to % 
tliv otiflbuiOti of tUo uuii vritrbout iuvulviug tlic (xniot-lilluQ uf thw otbei. 
In their conmimi nccejilutiitn ilit<y rerin-nmil thti HJibtj_i]ht8JU Ultwwa 
whiit is in;roPii.bI*i or luinnflcia.! nnd what in pjvinfiil or injoTioni. 

An vJd aD««dot4j will givo Ue Oio aotii^ii of good acd otiI ia ft 

Walj «iilitcntcw1 minrl, A mimionftry hnving f^OQBi^!oT™l thai lio 
tri— iwi f olly Ln«3ti]oat<J good pfiuci pice in the nucd of (i pivviiiiuily 

*t4 Iho nui>il KitfWfir^, *<[« wbra oilivr tnari Ltkt.H my wif^* 
■U^* Mtia Uio miujonar^r, *-dow ^vtt tno an exam pk of gao<\-" 
IbiMVQt- wwi ■. " Good IB wLt'D mc Ukt» otUur taan"» wife," Tlio 
■MS VM not uzacilj what wu <ixpc<:tud, but vaa imt br in dt&- 
ImI villi u>0(turfi TiawH ttmuiij^ outbvIvmi niid utliur eooolltd 
<MiNA W^irnm. I ilotiH tncaa n« to ninninii^ nwiy idth utb«r mou'a 
vrat But wv fltiU viow gcod uid avil tvrjmiKh on nScoting&ur 
«nnte«i)«fca. At tLo oooinmuoamcut uf a wot mdi of the opponjig 
ivtiofl Tiov Ticlory-^i.^ iLu di^fttrucLicfU *jt ihvlr (juuiuitfl — bb g^jil, 

Mft mToko %no God of battlo*^ ThoH atnotift yoa who ara i>Tcl 
MOq^ frill ccdL U> niiud tbv Criiawn nor. iluci; uombolvit oflticjn 

61 ^h^^W for Iko dc»tructi'3U «f tho fucmy. lAch hUc possibly 
i^og dubt Uioy nsfttcJiivdy v^n* tii lltn ri|^M, IjuI iu rvnlity m>t 
taaUiDg thttmiMtlvoB nuicb ftbcml that mitjor i|iici]tioti. Wo (luioon- 
minmdj pcrh^pa) ** componnd for vliu wu aro iQchucd trt. hj damniiic 
Ib^avu LbTo Drj iQLiid to/' tjo IQ iho djiily lift: uf vrtat 13 cibUcd 
fMCA. Tbo ACft|CD-oMpc}j pr»)iri(^jr rtjuiouil wlmu 1je3 bid driTi^D hlu 
tml otftiia mttrt, nil iiv.y dtn^'tnrH nncl i<!mri-lifilr1<ini nmv ^o ihi> mnir.*, 

bf ihfiold iUftion<if good uid oriL but ■* antacomFm," no I vicv it, 
iMit Ottlj cotoprtb«iiid» tLu r«UtWi of good aniJ uviii hn%. an 1 Imro 
aid. pnnlivix bi>tli> lujd Ih m Deocflwry tcJ g<iiid h>< to v^ih Without 
tl Iktro WDulcl be unithnr good n^ir c^ri]. 

Jpdgiag af tho liwi of our iircgcniton from v/hax *ko loo of 
A* pTi—m noc« of tooD of Ictta iy.'rubriLl dcTclopmoiit* wo may 
(AvMlerixo tbuui 9S bAviu^ Ujt?u uloiu iiupcilsivo Ibuu utirwtvun, 
ind ■« bmTinf; thnir Jh^h an^) imrrf^jwu norri qiiir^kly alltn'^til'td, 
Ailv Ihv hunt for food. otcompanwJ by privntion oiid Bnft\jniitf, 
«HMi tlw ftitdt tu f-orgin^. Tboii- louiii tvil whei uUrvatioi^, tlioir 
Mod nfleliiiiL' Einu uutir ihn Ew^uimaui wuUjIiw ii bidl-hulv in 
H* bittM" colli fur br^nrh and diija. icd bis coni]K<nM4ti(irt Ik tt:v 

rring Mid Mtitig tho tfal. Tho good in rumltAnt upon and in 
Sou nn I Hipp'>ws vquivnlvnt t) thu uviL Thoao moa lo^^k 
iOt Im£ into lh< |MMl, 4i>il forAurd tiiU> tbo future oh we do. Wo^ 
Ij tttooiJJDie cni ll]<iu|^hl xiwc u Ai'lcu ikt\-)L, «to lod Lo luura cuti* 
lianng ateriflfln, and uim at mnrn l^uiinfr onjtijinr^it id t1k<i mHiih. 
Tba dhild cntfun at Khout iti order tJiikt hit futuro life muy bo inora 
pofpcroUt 11io miui imoiida tJio Uct port of liia li&< lu nrduou* 
toll, ^jijc»l or mcDtal, in «rdor ihat Lo luiiy nut waut in Lia klor 
jMTi, Of that hia Ckmilymay map ibtr btainfitiir hiiilidH^itf. Fiiiihur- 
miig nwa i^p^nd thoir vbolc lim^n on work Ulilu rtraiHumltvo tlmC 
MDMMicig 0e>it«tiu(iA ximy bu ItMiufitod. T1j<< pruiioAtiuau tnuuiuiiU 

294 Sir WiUiam B, Grow [April 20, 

bcaltli and wealth to his doaoQadentB, t^e improTident man porer^ 
or gout Ono maiit element of whnt we cftU oiTilisatioa ia me otpfe* 
bility of looking fnrllior back into the paat, and farther forward into 
tho fntnro ; bat, though maaflured on a difTereut scale, the avei^e 
natagoniBm and approxinaato oqniTalenoe appear to me to be ^ 

Cnn we srippoeo a etate of things either in the inorganic or the 
o^aTkic world whicb, coDsisteatly with our oEperienoe or anj dedn^ 
tion drawn ^m it, would be wiUiout antagonism ? In the inori^io 
world it would bo the absonco of all moremeiit, or, what praotioallj 
amounts to the fiamo tbing, movement of eTOiytbiitg in the hum 
directtoDt and the same r^tivo velocity ; for, as movement is o&lj 
known to na bj rolatioOf movement where nothiag jh Btationary or 
moving in a difibrent direction ^ or with a diderent velocity wotdd be 

So in the organic but non-eentient world, if there were no etrnggle, 
no abflorption of food, no growth, nothing to overcome, there would 
bo nothing to call life. If, agaiiii in the sentient world there wen no 
appotitcH, no hopes — for both those involve discontent — no fear, no 
good or liad, wl^t would life bo? If fully carried oat, is not life 
without anti^niBm no life at all, a barren metaphTsioal coDceptioa 
of existence, or rather alleged conception, for wo cannot present to 
the mind the form of snch concoptton. 

In the moat ordinary actions, such as are necessary to sustain 
existence, wo find, as I bavo alroady pointed out, a atm^le more or 
IcBfl intense, but we also find a reciprocal interdependence of effivrt 
ttud result. The graminivorona animal is during hta waking houm 
always at work, always making a small but continnons effort, select 
ing his pastures, cropping vegetables, avoiding enemios, dbo. The 
Gamivora suffer more in their normal existence; their hanger is 
greater, and their physical exertion when they are driven by hanger 
to make efforts to obtain food is more violent than with the Herbivon, 
if they capture their prey by speed or battle, or their mental eflbrti 
are greater if they capture it by craft. But then their raiificatioa 
is also more intense, and thns there is a sort of ron^ eqaation 
bctweoD their pain and their pleasure, the more sustained the Uboor 
the more permanent is the oratification. 

As, with food or eiorcise, deficiency is as injorions in one, as is 
excess in another direction, so as affecting the mind of commanitiee^ 
OS I bave stated it to be with individuals, the effect of a life of eMe 
and too much repose is as much to be avoided as a life of unremitting 
toil. The Pitooim islanders, who managed in some way to adapt 
their wants to their supply and to avoid undue increase of popnlation, 
aw said never to have reached old age. In conseqnenoe of the im- 
evcutfal, uncxcitod lives they ltd, they died of inaction, not from 
deficiency of food or shelter, but of excitement. They ahould bave 
migrated to Kngland 1 They died as hares do when their ears are 
stuffed with cotton, i, c- from want of anxiety- We have hope in our 

on Aaln^oniswt, 295 

In tlirt raid gnuh nt oiir pIcAjntra Romrthirig bittnr 

**Wo1c»fe bofero mil After, nnil plnr tf^vliM li rnt, 
Ottt vliiocYrvt UvfblCT «llh ■onto vnta U rmueljl. 

^Mfltion xomj ^oMibtj occuf to j-oo, Uaro we ciDTCf or Itu 
'mi aow I^HD 111 /bnui»r tiiuufi? Vf^ ci^rUmly liavu UEom 
ily, Tontin iiffr-rrfntiniliin, in o"r mcmtnl rVKimrlH^rlHl-lrn, atid 
inliUj ki oar p1ij«ic«), » far ka Ihg itracturo of tho brain id cfm^ 

tmn ioon;tt4v*l wMita. mom cuubiiLU'jiu cAriitL IH^'hcr ;^ri]l>nU 

liwlof out Is aoeonpaDfttd vrUb gnwUir iifTvoim ImUliility, witli 

paler iDcUi tfitrleACtpM— wo bnve mam fN^qitout potty nitn*^yLini?4-a, 

ia4 tfaey fttfbcl at Bor^ With im onr socallcij :ir>(?Ukl improT<iiiionlH, 

h llkra Dol the a»iii« bLtq^Ic bi7liri?«i] f liinu nnd its reiPKHnou ? If 

w^Biv no loii^r Li^liiTii) rvtiUiHirt. bi^if iiuiu> tuorv v-tuue uf fniJiil 

(Oitt, ttuMi <]f it nnt Ci^TiJ'hM \ry ciiir rriminnl InvA? Afi tri E^tif^ittioii 

1 iB f*fk^p« not ftm iin{Mtrti«1 ju^Ih'f"* ^'^^ i^ Homd to mn llmt if law 

■m A# ebMp BB in duutoJ. every ncit-ilcior uniRhbour wniil<] U: ui 

liliftfin It ■rmilil Buooi oa if iHK^iiil unlizT L^l uuvur iuuev thnu Uid 

tan id Ui» scalti ttliirh k iiooi?>4«Ary Ui vix^Ul oiiht<jiif:'<.' In iU fiivutir 

■Wa oMitraftod with tha diBorgimiatng forcut. Withoai that lliaro 

vmU bft pcrwdud iiuiirT<i<itjonQ uid luiurol^. But tboURh iintnfzo- 

torn talan s aiSbrcaiform it u trtiti thcro. Are mrs lonro rcgaUlod 

byjBwticie iL&d of jvrvV 1 vuiiluru lu iV'tiH it* 1Luuj;}l i^iulmbly 

nanj ibat ^Mwrro with nio. Nntioniil inlf^intJirciit nr u^lt'ii^gnuultAO' 

MPBBt w, I IbiiiJK, Uio pfvdojiiuuuLt roctcr, utdufr^qitdntlyadnjittf^lj 

•iK 1 tint doabt iT t£c olil inuxiiu, *' U you tvLib for pcnco prepare f<*r 

w* UI tjif inacli rKlti<!> Lurj^? ju~iu&m(Tulf» ami iuij>rovutuuula In iLcr 

■Ml* uf do^nir«ii>n (whrwA invoTitorft urn mrim thon^lil '*f thnii tti(> 

dmvonr* of oatm*! truthn) ato on frequently tho oaaso <>f war oa of 

ito fcVTiolioii* Arv wnn leu snnf-oiaAry with lOi) ton f^iui ilmu 

*ilk twim and &TToini? I caunui uubdr int'> HtittLBtiDs un this subjct^t, 

ka • trruMililv vHkV wliollAK. vik. ^i. TinldMcxi.raittn ht Ihu i^OTirlii- 

^sn tlHi wmv cnun nrtw iw nn^iontlv, tint in T;hr mtio of lh« impri^TO-- 

Bali in kiUitLif implcnu^titji, but from iMhauHtioD of mon or moi^ne. 

Wvs oniloabtodLy oooar nt moro di^1aIl4 intcrrtJot or tho hiunikn roco 

*mU becunue oiLiuct- FrvbnMy the Inn^-dy mi;ruhiHjd ff.>iiijJOtiliui] 

m^Hm iktrir pXwt'. vn l^lit comTni^TvkUy mnrr and mllfiAnly h^M. 

tt H Ik tt4 ndttctbn Ihnt man ii< idmr^Kt tho onl^ aiiimnl thjt l^j^lita, 

M itr food or muAiut of iifo or of porpotnatuig ltd mco, but front 

ttBtvTM of Uic merest TAuily. Mibition, or phuulic. WiLr is, liowtivDTt 

M «hfilly r^vil. It dovi^lojioi mtlilp <jLi[ilItim-~r-oTirj&jjfK imdiimuoo, 

t^i-«icrilm, frtc«djihip, A'tv — afid LmctH to ^l nil nf tbn mIIv cnoum- 

U^am tf luliioD uid oatcojtatioD. But do tho muob bvproimd 

MitioiM of poKd bring Ion otilt^niwuV CousidiM tbo cmormoiiii 

Uvir ftnd ntutlc «/ lime duo tu <;om|iclitii^n in tbu ftdruilUijig «yBtom 


Sir Wniiom B, Gt^M 


, iJoQo. Piftc^i&ftltuijC) type-foiudi&i^ pnittiBg, [anting poeting or 

«lliev«uM cucaUUnir, «uidvLc^-a«n, duv, tX\ ix itOik for Mrpun 

Ivlikoh, 1 vaotani to think^uv in gnat fiai mnloH; ukd tnaMvbo 

' Slight ttU to tb« pto4aetiT«MM of tbe «u11i, or lo the enricUig o« 

|-|w«lodg^AMlkM|diuti>«3rtaD4lb«liiiiileof tbobUdi owm1i>n4 

iwtbtf UioirUtto in irtottrtod •oU-Undation. And lli« oonoaafir 

Lpuni laa og«bL "Bin bj elothinft vbidi vnXl nntnr wmt ottt" 

^"B««aake » ihaftfcoMtr m oir comp&njr, vhich vriU p«j «aL f<r 

I ^ot" "Tftko nj pUl«, nhk^ iviU cun all didono*,' £& Urn 

I snlogioM oODM from Uiom bi^hlj imparlUl pofwrna llio tdtwtiaRSi iJI 

I ptrtnudiL^ gnldou rom&i4*i Itnl* mji vJth ilio tiki)ioinI«U, ou ooD^tion 

umt ^M bo p«id fit ftdvuicc for tlieir wc* : and thA idllf portion of 

iLu yMic (ho tfiuU bodj) tAk» thom nt tLdir woni Though yon 

nmj not fvilV i^rnio with Ilia mj ftnatiwetft of ihti ^rerikaokg tjvfcn, 

ftiiil tboa);)i thnv En»^ bv foOKi incxlicam uf ifuwd In it« 1 Uibik jun 

vill ■£tTi3 UiU it ftff^inli ft notnljlis illiMrmtiin) ttf utlpftniLiRnL If I 

[■VOM n jronngor mon, I think I •botild go lo Eundiatlcft tu ivoid tlio 

pen^ poet ; poniblj I fthoiiU aot bo aitUSod wh<m 1 goi than, 

CNrtlisjUioii tegiufl li/ ouppljing wnntot nnd cnridi try nronrfp^ (hsas* 

Uid «w;b ^iLpjtlj fnr lh<i ncmly ciTfiftlrii Tunt txficttfl ntltffT vranta^uidfio 

on. ^' f/t/iVf qutJirr" A« f&r bt w<t o^n jti^lgo t^ it* present pr oy w , 

numkitid nH-inn tending b> «n kialonmtic ktatA. Tbo raqcimoMnla of 

K*43i dftj nn b(Hir>inm0: ho imtaorotM «■ lo ooonpj tlio gt^oatc* portion 

^<if iLftI dft^; *ujil wljcii lck|iT»in«. (clej»houuH> ul«c4ro-aH>l«ii^ nal 

'nnmBTtitift fltfint inrmviUimkH vvhh'h vriU proluihJj fidUw tbnA^ nmck 

tb«irfiUl d«f«]u|imoDt, no time nil] bo k'ft for t]bougbt,Tv^cc, or nnj 

Apnuliuiuotia iudividuikl ooliou. lu Uiid inockftnU&l iit&be of i: TJltCIICH 

in lua«a ot ponco, niti^iDee of joj ncd «omiw, of jtooil »<! itti], «^1 

I Iteoomn I0M« ntro, Mid the noiHWMuy in^irimnity of lifo ivUl ttiliuvi 

[pnnddn ond Wanting to a «iMiliiinonB [idU)' fHciiDii. Tlin canrcvcoAf 

^ yio CExUUmoo ootjtoniplnt<44 hj ttii; Stoit^u will be nttaiiinl, nvd mBtead 

L«f n life of o&lm oontenjplation, cur enooeMOtt wiJ haTO » liib of 

''•Vtcllom Hclhitj. Tbcuiiil will Wiffallowod upin tliomouiA. it 

will Im all piirsTiit nnd no nlUtnmnnt Tu them njtatfB iai7ini,n pdnt 

At wLiich tba fliinL-rtliiciiB romttimJa rffv will tMMf Ki>iiu probnbljp 

, vould Agrcu at wlvtc that puict dln^titd Ih) fiiod, sud tbo futuxo nlooo 

cnn «bo« aL^IIh-T tbo bumjiij nico njll rriiftucipitte iU«lf froai b«ng^ 

liku FnmleuAU'Ui, ihi; hIato nf tiW Illlmh^-E' it bftK ciiat^*]. 

In the cusufl 1 hovt gifon lu illmtrutioti* — and naanj moro 
mJf^bt bo ikdduiHxl — tljG Qvil reeultinf; from apiwroully btnoficul 
o1i4iigt-« id ijut Jb nitTcj acoiilcnt; il la lu uoooMat; n coa»o(]an&ot 
u n!i(L;li(]ii IB Li ixiii»iti)iivU(;<j of ui^lit'ti. lu t^Kr MtiTi]£iclo for oiitflMiOO 
or fiupromftpy inovitiMii in nil eociiA grci^ribii, tbo iiivantioin. ontel* 
mcut, A^-f mtoadcd to rumudy nu iLiiB(ini«d vril will bu taltoQ ftdwitnfll 
of hj tLoflo for whom it it nol intou<1ed ; Ibo tmlI gric^^noc wut 
hftvv bv^iXk i-x»>*j;Qmlul by tliLiuu hftTu^ (bU iul«rc«t ta InulJn^ on [I* 
mill tbn nrmt^fy Itnolf wilF hftvn i^lkti^ral rmulta not oonlfonplntud 
hy Xhom who tnlrodaco tlio diangd. I could givo many inttnnow 


fm Aniti^ymiiMi, 


yi taj bvru «ixpcnne» u u idvoMW Md JtulgOi bat thf« voald 

M ftvijky from bqt MifajooC Eril^, tudco^, »iuU fh>m tbo rorj 

of bakti iudoced by the lUlcgc^ int]>n>vi:iii4iiiL TZifr i^J4rn'aff«. 

mn^ ktiguo> initacM liattbMnflim,jii](1 U^adn tu prt^vtint lionltb^ 

Tbo knl^ And fork a&T« the jftbour uf rmtnliotLtitJu^ but bjf 

flttr «•« tbovo 18 not tLo aano «loaiUiU tn Iho mJinLry j;!uuJii, iii>C 

llv fUl b«ftltlij ttoocuit of ittcrotidu, whcrobf ili|Co«lioiJ niii'^ it( ; Ui'nv 

SI Kit tWo BUBO uBCirewT <if ihD ttfutb vhcrcby tlmj uti^ htnit^lvntiil 

■id niAtrtnlj vn.-n, •« v^ im fti ftTK^iotit itlnitU. It usvioa tiot Jm- 

fnlabk ihai tboir nrMkstiir* decay in criviltdoil nations i« dun lr> tLo 

■Micdtbob uoflUftl moroine by tltc •ul '.itnii f th(: kiiifo ni;r1 fi^rk 

aalilMr-puu AcGiirdinff ki tho cvoIulli^jj iJinay, oar orgnuh Imvu 
fMvn iulo «rtMt thoy &(v bj Iniig u»b. aud t]i» rt^iiFmiiin itf (Lie tcndA 
to irvfigiilftt dnvolopcnonl, or atrojfhf- Every krlifidal umttrHiu^u 
mdon nU|;4Uirj aonic pro-cxwtiii;^ raodo of action, uttlior volnrjLuTy 
BT ifiToltiiitiir^ , uid «• tbo port* 4jf the ^holc orgoniBm bmc bccouii: 
WfmUfcul, eocb |«rt buing mudiflul by llm fuuctiuuii and lurtiiiiiH at 
ihm titliffni, Kftay pnrt MifJt^n riior^ or it*n ufu^ii tho mm^i? rpf itotUnk 
9i tan OHM p4ii !■ cbvt(Tc>-1. So witlf tlio 9i>ciiJ etmcEiiro, tbo Mima 
Hneutioa oS ibs congrtLtuoTit partA iji n uEc^Ofury ix>el«o(] uouoo of it* 
pvvth, uttd tbo ob«>ie« of uuc poft ufiucU Ibi.' ivtU-bciug of otlier 
|u^ AU clmi^, Uk bo h«Hllljy, tuiwt bo tiiLrtrmtly xlow, Ibti dt-fiH-.t 
I ilragl^iQg witb tbc mnody tbrotigli ooantlocg bat inSuitDainanlly 
■MOto mdniioiu. 

Lfltfuy, do Ibo forms of gorcnununt ^f^ uh Any fina grouucl to 

I ■aathffT tana V IVbotWr it Th lioEl^r to n^n n Hiib nf, «ny, <iiii! rhanon 
L^gii ifciWfrd or tnorc af bomg dcuapital«>d uuJiiMtly by u dosp^jt, cr to 
^^pni vIhI cmo iDAj lAt or driuk. or n-bom otio ntAy mutry, dc^idwl by 
^^^^^foritj of [«uu1i vutf^tn. ib a quwliciji ou wLicb ofnjiionB lUny 
^^pDftt; bat tbfiro U abcinilfuil iikra^niiimi In nltUrrr rAm\. 
^^ OomnmiMm, tlio drnztt of Aat]ttiHiiuit«H odTrrii litilo ptubpi>ot of oiua. 
ll&avQlm ftjQ anaUblo cqiulibnum, i\c. it tiounifltfi of a (<tmm of o<ja- 
vbstv ft dofccC ia auio liok van doDtroy tbo iA-<rrkiiig <jf tbo ^hf^lo 

vul wby ttiu vieoatiui m Ibitt riyfiE«irt Mbijdi) bi: re iHrfnct 

in <ilb«!T« I noror haro biion nbU tu mvi. Ail bigri ilium, on tho 

bUHi, l«cidai lo atftbUity^ £ach nuiD workizru for bii» ouu 

ri^ luipA to rapply t]t« v\'uiitfi cf otbvnf, Lbiu minuturiDg Lo 

^Uk conrcihicuiv mm uI^kr. ;uji] if uuju ur iut>ii.' fail tbo gcoiora] weal 

Yoa tuf auk, Wliy Ihia oniToiuj flntagoiiwin ^ My Auau«r b^ 
I dcn*t hauir; ticivmw duals ouJv- niLh tbo How Y not witb Ibv Wby ? 
Wljdooi natlcf lO^viUk- to olLvi ni»lt<ir, v^iib a {f^rcn iuTur^ioly an 
vt i^varo fif iltii liii^buiiHr ? Why ibi'M oiygiTfi unitiT vritb bydrogcEi ? 
AD J can ^j u tbul arita;;;oii]KTn ik, to my mind, miiviTHit, and ^vill, 
1 kUriQ, BMDQ day bv couudcjn^l «m mnob a Uw m tbo law <if ^n«i- 
'■Cml ITmaUor U, w wu KlioTOi cvetywhoro, ovun in tho iivkt^ 
H>mUc7 «|«c«b, &Dd if il lUlnwte aud iuotv« olbcr matter, wblcb it 

Tot. JUL {NVaa.; X 


Sit WHUam & Onm 

{April AO. 

aipfi*rviiUy CMAt dos ttcM mvt be Crietitfo or uli^iiAiani of iDBM 
L^i&d, Bv wiUi orfpuLued boiafli^ Nilon only iiccosusMi tiio fisht, 
t«r nibtf Uw ponr, of Uio Biroa(«ii If Imst/ kmd be wnokod « 
ft jtrl'rfH uIum) vltH-1> vriU anXj vupport (on, wMcfa to* Iata ftri^ 
to thoproilaoof thtti^BDil? K«tiiTepfiMiiavm«A,«Dd lfa«tfro«|p«t 
Uko it. Yquoi^ furtbor *$ku^€&homt wbAl U tbooMof thk 
d^iMtiotfi? I AovUtnMnr, If Ui«T£««sboln)o,ilaift]wkj«««fd 
%a know tbo Inilk Tb«^n»lMAiliMOT«r{«b»TUtt|rpnnKl vhsIim »! 
1^ liiBe. K«|il«a-*i dbmvpty ol tfac nUalMKM of tkn pktiMaJf nuvm 
■MDta ^piarttd of no twe aL tlic Ctma; no eoa wooU aov jkaovmo 
it omUm- i «>B» biO«9Ttir. leo uoch pntAblo utilitj- in Uio dootaii« 
I hmra sd-ioe«ML Hm cost^m off tbo BAc^ftit/ of MriagpttJan, 
•id Unt wiAovt it tbtfv nrnld bo no lightt 1ic«t. i^«atHdl7. or lib, 
maj kAob ua (■awinring free will) to TDeantre udort by tbo |in>bftblo , 
V^foltftod to«iittiiiato tliod««morproUbi]il7, It OMy tMobvMl 
lo WMie ou po^on o& fraiLkm oijoctc^ but to ittiliM) ui4 ngnlri^ 
thw neo^ailjr vf i;xi«tcDuoo; ror, if aty ricwa on: oufrrctt l«i inneh ut 
loo lllllit Til tuii. plhiI k line pmpirlicHi in guod (liko tnuir fithnr hmM 
IbiBgfl, it ifl Uit m lacvlvrBitlottl, to noo*pt it r«lhor u 4 booe tbtt & 
banc, find lo bnow tlut «r« caitnot dt> good witLoul odbrt— tbftt in, 
vitbonl Moio aufTcnng. 

1 b4Vi> «|ii>k<:3} ijf ftnUgauUiD M portmdiD^ tho oniTorvo. Ta tbonx 
von luftf uk, any limit iu jKtEiit of tJnio or ^oou to foroeV If tbon 
bo tOt tkoro nuut bv a hmit to aDtigiuiiflra. It uoud tihst bo«t tosdi 
la ^i^pite iImIT auiI itll tluiifcn ncocsNuily to aoquiro m gnilrTTi 
l0inpe>«iu>t'. Tbiji would in lime tend pmcticallf, lliou]^li ui>l nhtt^ 
\aiA}\ U> tha ntuiiliilntiuii of fon*^ vui Ut imiTmol dnUb ; but if 
ihera bv cTidono^ of thia id our *tthu B^Atam ftbd vjiai wd knoir of 
■omc iwrttf of ibo onivofW, \»/huAt prDt^bly i« bal liItU, id lber« »» 
<xmix.'ir*M« nmiTiii of n«cticiii ot rogiduirutioo of ective ImmI? linn 
k finmn RTidtTiifM? <kf n prulMUo ivm vt titiu[ienitiiro fcir g^mm M wo 
know tbam, i> <>. h UtmitfirAtiim «) Inv ttiAt !hf. it rriatt^r cwiiM pot onil 
ID ft gnaeona form; but fMusiup over giui« uid lii^iiiilft, if rantter 
bocomu* »i>lid by luu of buit, vixch ndid ninttcr would coaloMCh 
umvwvt WLidlJ titi txuiL-^, iiiaev wuutd ^mtiutd U) t«di tuhur, ■■! 
coiQO into □ijlliHicin, It uoLild W iIki nrd^ilar hyiKithunn owr affun. 
OondoOMtiotiA and {loHiRionii vonld ngAtn gooonilo tuat; and ao «s 

Culliflioad in tlio TJBtblo oaiTcrK vo probably more Croi|iiMit ihaa 
» neUAlly »up|iuHuiL Nuw u<*liti.Iw H)i|>uir wliuru them vmre nono 
before. OM TY>cHntly in ibn n^nKtollnllaEi i>f Andrnmnd*^ Vt- Lockycf, 
u I hfttt» iAid, oDHtdcn tliEkt thoj npc constADt iti tho m<but«; >ftl 
if Ibi'ic be BQcb ft niimbor of m4>U)cnto4 ue oro Ht^t^l to fuJI lUily £ole 
tbo fttinfjHiilioro (if tbiB mAt^'uiTiiJnijI jduiitl, uIiaL uambcr> mu^t then 
bo in thu u(ii\env?? Tlicm^ iiiitHt U: n miri iif fug of mvl.'vrita, and 
tbiH nmy nooount. coi^pl'x] v^tli nowilily Homr il^MipaUcin of ligbl cftj 
ohftDico of it ioto otbor foKvn, b^r tliu imiAJIor dcjaroo of Ijgbt thw 
would bv ciptiotcd if tbo ubirarw) of fltoUor bodraa were inflnittv 


if «>, itnA th«t KtAn nm aoiiimiil tiihn of nn rirjtmt aTnc-nft'r hHgljt' 
Umu if tliQtv tii^ ui> lose or obittriic'tii>Q» ft* li^lit from q aIat 
aui thiG MitULTO of tbe dintauou ;&ui wi>uJd from as infinite 
i>(»tBr9 probftblj uiurouo in ll^ ^keuc- mtio. tbo uiglit would 
b>M brightly lUnmuut^l jui llto day. Wit ilhi toM thdl lTi4ir(> &ro 
«htf> of ^flcrobt o^M— Quoqat, lulolcscoiit, mattirv, dciMitin^r, and 
lji>i;; ftod wImjii tfomo of tboEtt, bko nAtiotiB nt wtu*, arc br^lton np 
t^otdlui)o<i mto frepnciilAor roooJrc-l iulo rtpour.tho pj\rtic1a« fight 
M ladinduBls do, ujd Uko th&iu itiul by co^umjuis nnij fi>ruiiiig iiuw 
■D* Ukd plADTtA. Am tliB coicpomtirnt^ faw iwuplo wha dio in 
IgpdftH to-tii(tfct 'to uol ftfloct M* atiFVf «t> in Ui« tulUIu imivctiqo oDo 
fn AT filMkct in a tidlii>a or tncie ta*y dio <^»ry wutLiry ftud uot bo 
■ipqiiL while ahoIW u tduit «)^«ly brim oal of ft u^butu. Tljaji 
■oriila ta^y Iw n>fffTn«n4Kl by i\riLa;r^>TiiMin witbnul havin*; fl^r Um 
titt^ lacirw ftScct npoii the K<iNmrj« ihwn tb<] piwpiv tiuw ilymj^ in 
Igftdrm liAVD upon uil 1 do uut r^ritim to My tlint Itiowj ccjllL^ioiiA 
«n in tlicmelreA snfBoiout to ronow Aolar Jifv; tEmo EDfty |-lto un 
tnfiinuftticn. Tbf^rt^ umy I>d (ftbur iiii>bia of ro^T(iprjiriii.^u or 
fecCiTity irf tho duKt|m1al fbrun^ nnd utimo oi il moloanUr 
«hn*a4or. Tlio o^nvdrvton of boal luto at<*iniiJ forco bui bttou aug- 
bj 31r. Crvok«0i 1 pTO ^t opinicn oa thnt, but i faiiuibly 
tlmtt to dnulH the Tni^rLklily of tbo rniivcnn. 

Apin, U tho l][liT1^nn liiTiItfd? uuil if Mi, by what? Not, T 
by ft ttoDt wtiUI or if tOk vhcr9 <ioui tbu ttnll und? I« 
Itmtl^ ftiid how? If mO« b« UiUiDiitod ftud iho (inivcrzio of 
MHk pT^T****, drC'i llcnitol^ thon tho vifiibln qnU<]rNo booouics % 
lurfncNUi iqinrk iit ftn iiifiuity of diuk vucuoun kjiiwi?, niiU tbc? riw^h, or 
il ftU ovccU tlifl M-mllrfl t-tb«T, iiiiIimh lirnibxl in i-liHtitnty, vonld 
«Cpftnd iuUi 1bi« ninirini— Ik liiiiilpd fjiiniitity of (Ltbfir into ute itifiiiita 
fiMMl If tha muTurfKi of ruattor Lm nulimiiid in ]4|>iv:0i thc^u tho 
**»l*"lg dowB mfty b<^ uqlintikd in tima* Dnt thcuo aio |inrLjtji« 
fliitl— HpecnUtlonit, Wi! oouiiut t.-irjiipr<Jiuuil iiifliiiiy, nHUicir rjxit 
«« eottociro ft limlution ti ft E mwit r>Eii^ moro fjuutu SbjikoiqicAiv, 
Mil i&y tit ki« wonifl, " It in pftfit tho EiiAmlo of Ibcm^ht/' But ^vbut 
cHr fo ibo OM irilh notan ntftri ftud pUcicUf I cann4>t briiitf inyAolf 
IB b^ifrffD in ft dcftd omTcmu euiroutidvd by a dvk otHiiiu i>f fniu^u 

Matt of jvn h»Tr rtiul 'W^mdffHAn.l,' ftu.l may reoollocl tbit 
■ftfft iJw Diichcwi bfts Tittoroii ftotno ponilumtin and onijfEitatiinJ 
«rr^lliCKia«« Atioo mjr%. <- Ob [ ' '* Ah," tmjA tho Dnchct*, ** ! c^nild 
<iy ft (Dod ildftJ inoro if 1 clioiw." Bu uould I; biit my rulciitlnui 
i*fc^Wniftl opiioaiLto (tbfk Ho^k) vrnmA nto, niid f will i^nly ftdd one 
vntdi which you wiU bo glad Lj hoar, uid that vord ih — Pijiifiij 

t\V, It. a,] 

1 J 

Mr, Jawm Wimthmt 


Priili^, April 37. Id88. 

WirtUH Tlfuiam^ Emj. D.CX. LUJ), V.JLS. Yi^sfVnMtmx^ 
in tiic Diftir, 

Jxmn Winnrtftft, Ef^. }t.B.L 

JftoffriniJ ii^fittcttce Matkwia. 

1 n^TN Uko Li'inour tim ovoiuciff aradd»MBUij( ft fdw rvniuks Co von npoo 
iW itiilfjci^t uf inflaanco ttiacLiDCfl, oAtl the raiui^jcr in ulach 1 pfupoM 
li> tmt thei ■ubjiwl iH Iq hULt hb dburLl; ua pfiiMllild, flrat, ih* hiskiri- 
oul |K.iiikiii, una t/((TW»Til« trt pnhit tait thti proTiiiiiciit «]iai«ctertttk» 
of tbo Uter oud uiore ooinnioiily knovm intcbiuoii. Too '^'if"*f 
npoa Om fcrncii nill oMiifft thd o^o lt> tbo jpmonl fona ul tbo typkal 
imobiTiH. but I £i:«r llmtwottt oTtJuewill provout bio fhim Biplainiug 

In 17(>'i Wilck« 4l«wrlLin<1 a umnln ftp]wr«tiu urbicli firodDCcil 
otootnool ohATfrcA by iuflncucc, or imiQctik-n, ami r>11uwin(; tbu Ibc 
gTMkt Italinc acicDtiflti Alex^nU^r Volbi, iti 1775 0*tv tkv vlcvltv- 
phciniH IIlv fp^nu uliii^ti il fulaiiu tu ilitr jinannt tbif . TlifA ftppuunfl 
toiij beviov«(lttiinoEitftinfngi}i(i gianuoi tlieprisdpl&uf nlliii£<i«tioo 
aioobiiiofl yoi ooii«tmot«d. 

Auathcr Ftq> in tbc doretopmont wu tho inTooLion cf tk^iloablcc 
b/ BcEiiJct in ITS^ Hv tvuxlnicta) mtlil {iLlIiib vHcL hwv tlik'klj 
TftminluiL huiI wtrm ^ojhjiiii UhI by {rwiiUlLi^g Iwudlett, and vblch to» 
Bnaiii|]"l>iti>J iaj> Its to lacnano n mall itatiaX chM-g*, It mtmy bo 
bottor foT mo to ho» onidu tlio jircHsetf of buildiaiE up ui imonttibl 
AhftTgo bj clootrioal innudncc. Cur tho muh: pri&diJo nolila m «U of 
iLu lumiiy furiuB iif iutlu^Miou mu(biiii'«t. 

I'biu V>i)ta tiUttrL^iihoruis And tlicK tbrco blAckbf)«nl«, will wtro 
for tba pnrpotc, J first oxoitu thti uloutropboruA iu tho n^iul mftuucr, 
ftiid you BL-c tliut it tlion ibduuiicva n ohar>^ in iim (op pUlo ; tbc 
chiLrgD 111 tL(r rti«i[ioufl CL-rtniniutid id kuLi>ru ad uugaliro, vhiU ibo 
cfaftrge indiicfid !□ ite Uip pinu? is knfjwn aa posltivft, ] dov diow jcm 
by Ibis «IcctroBco]>u tbiit Ihojto oliiit^cK ixro tmltko in cbmottttr- ttoib 

ebvg4^ uro^ Luwtivcir, suiilLI, uiid iS-jmiL-t ubcd tho foJlowifig ^yvtett to 

Nn. 1 be impiirlcfl u rtoiidvo rbnrgr.nnd wilh It bo uJoovdii na^ttro 
cb^Tgo in pUto Klx U. Tiiou wiU pUtr No. 2 bo indoood & nodtito 
dbrLr^o ill plittx? fJts II. Un lliuu ii[a<iud the platca Kiw. 1 mod 8 
bj^tjUi^, by wlitnli RiritibiiiCktioLi bu Lnd tivu [lObitivu cbiirgis witliiA 
prufiliunlly tUu unma niiwrn, utid villi thtsRi two diur^ bv iiiduo«d » 


mm JBac*M I^mti<x MaMnsa, 


4na1ian cilisrep In (lUtP ?Vn, 2, TMa pnx«iKH vra4 oontfuiterl nntH lbs 
tav»d d^grcu of intiruHo wv ol>t4iini>iL J wiU oot (p> throufih tbo 
inean oC ftctnAl Ij briiii:lia;{ ^ip a diEu-go l>r mob mcADD, for it vould 
tdvBRm time lliAu I tAU fi|Hrbi. 

In 1767 C«rviJla ilim^hvinit the vt^ imjinrtArib fnol, tfut mutol 
tdalm vboii llMttlatt^, uluu^fi mv|nin> filifflit chftrgtui of cloolriolEy; 
loJlovitig op tbo«c] tvQ impoHntLt diivoTorii» of Doaaob qii4 Uiirntllo, 

Mi^bhiJ Bud fii^ ill lliu H&iuu phktiti, Tlititi by mmmji of u npliiillu 
■ul 1iuw1l«iv A thint di^, oIdo iTknalaUil, nftH intkiln t> rnv'ttfo Tii^ar ta 
Ihv t*o £iad dtrtui, iiK4&Ui<; iom^ht-t boin^ fiiod in nciitabto fiGutioiiA. 
ViiA tiiis »pp4rftt«a ho fi>uncl Ihnl small ividttal ohar^fi tm^ht 
na^lj Ln incrcutiL ll ia bi tbin sitnjilu aj>{tjinitu[i tLiil wu liuvu tliu 
puviitiif iiiAik^Kut EMbcbiiiiM (limtfULUi 1). uiil n*H il la rinw iL liiiiidreil 
j^g% MUCD NicbiiUan dwcrilwl taU mncbLUo in the Phil- Trans., I 
lloftk i4 «vU w«rUi HliOTiai' ft lurgu ciiKrii liiolioJiioii mouiuoo t^i work 

Tq 1t)$3 RumiiIiIa ilcM-jiU^il a iiiwrUinu la ^liSdi tliv moTiTigfliacwiiJi 
iClMfh«4 to ani! T*ri"t«l hy the* ijonrliihini of a cloclt. It wiw n modi- 
iwnim ff ^icbciLfOd'i flo»bIor, Aik4 bo luuxl it to aapply^iJuutricit^ ft>F 
fcli^iBlJi voikiiLg. Fur Homv yuan hfdjr tbutsci ULihcilLini.^ woro 
k i mi U d bo im^rlaut aJtauoo apj>«oJB to LiiTolxxiiiiTin>]v,niL(L I tliiiik 
MfnAf banltrJbnlHl to tlio gmnl tlisrjitTnrine in gcUiriLaifl rh^faHnity 
rtfcb vrVPO ruJo kbout iLc commcEtceciciit of tlii^ ooiiturj hy Gulvuii 
wmi Volte, foltovod ju 1N31 to 11^7 by thu rua|;u[lLo«nt diw>orjn<i«t of 
FtfMbj In r]<:4^lr>'Tiinjenoti«ai, ctt^clrv-cliurncAtry, •n-\ t<Uclro^iiiic^ 
^kl nu raJ unjiriivrmi^nL wiui Limilo iif lilHuou^^ luibolilM^fc till IBIjO, 
lawliich jif4r VarlcT pftbiiUocl ft fona tif miwhiiui abowti iu Diiigrjim 2- 
IlaltfD mM rloiijgiK>l Tor Iclvgniili wcirkiu^ 

In J9&5 tito tullrjoob wo* Ulctii iiji Willi vi|>i)a]- ;d UtnniLuy hy 
T^Oplitf, Qi-ltA, unl other cniiiiciit lucu. Tbr uii^l ptiiciftiout I'f tliu 
^iiiuiw niLuli? b^ Uicm iw fiijutul in tbi^ DiiignLini 3 Li> il. i>iit liinii 
•ill not ftdntil of my giving; nu ui|i1(Lii«timi uf tho lunriy poiuU uf 
ib tliim ; it Ih>^|]>; my wiHb Ui ftUow yoa iLt work Mudi uf tliu 
«• 1 may l^o ablci, nuil to qiaIeo »oxuo (iWniiiiou« ii|k>u 

In 1866 11<Trt*rli inTnjtuI a iniu<1iinr, btit not (^f tlio multiplying 
Ijfv; ftful is 1K67 Sir WiUiiim Thi'iiitiuii irv^jukHi llio f^^rm i>( 
imtAiiua fimwa io Dtiijc^iii 7, ^vtiicb, f<ir tbc T>urtf(iA'i of maintALnrnjc 
■ cwBlaut {nrtiOTitial tu & Loydc-ii jnr, ii> diiMViliinkfly ii^c^fuL 

TliP t'on^ niDcljiiiL' vnut invcixlal in iHljg, »ml in i^HO Uio Vuu 
Wtftitwi «*■ iiitro-likxtl. nTiOL* >vbicl] timo tfco lalU^r \mjt (cnitA ft |>1ft<w 
te Bnny Ubi^nil' irif^. It cbj«ulv rcnoniblo* llio Vnrloy mftohiiiit in 
iffvmncov ai^iI t)>(: T^pliir roftcliine In i^>iiHlruol)o:i, 

In oritJi iifitifl Uiin [iirt i>f uiy Kiibj^ct. 1 h:\yv bml to ouiit uuiny 
ftDMili^iH mnicn nuil tntitli inlfrtntfTij^ Mriltjt.^1 timtu^r, tint 1 liiUicI 
•Mr lluU iu |tliU'iiig vb»t 1 bikvv Ix^t'orv yoti, iikftiiy of my sviontilic 
littla bftTc bodi rtiOfly i» ho\}> ftnit lir oonUibiito, ani), ftu nu iimtaTicci 

JCr, Jamm Wim§k*nt 

{April 97, 


of Am. I EDftj nentm A^ rmfcvMu Sjlnnut P. TVkdljmu %i ocwff ■ 
pUcpd k11 hi' lilenU«Ett Ksd ovuu liM printc nutu uf rcfonsicc 4l my S 

I vill Dov ontkavoDT to poact ont lli^ moM pTomtDL-nt foatores of 
Ad iaflvoooo n—chinc* wbica I b^To prMCst* AfiOt in il'>injc m^ 1 omol 
■Ilk m taamcnW 1c*Tfr from Ao ^ulyocit (if m; liwliinr bi nhdv jna a 
ittnftU mMliiu nbde lij Aai emiDttit workOTp Y^nMy, vbiih, opart 
tfrooD lU vaIw m lii« huidiworl:, fto cJoeetf brinca w Cm* Iu fuw vith 
wo iafribcli ftppftntDM wiUi vfaicli tic and ouiura of liiH 4aj ium1» 
4hdF TttlnaUo rcworcbc*. 

Tlio nt<Tl intw^hiiMT virieh T ih m Holif. It haa oei« plato 
tCTOlriii^ ihv stvoiil pUto Miig tuv<l. Thu fii«l pinto, pa yoa aco, _ 
[If to iDfidi out iLWAy, Ihit it iM wry Ikblo tu bruakM|X. Wpcr m- ■ 
, tello» U« Axed nj-on the back vi it, wUilo (Jt^t'<J*iU» tbo iDJodDn, ' 
■ihI id fruDl uf tljci rt-'Vfilvini^ jiUu-.&tn cuimlHi. Tnwnrk tho msrhhin 
(1) ft i^M>dAll^ drv MtoioAph^rv in n^aind : (3) an imiia) cbarffo m 
jijtciamiry i (9) vfhan ol vork tl»o tiD^uiiiit t>r ol<xitridtf p^^o^i 
Am^ick tho Irnainalfl ia ffrcat; {4J tl^t direction of tkc curr«al v 
[•ip4 to rcFcrvc ; (!«) wbi^ Ao UjiainftU mn opcmid iNTjOfid lb> 
i^ailcing ilialui(V> tb(« (<int(>Ti[<<iit mindly din %vnj] (^ it doM B^ 
I fart with fk«tt o)«otrioity from eUhw of tlie tvmiJuUi itiD^j. 

It bui no idc4a1 on the r^Tolvinj^ pUUB. nor ftiiy mtfUl cootacli;] 

Ac cWtridlj 11 collected by (nnnbfi whkh ukc tlir pliKxi uf bruabrt^P 

wid it in tbt Itimk ill Uie cfinuiHTliiiii (ir ihin circuit iriiHi fiEippltm 

[cnirent fi>r tit^tm^l tiB«. On IJlIa point I obiirir^t du better tfaiLUijiioto 

^B mtrnAi from pn^ 339 of 8ir William TboiDBun'ft Pauotv «n 

pfSCtrcrfLtaticH and Maffuclirin, wtdob nrnx : '* llcJti^a uow EMJeljraled 

'fllcotric mucliiuc, vihicb in oloncly aiialc>g«>iiH in prlni^ipk' to Varloy'a 

' tf IS^O, iK> I l>r<1itAY% n rltHO^ndniil ft Nicbrdwtn'R. iN givat pmn* 

Mtpiinlbi nncm tho Abolition hv H<^ltx of mutallii' oiLrriwni »cd motaUio 

fUw-and-t^ixAk oontacU. It diffitTa from VnHi>y> kud minu bj 

IcoTiiii; Ac indaotora to AohhoItco, and uiqei^ Ao cdikhI iii Ac 

In rM)H*''t t^ rht^ iwriind ffirm rf Hottx mochia? {Kig 4) I h*Ta 
Vf«j littlo iutVprmahonf for cinoo it vna btoiight to my tiotiTo «fwlj 
ffix ynm af^a ] Late Dci hcaxt ablo 1^) (ind cither t-ne t<t tlio nubchiactf 
or any pv^nioJi who Loil ao<<ii uuu. Aa ^lill be w^oji by Uui dJa^rani it 
bM ivfo diME-jt rt'volvin^ in iipjKHiilj? diri^t^ tutrix, it )\ivt do metal Mvetort 
and no metal contuciA. Tto " cottnectmg nro cirviiit '^ w awd for Ao 
tcriuiunl cir^^uit. A]tc}*oADT J oon very vroU uifdcr»luid and MLt 
appr'.'ointt* tbc ntftkinniit made br ProfcaaoT Iloltis in • r^'pttrhonti 
Jifurnul' i>r May J>>1^1. tvb4.-iiiti Ilu \vritLB " iL&t fcjr Ae par|inEik nfH 
d»?nic»iifltniiitm 1 wonUl mthnr bn witbai»t *nclj rikj^^liinoa." ^ 

I'ho £nt typo of HalU EuwHao bmt now in aanj inalD&ocv tcax 
mrulv U|i in mnltiplo furto, witliiu euitably tnaatnitUd gUu CM«, 
bat wboii aij lumk tiji ^mit diltoulty haa \kcu found in kvepiug Mch 
of tlio luany pUtcfi to a likf; ririE i^mriil Wbrn dilTeTViiUy oxdted 
lb« ono lot of platoa fumtHh(?d poaJtivo at«cthoi^ U> Ao comb) wbiic 


JnJtue^Cf Mafhtna4 

To i>v«rKrvM thia ol!Joolir>&, to dUpotkfio with ihv djiii^'rouelj tut 

iu vhalo dutatotcf. 1 toailc n hit^ti ratchme Jjming tnulvc di>ci4 :^ f<ie( 
I 7 uirW* m dnnartcr, ftaJ in ft I iatvth^} plain ruclan^lur tUpm of 
^hM bfltv^OB Um dism, irhioL migliC rMiiUv bo rotnovud ; thuBc «lq» 
«AnW>l Ute pap*'*^ iBdii^*>rn. Ti> Jiunp aII iLo lMi>ar iudncWre on odo 
Hilc trf l!.o nudiiiLC tu a Uko cii:Iti?mo»C, I comicolrisil them tu^^Oiur 
bj » nitUl wjrr. Ttit> I1llluhint^ w inuld W4irke<] HpltiiidicUj^T '^"■^ fc^nr 

bta VKTvUr^, ?klr SpoUtsuvoodo, a«iit oti 1vp-j> oeoMicns to tok<! noto 
4^ m5 «*4T«Mfa] modificfttiaTif^ Tbo mnofaioo U nov (on yonn old, 
tit4 Mill vork* ffplcbduOy. 1 Trill dhow yoa n nmftlJor «iiiod ouo nt 

^B Tb9 B«xl fMcMm^ rai t>rhi«h T miilro o^Mf>rr»tirinn, j« tho IVrr^. 

^|fc«o«fi€U«<««nluJly of A ihflo of glAHH which U fivi> to ri>Ti>JvowitL- 

^^pt IoqeIi <ir friction. At cilc ciul tif a iliamctor il hk^vm iKnir k> tho 

^^boloi ^laic of ft fiicitiocutl miK^iac, vhilc at the rippiiAitc cml nf tlio 

tfiwatiT H ft Mnp i>f iTJhutfttm^ ruuteriiil^ LipjKkKJEu wMth, urul nbui 

ofomtUf ths MoiW ftituljcbm |)1lI«l, aro oomU for coiubivtinu thu 

imovd clwi|[ia, ttid to which tho t«rminjiU nro n'ltulhviJIy 

DBttMotod; tlw nuM^DD vorkH trdl in ordinnry atnknephcn^ AnJ 

EM^nljr iM in uuiny wujii Iu ho prvfcrml iv iliv ^implu frintiaial 

MMfciniL In mjr 4«i[inriin»nt< with it 1 ft^iiiml thikt l\i» i^uoutitj of 

itliilUflilj mig^l bo niom than d<iqhliKl by luldiiig « ei^gm^rjt <^t ^\tuf& 

fcitiriwin the unAli^m cunbii^iiEi nnd tLo nvt^ring jilatc Tho cumtil 

|(lllii4 type of tUAuLini; ja cutipiLAiit. 

^ Tha \oM inHctLfi>b Lh« <iik- fiit'jl pinte and one rovijtvtng pUl^'- 

k tb* fiiad plata nro twn indiioUirti. witilo in tho revolving pluto 

mat cbv^lar <ftftiors. Two Lnidhun toocito Ulo firnl p<>ttt<>ua of 

uulooc^l ckfttgof from the c&rvii^rK> Hhlch poriioim nro oojivt^^ud 

iba udtutuTH. TLu oiriuin c-ullvul tLu tV-'miLiuiiig ]ii>]-t]iit] of thn 

eliar^ fiv nui aa hti i>i]l«ir Hri^iitt^ while t.\u^ i\M^ttt\ rxl vrith 

lli Iwv liranhcd nouimliftfifi tho plato vurfnoA iei a Itinr of ]t# diiL^mul 

£uwler. Whuu u| work it mtpplicH a cntJHidoraMo Aiiionnt of 

cWtru-dly. Il » sclf-rxtlUng in oiiliuurydry ntmotjihui-u It truly 

pBTtft with iUt vliinlnr4tj frimi uilh<>r U^rjuinttl, Uit wboti h<i twsd tha 

mfrnrkt freqnvcftly cbftii^DA itn dJTi^tiikn^ henoo tlif re U lui ci^rUirity 

ft fuU obAi;0C bv Ih«>i ohtaiudl, nor nb«tltor tho (^hftT^^c ie iT 

ili*« or Iic9»tlvt3 iluctxicity. 

^tunl CJicni) to thu ly]nj of muvhiuu with vhicli I luu uiotu i-lohily 

d, ami ] nmy prtfiitw my xtaauika liy oihltng ihut Iho fn- 

ft]>r&i>^ Mtluly fj'um luy oi|>criunca (luiianl by <;i>(jMtiiiitly nuinj; 

*nA vi|KirJrEi^utini;( ^ith ibc mnny cktitrical taadiiucd which I 

|iM>iy 1 It Mftft fn>tu IhvEui I formoJ a wcirkiug hviMhtMri wbiuh 

Ut nfi In mmku ibv vnudl unu'^ftiu wm bifi^ru yon. Thi^ miicbiiiu im 

niult*r«l' Il «icitod itji<lt when ekw Hitb tho firnt rt^vihition. it 

»j fully Mtinfi^d ao with itH p^rformnucfr that 1 hnd U^tir vih*^n 


Jir, /, Wim^mrtl 


MlAe^ tlio Bfnt of vliifli 1 |«<ontcJ to tliin TttitLitBitoti. lis cod- 
Miwili'iii u uf ihu «tui|4ait ohiii*el«T, llMf I'M) Juc*c^ gluvmoho 
BHU to «Mdi olhor, ukd hi oppMito ilinetlraia. £u>i iliao oimw 
[ftBefadlio tcdot* ; OMb diae hu ilt Ivo br««h«« «vpfo>tod bj oBofal 
nodi» Ao rods bo tba t«o ^Ute f«rada«e ad ^nglo of W* wiw c«oh 
'Whcr. Tbc flilcratt] ciraoU is inJopctidimt nf tlut hirttiilioH, uul in 

Thtt iRBohiM M «e1f-«acdtinff vnJur flU eondillons of atiponiluwa, 

(iirlnx pK>1»Uy to ttck pkto beiiifc in^nvaovA by, sbiI inflvcoioiJi^ fa 

Icm is* oogliboiiTi hcAOo tticro U iLu uiaiiQiun rnHkro fur tnllwB. 

iThonaxdlAl Qto dirwtiou of tho mrremt norttr «1iiui^; tlita cKf 

ttouabao^ b Aw probablj to tko nmitt of Uio DOfitallio «wtorB laJ 

||b« mdM-Attd-brak ooiilMA«iJwaj» boiQB do«#d, wbiltj U)0 oovba ibI 

ib« osttor^ftl cirotril ato PUpplccacnUl.ftAd for cxUraftl uao oqI/> TW 

qiuutiljr uf i?lTcln<Hty \a nary tur^-L- mtu\ ilw |xj|j«iti>l high^ Wlm 

suitftblf tmiwit Lhti ]<*ngth of dpork finxhicMl ia oqul lo noulj 

|lb»i«diiu«f IhAitiAc. 1 bavo BuJo thMD from 3 iaoliei l*7fM«ia 

'■bowii Uic diatributiuu of the dcctrimty up^ii tlio ptktc snrftcn, 
wlu^ lli<? iLMcbine U fully vit'tltiil. The tnntir cTi^c^)* of ngna oorT> 
*|tfi»il« w^lb tb« 4^1ootHritj npiUi ibn fKint snrfiuw of tbo dno. llko 
Iwu oir^oft of «iCQfl batvoca tbo two bluk rinjpi rofpr U> tlio ulcctari- 

tcity bolircct) Uic dwcv, vbUc ihc vaUtt cirdc of nipiii corrai|)goibi 

jViib ibii vltvlriaL/ tijiim tbu vuIlt BLufA^w uf lira biu.'k duu*^ TIht 
^iagnun (r thf^ rmult of ATp^rirtontu tIijc^Ii T ownot w^ wvU r«pc4l 

k^oKr UiU crroohig, but in mippoTt of iba dUlribntioa fihonrn oft tbe 
diagnm I will ^loir yon Ivo diBCii at Trtak loftdo of » floifbl« 
OfttiMinL wliloli wbuu drirvn in one din<ctiv&. oImo logctbar at A« 

t^lopwiil br<tt^i(ii, ivbile in ilio borixoul^l illainirter tbc^ara TVpdUd. 
nn<ii] driTcTt in thn r</V(TBci dirvctfoo iba nppofiltci lUflicin t^kea ploco. 
I ImvQ ikUo cx)>OTinioiit«l THth tho cyliitdricftl fiirtn of Ibe 
moobiuu; tbr lirai of thcao I modo in 1B32, uiil it i« bofofo you. 
Tbv (ryLitirl^r ^ivm mfuHur i^huIih Ur iba kuiiiilu (I^h^ ani) in nwra 
ofkmjiTii-itlril til kjIJiisI Yati nntirr* T nftttlii^r iiaa nor rooocQinoBi) tqU 
canito, luui it is pcrbapn w<Jl to caQtinn my hiMToTv agi^iiAl tlie vat 
of thi^t n^iUcrioI for tbc pnrponc;, for it vnrpi with 100, a&il wbtttt Ittft 
tit ihu ilayLi^Lt it cLniLgi^K Jittft bfTfimn uaulcfv* 

I liMVd iiiiw only tn H]HiKb of tlmw tuTgi^r niftc-bfn«H. Thrf «m« in 
oXl rcHpof ui modn up wiib ibo Ramo jilal^, scctorA. uid bruah^a at 
wcpo nfldd by mo in tho firirt txpprimi^iitftl nincbirwid, bat for <oiit«-^| 
IlictKc mik*i ihoy nrc fittc^l in uninhaiv within n fjlafv oaiio. V 

TLiH Liinultiud biut ui^bt pliLk'H <*f :2 ftiil 4 tmilitn diaxucCrr ; it has 
biifin in tbk* jwiHJKiBiion nf titn TiiotitntiriTi f^r alioiil tlir»e }'c%n^ 

Thiv. Urgu maohino. irliich luu botni nui'lo for tliih Iccturu, bai 
twi'lvt iliflcn. mxcli St fu^t 6 inobotf in Jibtnctor^ Tbe Icuj^Etfa of Cfaric 
frtfui it frt 13^ Liicbtv, 

T)i]i'tn}{ tbf! rt>TiHf,rn<^tinn of t1ii> niarlifnn orery mltc iraa tolEcA loi 
avoid o1c«tri«Kl crxdtonidiit in oiiy i>r if a ]Htrlii, niii) aftof iIm compl^tTon 

M Mkctiaa Inflame* XaMtm. 

1W im ftUrt. \V1ioa all ETOfl r«*^ tho IcRain*^ ncre ooiui«Ctod to 
■t iWftiiacijiC- tiAd tbo huidJo itm isotoI «> (JovIt UiAt it oecuniofl 
iiiflf MttAuin tDtmiiggao-bAlf reTi>lulion.aci) vl'lLftt pciot Tiolail 

Tkv f*i*^m^ 1m« dov bom ntuiding with iU bfk&AIo MCurHl fl:la^ 
I nAx hoars ; nu «xdlooi«Dt 10 ftpp«roat, but Atill it 11U15 not bo 
•hnolvluj Incct ; of tlii» cseh ono praacttt iqukI jniltfu, but I will con- 
tart k »i(3i this doctrKQojtf^ uid Umn nuivo iba himiUis slunrljr, hj 
Aftt TOQ maj M« wliQU tin? «XiCiU«iloiit oomiDinicM uid jii(lfp> of its 
klnlotolr njliftblo bobftTioDr bb ui iii«trumoiit fur pnUtiu >lonion«tm- 
Ifa^ I aurt Mj UuU I hmfe noTOr unlor auy oouJitii>a foimJ tbi« 
l7|iD of mawQO to fiul in iU porfonnofiocw 

I nuw propose to ahow jun Ibo buntifii] ippuftnyicMM of tbe ilE^ 
(bftig^ ibca tho l«<agth of aporlu, whicb avpMf tti bo fttmoet o<h3> 
iMDnrti and Qi«B in otdor ibal t<>ii tnny iuitgfl of tho rolalivo c*p»- 
Ufilbs of aftcL of ihnM Uiroo miidjitJi^ wu nill wv^rk Ibctn all At 
Iboiunc iima 

The Urg» friolioimE DU«bino vbicb ta iu luo for thi< wmiianion 
Wlrintn to tba Institiiti<i(», It w»a uudo for Nnpotcon tu \^)i^, ^iiil 
lb mnt/L powcff ii bo wt^ knovm lo jon ttut b b»ltur «t»ULUr]l oouJtl 

Tboae five LejdoQ jbpi am of «qua1 dizo : I will ciMmuot odd of 
IfaoB omlf to LliD Urg« frioiioDnl mnchiiiL% wliik^ I tKniiLtot tno wn 
I0 «ich of Ibo two ltiX}f*} mAcliiLC* of tbo iiiflacnuo lyp^ Tbo 
4ttnRm i» powv i>f tlii monliijit^ U thi^ii won to bo vory nutrlinl- 
TW «dIbitiof) nuij b« cticviclnivl u> a rniniatnKt tbnmlontAnn \tith 
■louit DO intenniBiiOD brtnVQH tL« lightning flufam. 

la oon«lilrioti 1 ikl»j bo pocraillod to nay tbiit it ie fortnnato I hoJ 
lolnail lli«^!nioD« of Sir Williani Tliumaon&nd Profoaaui Ili^tx, 
in voulrd im dm cnHier nirt ctf my Icictun^, jkrrtiniifl tn my tmn pmf- 
beu aiMinMnls. For bid I Vta^ >nc1i opiuiuftu ffoiu i^uob lutbonCics 
I ilMHiliI protwblf bun MSOtpM thorn Without pulling tLcm tu pnw- 
tn] loiL A« lb« matter Htaada 1 liarc i^oh« tbnF-: tLiti;;e vrkioL Ihcy 
hid ] iiti|^it not to bave (Itmc and I \lAv^^ ]iifl leikIojih thi>i^i fbiEiifB 
■b*b tb^j flaifl I ouplit l/j hnrt' clono. and liy bo cti»m^ I tbinic yim 
»tit frc<Iy a.'lin]1, tliflt I ll4Tl^ prodncod un ctti>ctna gcncr^tiuj^ 
Qvbiao of 0Tvnt ^lowiir, kinl huvt pftocrl itj tbu handa of Uio pbyaioiBb, 
if Ibi parfiuMW of public ilcniLiiiblniticiu, ur tiri^iuul tdmuivI], uii 
iMrmMil iDom rtliftbilii lluiti anjlbing billtt^rio producLuK 

[J. W.] 

300 Atmuat Meeting. [Mmj 1, 


Taeeday, Msyl, 1358. 

Sib Frbdeuok Bkakwill, D.C.L. F.E& Konota^ SecreUrj uid 
yic^Prcsideot, m the Chur. 

Tho AoQiial Report of the Committee of Visiiore for the jmt 
1887, testifying to the coDtianed proeperity and efficient nuuLagement 
of the loatitiitioDt was read and adopted. The Soal and Funded 
Property now amoTuitfl to aboTo 81,000'- entirely derived from the 
Contributions and DonationB of l^e Members. 

Forty-one new Members were eleotod in 1887. 

Siity-throe Lectnres and Nineteen Evening Disooareee wen 

dcLvered in 1887. 

Tbo Books and Pamphlets presented in 1887 amounted to about 
283 volnmos, making, with 463 mlumca (including Periodicals bound) 
purchased by the Managers, a total of 746 Tolnmea added to the 
Library in the year. 

Thanks were yoted to the Freeid en t. Treasurer, and the Honofaiy 
Secretary, to the Committees of Managers and Yisitora, and to the 
Frofeaaors, for their valuable services to the Inatilutioi) dniing the 
past year. 

Tlie following Gentlemen were unanimously elected as Officers 

for tie ensuing year: 

PflESiDKNT — The Duke of Northumberland, K.G. D.C.L. LL.D. 

Thkabubeei — Heury Pollock, Esq, 

Seobjctaut— Sir Frederick BramweU, D.CX, F,R.a M. Inst OK 



Captain W. de W. Abnty, RE. F.B.S, 
WjUiaiD Andenon, Eiq. U. lut. CK. 
BenJAiniD Baktr, Etq. U.jDtt.C.£. 
John fiirkftt, Eh). F.RCS. 

OcnrK* B^rklfv, Ksq. M. Inat. C.E, 

t*ir Jjim^A OitJituti bTUWDe^ M.D. LL.D. F.RS, 

Vicat Oj}o, »j- ll.A. 

Krnuk Crisis Kst^, l>LB. B.A, F.LS. 

Wjllinm Croolirs l>q. F.U.S. 

Wnrren tk In Ifui-, E*]. M.A. D,C.L. F,R.S. 

Sir Ikiirv lAtulLuD. j Jvhii Tig^n Ffarfitld^ Esq. 

JdHd llnll GlAiEatone, Lst\. I'h.D. F.R.S. t Kmeat H. Goold, tUsq, K.Z.3 

(.'ulcnclJamesA, CrQDl, C.b. C.S-J. F-R.S, ' -^ --> - "— ■- i— ''- " 

Th*^ Kt. Il.ia- Sit ttillinni K. Otoyc, D.C.L. FJi.S. 

Ktv, Jiilin MncDiiught, ftl.A. 

Sir FredoricLf Pullucb^ Hart. M,A. 

Willinm Henry rr,-*ce, Fiq. F.R.S. M. Inst. C.E. 

Johu Rae, M,D, U,l>. f-B-S. | hn^i\ WoodU Smith, Eaq! F.R.A.9. 

Sir Henry Thompson, F.K.CS, i June* WimBhiint, Eiq. 

Ujchael Carttighe, Eaq. F.aS. 
I James Fflnner, Ijq. J.K 

L'har!4!B Hawkslflj, Lsq. M^Irvt.CL 
Dot id EdwBi-d Hughe*, Esq. F.R.S. 
Thomas John Un^lagAn, A1.D. 
Lachlrin Mackintosh Rale, Eft(). M.A. 
John Bell Sedgwick, Esq. J.P. F:R,G.S. 

ofcmor L^m ^ ott An de f fltrfnAff A nna da . 

TrUUj. !kfay 4, IflKft, 

■Sto*l"JxiiM A-HniiTT, ca CRT. rita, Vf<w-PTid4«nl, 
ia tic CKair. 

J. K, Lavohtov, M^. R,N. rrofeiiar of ITodcirii llistofj, 

Tk4 IntranM*- Anttdo ; m Ttr^^nUmarit SMrwtptvt 

Tn omiloUon ul Lliroo uantEiriM aiuco oiir groAt ^ctorj orer tlie 
jfwiib fl«*l <n Urn fturamar of lAKfl Imn nnt uiiniLtEjroUjgiTrni Hhi tn 
iift»»»A inlarcHl in Ihc hiriory of our put gtoricB, and Irifi rr^aUoi to 
■Mf miiida the wholufiamc tfoutimuat ihai ^Brtt^trinia ruJca Ihe 
vticih'' Tbere U, boiroYer. somo dnTij^ur <7f miaiui(1iir«Ua(li»j| nhiUt 
ppHlhig tlw wohIm: <rf thmkiiiK tiLnl if In piut j»irA BntitrLuin niltnl 
A**m«ft,ili# did Ai by riglt Divino. ftrby iionic qioaiul nnd cictijitinniil 
ivnnt of Providoneo^ r^Uicr thnu by tlio vuo ptuviaioiiM c^f lier 
ticiiiwicfjt nsfl hy U>o akill Aud iijciflinoof boraoAmoD' Myobjoot 
fhSu tTaoiog h§, ibcj^fum, nuL hh mudi tt> nrtrtoo LLa ^lortoiu bub 
atai t*]^ «tni7, M, vbilflt rxlIiTij? ii|k ihij main Cu^U tn yoni- rvmnm- 
hlMl^ tokad yon to cuminu ra\jrv or l<-«ii otitiaiU^ itito tho tra« 
ttsnlnc of tbe f^Al ^vtut. III'} circvniebiDOOS of wbiob Irnvo b«3it 
• mIdJ wit^ ■ g;f«»l <k«1 of r«b1o iiikI of a«li<m*l or religious [jicju- 
Am, til fUal l« lU^TiltJni; like a pliilomi|?]Licfkl nr mricjLtilli^ Inijulryi 
«Udl iWitnTn an nqimhla tMnpar And nn iitl^mtion tfi ilutafla sncU u 
Qwcmskw faulOTUQ dtbtr ulun ovur or oonni^vn to bv Uiyvnd tho 
«ap» «j bit rcttMrobi*. 

I xaftjr tny itii'ii, at tbc» oaL«eC, iJirit I coiicoivo tl;e itili^-iutLTi pn^fit- 
di» Id t¥i rntirrly mlnplfluiil. Thrxt thn iJp|»Hiiti[i fioTflrnm^Jtira did 
ifr*iik« t^ iJJ of rcligiotu icsiitiinuut, la trtio tuoagb ; ac woi^ld tbo 
GMvnsimla of Uqwio an^ Tiirkuy, fcir iiitiUiJoo* at Lbu proAcnt day ; 
hit iW EtbSBb«4li*fi «»r wUb S]>aiu bftd ti» orii;i[L in liro iwiftH^tly 
dv bat nlii>]ly mnuduw caumw; tbt> flnit ahl) cibinf i>r wftU^lj waa 
ibaatoloriTO oomra«^ii1 pfiUcj n<l4iptrfl im^^ f^jfnrtt'M) hy ihyy Spaniih 
OmvibcoI in fMfMCt of iU Wevt Lutliau und Amcrioiku Htitttcuit-iitB. 
1W Mcli a policy i^ouM ^irc rtso to eiuiiL:;:lin^ Ti-oa ftlmijpt a mbtkr 
<4om«i; UH Aiuciiiiiifti tbi7 »imai£4lvirK wtro Lwi> mt^ wEii^ iy fi>ruo 
ifdiftmetflT, by ftaiijiiii cririoiiftly ircti n^bijit'il tn Ihty drj^nniKtviiHui 
^flb* a^ AM by imiLiuiitoL cunru^t, ucrc clcntinod ia %oliivvo « 
liiMOil |ii«oo IB 1b«) tvll of Hn^^liMj m«iii(h. Tlioir niunvH ^vcro 
^*^ nAvkfoa »ii<l Fnitivis Di^tko- 1u S'^ptuntUr 15Gj^ thi-du twu 
■k% iriih iofiio fov ciMnpaniniifi niid a litt1i> >4i]iiH^lniii ct firo AJtinll 
^■■h, Bfl«r B Inoralivu though iUicit tmflic tbiv'ii^h the 8p«iii»li 
^■ttMo&lfl^ woro OAOf^bt at aaulirr, in ttio horbutir of tiuu Juiuidc Lunt 

308 Profenor J. K, laughtm [M*y 4, 

by ft Toatly Bnpcrior SpanUb fon», and were orerwhdmod. HAirkjnB 
ftud Drake, in two of the smalloflt Tcaaela, alone escaped. 

Orilinary tacti, under tte circmnBtanceBT would have digested their 
losR OS they best might ; bat those wore far indeed from being ordinary 
men, and tbcy determined by fair means or fonl toniact cotDpenBatioa 
for tbo inJDTj which they conceived bod been done them. Hawkym 
entered into a simulated negotiation to band over a considerable pari 
of Ibc navy of England to King Philip, on condition of hanng the 
men wbo had been token prieonors aet free, and of receiving mon^ 
eomjiensation for hre loss. This peculiar intrigne forms an arnqfling 
^pit^o in tlie history of tho Bidolfi plot in 1571. Drake, on the 
ntltor hand, finding compensation not forthcoming, resolved to seek it 
for himself; and ister some preliminary cruises, made that wonderful 
and adventurous voyage, in which, with a more handful of man, be 
took Nombre do Dies, socked Vonta Cruz* captured aoonvoyof mnles 
laden with ailver, and returned home with more treason than any 
one ship bod previously brought to England. Hia achievement was 
to be speedily flurpassod, and by himself. Four years oflerwarda he 
etartod on a voyage for the South Bea, and, capturing Spanish ships 
by the «core and Spanish towns by the dozen, put a girdle romid the 
globo and returned to England, again bringing back an enormous 
<iuni)tity of treasure, to the amount, it was said, of a million and a 
hiiU sterling. The outcry of the friends of Spain was very lend. 
Drake, they said, was a pirate ; and unless be was punished, war with 
Spain was inevitable. EHxabetb had ap}>arontly made up her mind 
that, in any case, war was extremely probable ; and to give back 
money on which ^he had once got her clutches was to her a oonatita' 
tiunal impossibility. She kept the money, and she knighted Drake. 
Now we, as Eoglisbmon^ con admire the achievements of this man, and 
con sympathise with the wrongs which impelled him to them ; but we 
must at the same time admit that, were we Spaniards, we might take 
a very ditforGnt view of Drake's career. It ip, at any rate, quite 
certain that the king of Spain^ and not only the king« but every one of 
his auhjects, coneiderod Drake as a pirato who ought to have been 
hanged, and nmiotained that the approval and support which ha 
received from the English crown was a distinct and valid reason fur 
an appeal to arms. 

The other and almost equally valid reason, was the countenance 
and assititanco which hod been given by the English, indirectly and 
directly* to the king's roboilions snbjccts in the Low Oonntriea. 
There wore, of (^urse, many other grounda of ill-will, begiuningi it 
- may be, with Elizabeth's refusal to marry Philip, The quarrel had 
been growing all along: Elizabeth had seized the Duke of Alva's 
troii^uro ; hod allowed Dutch privateers to shelter in English harbours; 
hiul Rupporte<l Dutch rebels, Philip, on tho other hand, had stirred 
II]) arul fomented rchollien in Ireland, and hail been a par^ to many 
plotfl in England — plots against tho Queen's sovereignty, plot* 
u^iiiiist tho Qmen's life. The breach was by no moans a ooo- 
hidod one ; tlionyh we are naturally accustomed to lay most streeB 

•* tW IiwintMo Arwudti o Ti^amktiars EHntpcd, 


a cor KflKVk fiTiovuucCMb HbI uiil eculiiucutiJ. liVlint brflUffht 
■CMn to & rliurukx wont lb« fantttrf^> InUl on KTi^jElivb «liiiipmg 
il Bfitai in Mi^y 1585, ood tho dr<4id of Spurn, wbich ctMild now 
Alfln ociMdorcH aa a Jbovtilc poitcj^ nbt<uiiii;i; tho ijomiuruid of 
tit Dtitcb |iorW.* It u nul a Utile ciiriaus Ut uato Iiuw tlia war 
ItfvMft tbo tvt> coimtHM^ wtifch ftvowollj Iv^^n in L5f^5. ontJctpatoil 
tti IUmb «f lb« v»r of tbo Frauib fCnrolQlion t^o oontaritt Utcir. 
Illdh cftM* tl>o imtnciJotc cniuio of war ww Uio droftcl of a koAtilc 
fver lurtifyii'C itaolf in Out «cfi*|iotta of tbc Nethcrland*; lo [mruit 
ihit a IfTvy uf ETHtn naa (inlvn^l : lliu iivwIy^rihiEcvcl imny wdm imA 
ftkr>^ UM4T A-ii inccmpfiUmC ^4>Ti^ni1, vbow «olo title to cominuifl 
tti rojnl fAr<iur— it mattora itxtlo vbothor bo wil» c«U<d Earl of 
IiMBHter <(r Dulrc of York- ftnd the rovult wju ii^it^niixiicniii failiiru, 
Brt M— tilhiau ike EDgUinli dr^Ft wni'pl tlia Wwt Iwlii^, Aod DnOcnV 
Qfttlitkm of 134&'fi nitA tho pf<i.' nnd pro(«^niQ of JorvU'* 
Mi^gm of 171^. 11 vill be •u^Li tbM tliU G<itTU<poi]d«iioo wma not 
«Jji& tlio cMBineticciiMiit of lboviiri,bnld«>uithdriDoroAdTuiood 
i^B»; iLftt tlicflftt-WUoacidboateot Ihtnkirkwnro iiuitAtdb^thiMo 
tf BoologiDC ; uiJ Ihst tbu J^ulruclirm 'tt l)tu i-iicriy'ii shipn at OhcUt 
fa 1596 p wro U a very fxacl aoalogy to llio fluid oTOrtliruv of 
BoiAfttHos »cb<ino« at 'rnifUl|j:«r. 

DnJ»*» laiLliant raid throiiKb tl)c Wf«t Indio* drtoruiinoi) Djlli'if 
f« ■ JDi-uUd LViomiL For tbu |awt fiftwiii yt-tiv Uii< innutmi nf 
gflrftfid KumI bnn noncml, aa a thing Ot-HimMr and Tir:pt impmuribk. 
llM hmA fnftimd by tki Dnk^* of AItil t» iriij*^ ; hfmI moro iv^croutlv, 
fa 1S83, ailer hu Tictej ovet Strnvsn And bid KcmUlj H^^it— irii^«tly 
of FtW!h mina Uu v n t — a4 TerouVt Ibc I^UniuU irf tiaiLtu T/iia luul 
iv^ h a« ft uenftMrj alvp towiirdH tbi« mdimti<iii at l\ia Tohalhtyait 
MwbnUad^i Tfat Dniw <»f HLnri^^ liad vrritMu lo Ib^^ uci« eflbot, 
lvp«H|i«g thai £D|ttial] loMion WAto of bUlo ooant in proMUoo of ^ 
andtmoo auk^ii^ Hd ^iiDiLiunLi, ibat Um Englifib iihi|w nt 
Ivut bofo tbo ft»t tn fly; Ik^). tii frtft, ji1nj«d a piu-t feomo 
vttt fMcnliliag tbat of ilio IC^plian ahijiA at Aetititri. It iii 'luito 
ftoMlble Uul Umto itctq kidc Kn^liiih diiipA at Tcrcura, tlcfUich it i« 
«Miil ; if tbtro ven, ihi-y ix^rtuulr did iiot imlUtr^ &lii);A;eiV Ul- 
JiImI and fttrlcidHl i ji)LiH.0n rri* of dnHlitg ^itli lli<j Himniiuvl^ uiM — 
«U bUxna to ikem — aSbctod tUcrir ct^apc. Tnis cv not. linninivr, U 
•fpoin oortain tinlttds roporWd fiif-blof tho Englkli t}ii\Mi did ho,va 
■NT cosaidorabto w«j^t with mobr of tLo king's ndritu? ; imd »o 
■dtuod, vij at tEu» aanw tfiuo iiu^lltjd hy wiath, bu Ooluiiubvd ou 

vWb extended to gignntic proportioni. SlTctjrtluug waa td 

P !:?< 

* <BMte rkpm.' DonntU, cla«L 80-10. 

f '1a AmMfU lutmdbli^' f4r «1 UtpllLH d« Kkvfo O. PtroiaJM DovOl 
i 1^ 341, Id^nr rrf il« pofrn pollMlnd bj C^i>t4liL Itata liaro lt«aTi piiUlahoJ 


Pntfittor J. K. InmfkUm 


bo done from Spun. Thtt vlid« Akippbia oS tlio «nimr« wti loW 

l» Ibe very ileuiwl project HubtuiUcd \tf &ajiAa Cnu gu SSai Uaci^ 
1586, tbo nmibeni fttnocDUd to: — 

Km. 1 frBL 



iBfK«IA«r T«iMlk 




77,S»0 1 

25.000 I 





i^LI«m tM >l4lMhc )^n 





gjinikg a totnl i^r ^^6 aliipi of ilII kkdn, fttut 85^3^ mttJ, to vbici^ 
woro tfl b* AiliUd oftTflbj. nrtillorynicn, voluttceray imd noa-coin- - 
laUaU, brin|*iiig up tbo tnmb«r of mun i> ft grcos IqUI of 91.S££^* ■ 
A iirojuot wo Tftct &iicl 4i> co»t1j did not como wtlluD Iho kiDf^s 1 
ildr^ (^f " |>rft«eloAl ptklLtlcA"; ho ^MwiUfni on ihr otpnlitiAD, hnt mrk- 
CoiT>?il ta# idnfl of doing it nl a cb«4pcr rato by utUiAiufC the nttay 
in tho Lav Conntrkit. ynun thm t^v up iho Mbemo whicfa niti* 
Baboly Utftk form. Tbo Duke nf Purina waa to propBtD an vtaj of 
l-lliVMiiilurx ill (}i<^ Nt'tWdtiiil^H ^"<l « Mtinlxir t^'f |1ilI-Ivi1Uiiro4 b«to 
In otrr^ it orti^iu tbc ana. Tli>3 MlI^plifi of ^untA Cms vu to bring 
Dp the CbvxiioL A Boot poitorf dl uaoogh to vtawli mj powbU oHkoo* 
Hon, Bud oarryiDK with it a, body of lnH>pH, wrhiyb, whflii joiiKil vnih 
tlii>iH uiiiJt!r tHriJiH) uuulil fvrui &u anuy at tuMt ma DUDhorwB u iJjBt 
vhScb .SnEktA CniR hail lIoTaUoi) fin Riillldiint. 

Tho nncMfiftty pr«pfttiit!rti» wtro uxtcniivo; and it unotqiiiio 
cIcAT thai, All tbcv bl^uAULo mofv doBjiitc^ Fhilip'u Bnlout 4id &i>t eomiH 
y/iwi iltu^^vii. TLc coat w^on Lvirtiiiu ; t)io iMUO WM JoTtblfril ; ned 
vfoii if TkUo'ffitHfiJ. thii iiwiilt nilj^ht |MTrhkpf not bo coaclly vital w 
d«(iiroi4. Philip hiul alnyn puciid lu a «uppurtor of ifio Qufi^ci «f 
Soota ; Imt tbo duiibl inu«t tvv^i «Qgg«itod itteU vhotb«r it wm vorth 
while, at thid Kroat eoet« to ooni^Mr « kincdora for bcr ; » kini^lom 
wLii;b. with hut French blood nnd Frvnrb prixiiTitia, would b«M>jaie 
virturilly a Fmiith i>n>viuoi\ Tbo dvnth nf tUt: t^uw^n of Soibi, ou 
)i-lS Fchrtiftry, I5iii7. r^novud tbii» dinii.-tj1ty. Ev^n iftbe (Viri>^ii««i«d 
kLti4;ilo(]L \vad Ui hv fifLtjikd ovf^r to Jaiucp, Jamoi waa not Uiimd to 
Ftaoco aa hi» mother htul been. Plnc^d r»n ike tim>nG of Eaglacd by 
8|Miiiiib anoA, Lu might bo uipcctud or cTen ooiuitraiucd ta bold it 
Titluitlly as a Spamnh Aef. Anil thpo. umuM it bo hhctetciry lo gin 
it to Joiatia (kt all V EHKabcUi, of iTounui, woa outsido tbo reakoniDg ; 

• Lhiro.1, p.2ai 

«bo WW nerolj lh« UlogitimifcU off'ipnng or an 

IriiiiirrtT httir ; tiol PliiUpkiiiuetf WMlbM]]yd««c«tidoil fiuiii Juliu 
iTGttaiiti. uid bftil ft UiDorelical claiia to tho throiir i>f Eii^fUncl 
MMtW *iip«rior tn tlut vrhich. in Ihc ouo of Hcnr/ Vll-^ hail honn 
UA tmyiTirt. Aa ui «balt«rt jirobliim lu 2t>TituLf>g7, Philip'* ^jtim 
«idqr so mtairt febmr^ Whttliur >t ootiM buoouto avnictbing more, 
& pmeticd forui. lUi^U vorj woU depend ou tUu furtuuc uf 

FMfitffttiotA wore tiioroforo now Uurriud oa in «pniAAt. Sbiiifl 

«■* voUm^d at ^e vctcnl poHa» uid o^todoUjr nt Liflbou and 

(UiL It wanue^i pT<'b&bl« tLal lli« inmioii voali] bo ■Ueiujilol in 

^w^aoBrot IMtit wboii, Nnnc niuntliK b^furc, Drkkr^ wilb n llrwtcf 

to«tf*fciiir Mf^ ftU told, ftppMn^l ovi thu fout Tho <'ri^4irg iijiiltr 

«UttWMiUdvtn£iigbud<>& UndAjiri), wtruto provontt^^ 

SfHilk ifoiidroxui froca joudn^ and wL<r<] lio fi;nitid thoir rhiim^ to 

Ivbuj UkooL- li ^m a Xt^i><1 JUi>1 UfAwtorful »U ji, buL it liui wrikrcf^ljr 

Imr afd«n«l befnriA iKe Qtuuni mpontnd ikf it f^naiibir cin1«ra wvro 

■M povt-bftol* to Flytaoutli^ but Urukt? hid uirDftdy luM- TliOjr 

Ui««cd liim, bot Qbvci fuuud kiiu ; ]7urliiijia Ibo Usftrtr of thaia 

aii ik4 too v^isor i*j fiud biiii- At niiy rttc* Pnka ueror furt tbon 

■dw, and BCtiiig on iham Hnit givi^u witlt wLioli ho bnd sniliyl. be did 

il ChdU ^i^ng«3 Iho king of Hpoin'ft lin^rd" in i moHl tjlVMiTD 

*"*"- TtuTlynvrtfii nln^ th^to ct^lkuttfd, wcro mnk. burtil, or 

IfM^bt ftmj. T^ wtrro M j«t iuiarRi«d, ittmiuiDed, and, ^Ikil tbu 

farto ««ni tmoe y<iMul> o^bl oflcr no rouitanue. OUilt (bmnfrr 

Dnlw W, (nnilting Banta Ctui in tho rorj port cf LiNtHin, of&oinjj 

fatflk^ ftbiob S«:ttliL Cnim vu id ud poaition to MW«pL 6Jii|i« ho liivl 

b BWDbcn ; tnl tlioj ti>o vroro boU£or numnod &i>r armod ; nur Ijoi 

b ■rnu tot tLoui ; oiid tlion^lt, iribb Onkc oQT tbc tnuatli vt tliu 

Timul, Ibo tu^ppy tbonght cic(<[irrvd Ui ibn «Tittiikntfe« on thorc to 

Mt dovni the cfcureb bdl*^ BtLd mak« gLinii to drivo biiu anay, 

Uvo IIm jpM ntva nad; Dnk^ ha4 atrvtulivd off to tlio Azortv, 

vim bo oaptvrod tlM ^a PA«7rf , a vcrj Ur^i> and lioh Ko^t Ijidiu- 

■uu vtkcaa lr«a«iuta an> Mid Ui buro fint oponod tlm oyt-H or onr 

b^Jiali uMtvbaJtta to tbo cajiabiliLi^n of Kuvtom Initio, und to bnvo 

lai lo tbi lotnLdAiiiiD of tha East India Coinjiauy. 

The ddctnwtioa of RliiEi|nag and «toru« at Ciulic nccoiwarily 
d4tjBd tho ci|tupipictit of tiM SpoAiflb ficct; Ujo yuit ptiMul Aimy, 
■■d U vaa sol toady, 'l^lit foUowiug February HA^S) thii Murquia 
cfSuH Crax ditnL Tbn lr>u t> SpaEit vikB irioi^ulBblo, for bo wa* 
thtottlj VMH wbo by birth wcu nntitlJKt, and by i'Xj><.'tirmco woji ouni- 
Mnd* to cononaad nacb nn tipcditiiin ila tbat v^^idi bo Lbi ut uu 
bnL Hi» uamo vu ciicircbxl wUL n LilIo iff iiiival V(Ot'>Ty. Ho 
W lv*U a bigb (vmniaml ikl lIui Iwlllo trt Ltjiuiilti ; ilucI I'li ttici acCicMi 
MTuonra waa ««vn><bUid nitb hcivm|j; put u* j^noiiiijitoug flijjJit Iboio 
Nty £i^ltali vbo wcm novr tho object of atii^ck, (.'uti'iupIvi bi>«- 

Tt ibe kitiiE and buci^uitdo uol iteEin to Latc iWlxhI tb».:ir Iimm, 
ligbl b«H ap|wititud IX«u AJuijuo Vomz d(i fiuinnaiie] 

312 Pr«/«M)r J, K, LwtgiUm [Hij 4, 

BaebOi Duke of UodioA-Sidonim, to the vacsnt comntuid. Modim- 
Sidobia, now in hU thirty-eighth jear, ynA a mmn with no quJifioft- 
tioQ fur the poet except his di^iogniahed hirth and a gentleimi of 
tompcr which, it waa perhftps thought, would fit better with the idea 
of makiiig him anbordinate to the Duke of Fauna. It had indoad 
appeared that Santa Cru2 was not iu the least diapoaed to accept thia 
inferior port ; and it may very well be that the king was almost relieved 
by the eolation of the difficnlty which his death had offered. Hii 
sacccfifior was nttcrly ignorant of naval affairSf had but little expe- 
rience of militaryf and none whatever of high command, Peraonalljr 
bravo, aa became his )ong line of ancestry, he was, as a oommander, 
by his total want of eiperienoe and kuowlodget timid, undecided, and 
Tocillating, Hia answer to the king on being ordered to take oq 
Limficlf tiie command is, in itaelf, a cnrioaitj. The bnsineBs, ha 
wrote, was ao greats ao important, that he ooold not conscientiinuly 
undertake it, being, aa he wne, altogether without experience or 
knowledge of oitber the sea or of war.* His objectiona were, how- 
over, overmled ; and in an evil hour for hia reputation, he oonaeoted. 
The equipment of the fleet was poshed on, and by the middle of 
Hay it vrae ready to aail &om the Tagns. It did actually vil on 
20-30 May. 

I may here say that the name *^ Invincible," ao commonly given 
to this fleet, was certainly not officiaL I know that, in common belief 
it was given to it by tho king himself In Philip's numcrona letters 
there is no trace of any ench thing. By him, by his secretary, by 
Mcdioa-Sidonia and other officers, the fleet is spoken of as the Grand 
Fleet — a namo constantly need in England daring the eighteenth 
couCury for what we would now call tlie Channel FleeL In a aemi- 
o]£cial list printed at Lieben— a copy of which got into Bnrghley'a 
hands, and is now in the British Musenm — it is called '*Ia felioisBiina 
Amiada/' tho fortunate fleet ; but the term '' Invincible " is unknown. 
It wouhl Bcem probable that the name sprung out of the idle talk of 
Eome of the yeung adventnren— braggarts as became their age — or 
uut of the silly gossip of the Lisbon taverns. 

None the lean, however, the power and might of Spain were at 
this time so great, that when it waa known they were b^g pat forth 
to crush En^and, the thing waa regarded as done, Angltafnit waa 
eomething like the expression of this general idea. Of the Enropcui 
opiuion of tho power of Spain at this epoch there is an admirable 
summary in tho opening sentences of Lord Sfacaulay'a * Eeeay on the 
War of the Succession in Spain/ The Spaniard, be says, waa, in 
the apprehension of our ancestors, " a kind of dffimon, horribly male- 
volent, but withal most sagacione and powerful." Their language 
ie just Bueh ^'oa Arminins would have used about the Bomana." **lt 
is the languago of a man burning with liatred, but cowed by these 
whom ho hates, and painfully sensible of their snperiorityj not only 
iji power, but in intelligence. 

• Duro, i, r- 415. 

•n tfc« Xnvin^M Ar^atki * n Tgreotttttary B*tro^eeL 818 

hbWc* i<r vihi<:li ba>J Tfol iLIk ruilliij i>|jtiiMiL i^ ^^lAalflb [tower or 
rfSfjgrith ^fmrcKiL F^ the lul ttrcnij: jouii Engliali fluton hud 
Vtmiy m tbeir ovn trregnlAj «>t, fighting tb« 8|i«iiiuda on OTor; acft 
vWm ih^ «CTi> to bo mct« ^nni CmI ooom ti> thi« coDdtoei^a tlut, 
iW tu *eg the &jianurx1 idgbt bo Mltora^ ftflnfti Ko iru but a pour 
EMisfv : ibn RiivH#cnai of rhmh*^ ITAwkjai, Foitnp, Fashat, aimI 
tMMv oC cUicff vbcBc naTDE'i ato l«a fvnUur, kkd prowd UiM 
fwm villi RPMt ftppftrcot olJn io ihtskr Cantor, 8[»iikMi wove »ol 
brriBoilile. Of «U llio pouic-titHckctt ftccouaU of thv gjml Airaftdft 
ilU Wn «NM dows 1(1 lis it ifi wcJ] In printout ibM no4 uoe wu 
VffltiB bjr ft ■liMn. or bj iiny ona who hftd pwd'col ktwvl«d|^ <if 
tti 9p»iii&rd« bjMft. Tou ato aI! fnmiJur mth tha cxij^^tmtiow 
rfmbomponrr buiaraiUL Tbo Sjuiiah obip* qy^v) aa Lu^ tLftt 
QTVis grv^ncil bu[ji,<A(fa tbt^r iwij^t; au Jofljr, tbiit Ihoj mwnibloJ 
rUbtf casUra or fnrtnunra ; m nninminfl, ttinl ti:in nsjm w*% inTUlbl^ 
A* ipjcMtor tbotwbt lio Wiold a {ufmlocft lovn. Wbal Engllgli 
nilon Iboagbt of tlwta may bo judfcoj Dom, % letter wrilteo hf 
n^RT. who «u witb Dmttia wLen bo banii tho afaippaa^ a; C^dii. 
""TwrirB of ber Ui^^j'a ftlifpn,** ho siUil, *' wore ft luiOiib fur all tiw 
fdh^ In ib« king of SiwLn'a ilr^mhiiotiii.'* 

Ell tbo i>o7r«t <if ^poin, tbo Urcm ({Ottip ftuil brofntvlooio of 
L i^-vkD, ftbd tb« reports of npiofl «bo ftslt hi hmsour bouAd to ^o 
tvii vUttP for iboir hJxct grnly dag^uruks] Ibv kilo, tliu iiiigbt tiro 
tmnoiit «k(1 lh« «qtiipfiierd of tbi> floot oa it naibul frsim l.ie1>ou. 
Of lb tiQCibori^ Bt2o, Anil wmunont J •toll havo to i-jri^k |<n«outEr- 
Tbo cq«ipvkeiUt vilb vhiob vc am jut now canccmL-Al, wo^ >o well 
And «D jMrrftci* tbit b)r tbo time tbo llcot readied CApo 
VMl qr»ntil]L'4 uf thu pturitlortft ncru fotiwl tti be bnl, 
f an i l l , fli f'.-r botbin^ bnt to bo ibrovn ovorboftnl, Tbo 8bi|j« wcfq 
Aorl of ir»l«r, pr'>t4bly bcCftiuo tbo oulii woro looky. Tbo «bipti 
libtfDMlTDA wvTo a1ju> Icolciug — atminc^ it wot luid, bj Uio bcAVy 
■Mlihot. but nmlly frnm }nin^ urormaatiHL Scft^ml if thr.Eu -nnrs^ 
■tib dificotty l:i-^t tfoat ; looi^ wi^rn i1ibT00Mtf<<l ; ikuil iJic tlintrvui 
VAsoo g«BorAl tba 3IofLiiia-^iilciiiia lUiti^nmrioil to prt int<> Curniuni 
tocoflL Tbifl bo dill, but Tfitbmit ukli^p; any procAiitioiiP bi lot bis 
btmlMin b* kuoiii' ibrtiut^li iU- flu^L. TIlu Si'illy Ltlu batt Ik^cq 
gEnn ovt «■ tlio ri^Kli^ruuft ri mivo tif tiTpAmtinii, ami lumiu ituzcn of 
tbi Mda, findioff IIkiv IimI Ltfit ffi^bt of tho A^tniiril, diJ »coorihngly 
9> bo tbo iMg:lLboaTh'K>d of Uto SdUy lalo», wlicrn tljcy vtf<^rc duly 
M<a Bttd rop^Hod hi rtjuioiitlu Tbcir rc^CAl], tbc r^dUctiug Ulo IIcijI 
«t (\vmtrw, tlie rEiiiting, tbn nipnitiwioninn^ all lixik tiun^- Tlio 
4mi^ w^m bo gnAt> tho uuinbur of Htok no lur^v, Ibo «^AJ4iiri gittttiig 
Vt^imooil, tbAt ouuiidt of w^r iiTi:oiitlf nif^^tmntoudoEi |ii?flt|»-~ii}iiig 
A* tspolitiou till tbo QCit jcftr. 'Tbc hintj'ii of d<ra norc, bonrcvcr, 
tmntlv^; uid tllo Qwi fliinlly uilol from CorDuaa ou llio 13-22 

Tbn 1BAW part cf tbo KnclUh ttt>ot vna nii^n1ini-> niTieitori<J ftl 
rijDiovlb nndor tbc cuminAud ni Loi-d lIovraLd af Miriifbiuo, tiio 
Tot. Xlf. (No, 82) T 


Pnifimar J. K. iMgkam 


LoM-Adminl ol Cnpluid* with mhoa w«K DaIm kii4 Haivtjiu ki 
vifo- Mid ROT'ftdtiicralfl; OLVtrnl ii'>M«iDiiiii incla<iinf: Lonl 'Xbomu 
lIo«t«ni,llb« iclmiral'B ci^pbow ; tiia tno »xi»-i&-Uw,lXni Si>cffi«14 ul 
Bit BobntBcnilkwell ; uiil iIiaI qjuunt miitara of conrtW, aflvenliirtt^ 
ud bflftOUMttr, Ibo TmX oI CunabM'lLnd : tn^rtbnr tH'.li ma&j gffn<iEba 
HA-^offS of ^on tho b«rt IcQOwn ira Kn^biur, Fcnnar, and Ftnktim, 
Lvge ntunboTB ctf iserobuiW >^>P*^ krvtol by tho Qat«ii or lij tUr 
uwa kiwiia* LnJ jotacJ lL« fittt, wLii-b an U \*y *! ri^oiootfacuRaolei 
of aiboni SO Mil M Uild. Fnom thn timr <^f bin rrtam frum Uw <^H 
of 8wm in llw imTioiif nnuDcr, Dnko lubj b«n argcet tfai^H 
■biotiJd boMml o«l Vflftin. wilh* stiU nor* ^worfnl •qvkdroa, to r«|^| 
tbc Iftqw, EUmIejuj, F^biaor, P«bmi^-411 fck^ veiUMn of upcmH 
— varo of Um mom opinioD* Hovud, guadfii bj iLeJr kilvW 
ropoiitodlj pTHvcd tho importAQco of tbe 4^ ; but Elibbctb KU«d> 
foAtl^ ro4i]s<<i< Sb4 bopod. porbftp*, for poaoo; ncoo pirob»blT, 
potbflpft, alko faopo^l tbftt tlio wni idglit coolumt to bo owned on in 
till! name cU«| auil Juetjllurjr fvbiuiL ii» ilnriag tlia Ual ihtvo MMV 
lUrfl true nnvillmg to »t Fhilip ihr iihiripk of tnom «iit>ffwid MI|L| 
II U difBcult to bolicvD that ibo wu coitirclr boodvt&bod bf^| 

tbc Duku of Fanoft, Sbo wm banolf boo tKvoniblulicpd in duaimftU- 
lioa Iti f&U Bnrrf) Hn mhj rli^itm iw«b«>IacommoDly re|«Munl«il; bull 
tldtik Ibal ib« luid porviwlod h^r^cU tlftl tbA propnntioiif m SpuM v<^ 
motvlj a tbrcot* v-bidi, howcTur, mif^bt bo oonveriod into « IctriUo 
reality. And Uiis bcchib to iqo t^ cipUiu her i^obtc oondiiol in tbo 
tujitlcr of btippl^ltig Ihv b1u|ib. SLt^ btlit^ved UuU Uw Sfuiiftids wouU 
OOt bo tho ftgffr<Lau>Tc ; that nry citnt'^rdlniu^ fOpplj of UDDlilBilkO 
tvM unoallod icr, vii proTuioiw o^iald bo pat on board fnm vn^lkJ^ 
vrotk. It «M obcAFCf* ab^ may bftve jurgtjcd to bcrvclf, tlun to ^M 
mid iibip » luaolitr ^f vtotrs vtblcb would uuly hnve tv bo Km^H 
again »nd ^lUpua^ <vf ni a Irwa. AM »\ ri^tvithfltamlEng tli&pfi^^H 
iiimI (iiilTiAlirA i-^i Howard and Drokc, bAfk<^ up by itt OpiniM^f 
c^cry niAik of cipcrjonoo, no firtbor attompt voa moao on tibe dp*i^| 
IrijrtA. It i» pri>linb1c onnagh that b^d Drako haoa fcrmittod, & 
would Itiivti kriid] tnwh n bt&xu iti tlu^ Tuaa or Sn tha hubuui cf 
Corumin, m viotdi\ bavo allboLually |iKrT«otiNi tbf ixtvubn which wm 
now on foct. 

Il Lm boon utid over and civfr acain* tlint tbo Duko of If^ii** 
8id<tiim u^M nrJi^n^l by rhiJ]i> Ut bti^; tlio t'rc^udi cuut, lu m to 
avoid tb^^ RtialiKb fl^l and tik rt^ob ibe 6ttniu of Doror with bii 
fon^i? iiitout. Nutbiriff oan n^t b« t»OT# inA00tiral«. H« «««, on Ibo 
c<iT)trnry, ordcn^l, if do met l^rftli<i ii«Ar tlio month of the Cbaiinoli 
b> fbll on him Aud ddHtrny hita ; it would Iw tnaicr aud maro coHaitt 
lt> d^lmy the Kngltitb (iLVit pimxTnii^alp tliiui tr> allnw it to nolWt in 
one. Nuri^o liia ii]«triii.^lioiift oonUin uuo word (ibont bugging tba 
FrQtioh ooiut; on tho coatrarj, Ihty udviao tho SdJlj klos or Ibo 

• M.iutuD, iu CbuxTjbJri < VoruM,' ILL p, 149; Lnbaaf* *K»fli BMoit/ 

tlvlM ft tcimIoktixi*. aTi4«nggveC tbo propnol^ of noicin^ OB iOBW 
port itt tJ>o ^atA of EngUatL* Ab a n«tt<ff of &ct« o 
Mte ttoi^i of tbo StaUf £•!«» ina giroa onL ma 7i»irle3BVoUH b ttic 
■liiBiiiirju ; in llio voeood, oilttilliigfhjiiiOu'uniu, UiorendirxTotu 

In ofuuing tha Baj of BUc^j tiie SpanianlA cstpcriciuioJ bad 
«iAir,«ikdw«r« ft eoodd«alBcatt«rocl;bfLrvIj tiro-Uurdd of tLc Hont 
^v>Id oommny wn«ii Mo4iti»-5ii1onjft MflLbtol tLu Liunl uti ilm 
of l9Lh Jnljr, Hocnrding to thn Kii|f1Uhcft1nnr1nr,«liic>i Tflhftll 
foUow, Itwrn whilrt wnitiog for ih« fleet to colloci, ba 
Uto roysl eilMid*ri^ »t tliu for^ — « socrott flnf;, conbtiniriiic in 
rfiKtioii Id Uio ttijol ftmj«, llio fignrvn ijf Our LunI muj tlif? iJltwd 
▼apo. Othor Aagii tliciD won> by tbo Hoom. Tl^v fl^* t vkuh i>rtpirii4«il 
^ ffmri&oeo ; and 1 mm Inl to W)kvo thftt tbo sbipB cf oftch ^ititdron 
W>* 1^ 6og of Ita prOTiDOO — ADdolnaA. UDipuDOou, fiapJoc, A^; 
Ibil th^ worfi in o<lihbion Ibo flw* of tbo ciubkia And koigbta on 
boivt], ub] pn>1iA^lj &bw tb« fisg of llie MrlicuJiU' Miut to ythich iboy 
vn dodiefttod^ Bui Hie flftg tFbl«b llleyappoar tn hnva vam Jn 
■mnoa ■< lli« flag of tliu ttinjiiro *«a» etnctly PtH»1tiiiff. tho Burf^tin- 
Smm Bl^ wbkb li^d boon adopted bj ESp&in ia tho bmc of UltarlcA V. 
il». ft oolliro ntfttlod rtd. I luaj add tknt, ami>ii^l iLia f;rvalt, 
d dininnij (ff llnpA, (ifi n»n lT«g wbinb t^HA imt unrii And 
aol bo ir<irti fnm Ihc red aad yellow oovffi) of the proacut daj ; 
it flotf iftfta Dot inTental till tho vonr 1T83. I may herc< remind fon, 
fe faMilai^ tbfti tbo Bd^IihIi ^a^ AitlluiUmii vvtih iLc pUiu t^t, 0«prgc'« 
■biB^, M cnvM rrid ; muil IIjim wifiiiiH U> }ihV4i lifvu mini \'j every 
>bif ; thion^h thn Arte, Lord ITrnmrd'H *hip> flrw the mj'i^l 
ftl tbo xnoift^tho lUiot, ftnd Li<'iiM. tlic rvktivc p-^Fitioa of 
*blub will nocall to jon tiio peculiar happiiu^u of Macamaj-'n oolo- 

Jt»l uadvtutAib UkB i^ifldly puv l<e<ula the ^^ Llii-a Jowit." 

ITWtfcgf any of Iho nhips fl^ir pHvtitn er incaX Ilngq fn dfinlitfnl 
llkmb it, bovoTor, ttal in\jtn>hMa tbnt thoy^liiL SirUflwitld HrittHy 
lUhft tbftt ftomoof tbo *biiH may baT« worn* not the plain lOnjcti^th 
Wi to tbo red iiram ou a Tudor gn>uiiil. ntn^jcd vihiU.' aiid givvit, 
M^bao 00 oiKrvn h 1b SDna of bfn iltili^htriil pictim^n. TInU mmh 
1 Twrtinalinn flog wa# ooqaaoiiuiIIt umk) ir p^j&Ritilo onough, hut I 
Im ftct fovftd aaj otidoooo of ito luiTiDK b««n ^rorn m a n&tional 

Wbilit tbe Duke <if MtTHrin-SiJumu wiia If iiig bx tilT ibo LijiHri]. 
■ 1Mb Jalj, bo mm aighu^ Ity firi<> ot iht- Ktij;c1iph fniinnrii, thn 
Md/a JlraJ^ ooaoMAdod liyTluimiiB FlfiiLj^ng, ^liu fnrthwitlj onrriod 
1^ am lo tlio Admind;] and, accordipfi Ut iha fnmiiiar- t^U>rr, 
*Uob 1 «Bo Eii> iDOMuti to doubt fuuud liliii. wltb tbo ailioiraJa 

V tl 


Pni/MM- 4. JC. LdHjHUoB 

■od enfitifiif <J tike Aect, flapng bcrvl* on llid Iloc^ 1^ 
llr. WrighL, of PljiiMMtUi, l^ iiKli-fjiligftble m-enAsrf ol tb« Ti 
U11R17 CMUMMontkOf W o«Ued mjr Alteakn to a puDphkt 
nnUiahvd xok 1€34, in vlueb Ui« in<tdqBt b rvfencil to m « 1 
Inovo bet* Bat tbo ooacmoti idcA tlul Fkrajc^ «w a pii&lc; 
lir bad booi ta HU jiillmiitf ; f lb«t ia Tcttturiiig idIq Um |irMi 
Iho LotH Adminl, m rlskM hia 1ifi% aiird emjijr aitciI it bj Ihft; 
teuco <>f bi« Dovi,} ftU tkia ia eoolcvy lo wul'ftaNrioiiMd b 
iV ^ VIc'BBjnVt or iodood of tttv ■c<mnn of llul i^t^ ib^t be 
flotPMittod MrnM imgvilMUiM nidi bb cnctaiM iinifbl »lipii 
pino^. iaof eom0iiiipoaj1>l«; but ht* wu nut > lun of ill 
He BMru t^ hftw bMn % ooni)Oc4Ji>n of H&vIi^m^ axrd 
ocoBiBtfidM Uio G«UcN Jfiihf, « vK^'luujt-Aliirt in l^ Qvoca's 
ftttd AcrviAg voder Ibo itKtnoduU} oo^rt of l>i«t& 

1*^ fiSlowing da^-. Satimloj tbo flOtli, tba 8]Mnifik 11o«t 
foUopted olTtlke Liiftfid Mid mofcd ftlov}^ «Mtir>rdi. A ccmii«il 
w vw b«]d. Tb«7 b*d l«tfn*d Iha lh« K«gbiih fl^ci ivm 
rTjtnfmth, nnd Utc steal w«tj;kt of opi&icm ikRinni; the Spftaidb 
nu timt tlit^y^ uught tJi »tlack it tikonii. It hun ftlusj* bi>en 
th&L MuliDA-f^idtuiiA WAA jirvvi?jit«l fh>in rlcitcig Itiii trj h)S ini 
lions, Tbo MUlMDont is JnuHiimtiy The lutterof Li< itvtrm 
diatncUj ponnittod bun to ftltach lb« Bnnlub flM4 ; Ui« spirit 
IhciD cnjcdiicid bu d^MDg it I Fcaiunntolj be mwondcntoixl lis 
■trtictidUH ; Lu uuumrod that bo <nu bound to go n]! rbAnan], 
ing ii^itb«r to lh« rlgbt bftnd taur to tfac l«fl aniil be coiUd aflbtf 
jwolios wiUi t)io i>tik<i of p4niift. HmI ho, on th^ liftb, 
flnt lovncd tJiiit tlio fiDj^li^fa £o<4 vtm •! riymoutb, cn»i 
mtb oran vocb »bi[M ah bu Wt uilb bim, be migbt havo ml 
Sfvacd Uiit svmtitg. Tb<t wind uwi fruiin Ibe Minlb-Wf^ti, 
EnglfaU abipt, peanod ia betwcK^u tbu 8p*ukn[« ioid Ibe «ban>, 
bnvo boon fbfood to flftlit 1>*^ to bund ^ tbo rtatJt migbl ca«i]j btti 
boon diSBMtcir. Tbc Sfoniimltt DCfilcctol tbi^ir cbAucp, end it umi 
rtwarrcid : fur iltJiiag vxvt SatunUy tLc Kui^UbJ; gU oat nf lh« 8ni 
(lud idrt't(*)]ed nUng the ^cmA lo ihe wt«limd. On Snndaj mcmai 
nbon tbe ln<> Bi-ots von> fir«t in proMuco of VAcb ulber, tbo Ei _ 
«cre lo irindword, aad by tbo vcathcrlj qualities of iteir «bip4 
UL> difH(^ulty iu bixjiiug Uje luIrAuttLgo ibcj bibd i^ini-d. 

And now, bufurv tlxi fi^^litJug Titt^iift. it iv tmi: to SMttk of 
oomjKUotiTe ri>n:« of ibe <»|if>oft^iig HuoU, Wv hw^ ikU c&otni, 
our infiuioy tbiit iho Spaniah fthipe, as comprvrod witb tto 
woro fftvpondoiut in point c>f gixc, nkurellouB In tUuU tdfUDi 

t 'W«^«»id Dor 

* UarpkTi'B ' I'homlK UriAnnlfitii^' p. Hlflu 

t Muu*i>T>, [Q Cbaroblll. lU. (x lAO. 

i Vp'rJKbl'n ' UriL»Lu'i tUwUiU^* p. J9. 

u ''hi 1o|mri^i]Lu 111 dirJm Dnif)m« con In Annwk A I* beea dd Ouul 

Wtn\% iiiEiv tiiiriici ]tI» vvikru<iulrj %^. pars ijuo DO H pudlcwa jueIat todi^*- 

Ditft^ Lt, p. 1;. 

^1 ad la nmnber of m&a bojond all [rrnpoTtmu. T1if> nurnlotit T 

tlm*, trtna ibo ol&oiftl 6|ifttiisL Twoi^' ugnc v<jry woll with 

■*^ I '^^ 



\Xf 1 £iT,ih;8 


«»M0 aruawi. 


I ,»W vfilnntiy-r*, Ac 


T^Uil . 

a(j. loa 

Ib oow |«iuit aIdb* of tliiit eUlcmsnt U the dilfercttuvt froai tliA 
attomil wortb noticiDC. Bctrrow i^irc^ tlio uiiuibfT of 
Ifiuip RA 3165. To tLia 1 Bbikll jticfc^ily recur. MtaDtiiUL\ 

bra (o jiuiiit uitt k> >i.iij tbul IIicbo uuiiiUm nrici' U> llio tloul h« tL 
M Lihloii. Thry hivl KnlT^^r'il a Tiiark''i1 (locTOJun hfifjrfi the Ai^t 
UlOucii&>A, antl a »iU further doorv^oAo hofuro Um ttMl cilhiq mtr> 
AiClnDikel. Of tlio dhi|>a left ioLiotl 1 Latc no Accuuat. t^omiJi 
ud ■oiDD Imi^c aliipti huou^Ht Uiiirii. C4!i1miil/ cKJ uut couio vu. 
fcvB, a^in. h|»|»wr C» W<ir (fekru^l v<mi|iniij i>d iJw vojtgo; aiul iif 
bv g«il«7*, in>sa irlridj nuicli luul Irt^cui oxpficlcxi, cnio wju driTcti 

wriiLi of ii. ri^tcu'aei to t^|>AiD4 Allowing U*i tUcoo lobaes, L ihiitk 
lt4oab*fn1 wIkiIiut oruu 1'20 HlLiiBorall hj^:» tiiuto into LbuCLiiiiiLul; 
tfiff mnUittr 4>f moo Okl rcitAlnl^rr nctt <ikoc-(.'«1 3J/J4>ti; ncid m t1t>) 
•NMtl at v^ hold lU Coruima it VM ofatintutoil ^u low &■ tJ^^'^OU.^ 
Ott llw uilicr tiofid, tlici Dt^mbci cf men bui'ao in the ll^iigliaL Bhipn 
•hc<t all cullocktl U'gDlLcr, ]> ofBi:iull7 i^ivim u« 1C,'J25, ti) ivhicU 
O^dil lo W ailili-'l iimTiy iiiom who mutu H.t]il i>IV fi'HUi riyni'iiitfi <iii 
SutJahr. orwtio joinod nn vi>luuLi)iirH Juriii|^ tliv (inrtH^i^ii up ■ 'JiJirnoI. 
It is ilim<iilt u* cAtiniato tLo |^iim IoIaI 08 l<«« tli^ti I'l^tiu 1 7^000 to 
ia.OOU iBvu. 

Our itira of tbr Piattr of ilia iSjiriuinli ttlil|ift Iiak Iwr^ii hIhi iujiiiuwIimI 
— Q)rr>t T Atf«:J»riiirtg tft llAm>iv ; '* Tliu bciil iif thu Q'ioo(i'h Mjm 
tbevd «long9i*l« <*n'i of Itjo flnt clue of &|>e4itiLril^ woiiM havo Ix^uu 
like a a|ou]^uf-var by th« ddo of a flrit ratv-'* 1l point of tounngUt 
Ihbj irtrto, in ioct. tlii^ «Wno. Tim InrgrML Fl|M»iiiLrii, tbi3 Ittytuvmt, 
tS tlM LpvBXlI «»iiLblT^jri, it given (u uf ISTJ t.iriH, Tlifr Inr^mt 
Culial) lUiijV tlJO ^Vriiin;>it, wot of \\y}0 toUM, ihui) iiiik»y ciiv-iimjjIiincOB 
^s BBO 10 b«]iovv tliat tlio Kn|;li4li nio^lii kA locUuijin^ tuiouapn t^vi^ 
avnalW rtMiU Uiau tLc ^^imtiiiJj. || TJjLnu ih iii>d4ru1>t. liaivtvcT, Uiat 

• l>anK ti. ni. OU. flU. t Uuirvhi ' U^t- of Dnbs* |h 2T9. 

(IflliviL \>. ^0 ^ ii^ ^^ il4>luJBat lubl, fliriuiiiiv ririULOua 

JDor*v *i- M' >='■'■ "^ 
CHIi«<r oriw* ^ ttt^Hm\-* t-Hiirn^* oiIhi^IjnI hi ihn rullavlnir njgn pin 
b rarylaff fPoai tU lu M itir f^vlL iinin-. — ' i^late I'ajvi*,' lX>ijii*Lit\ 


Pnfimw J. K Lm^Uom 


II14 SwiUi Uitpi looked krgor. Tlwlr pM>p« aad f<ll««M■tioi^ miiig i 
tjoc ftboKQ iTcT lo a m^ beiffht. tovcm 6v abOT« tlio lowtr-kult I 
B*^****' Hot tiiBl U« Urgo ODfliab thipB ir«r« bj au lOMtt ftoili* 
4eaM; bst ftiij «*<«« tio4 10 liigh^bftrg^ m Ujo BtMoitli. Tb« 
jBftg>nfflO 4)ffbrad a gnal Mlrv)Ug>^ tiJ ibr Sputiftid* in nftiiii*to*hta3 
fiflUmg ; il taU tembt]r AgnlAM Iboiu wben th«ir ooomj rotood la 
flloM ; il «a»da iMr alup« L«owdlj nd «iupa&agMl>U in cmt • 
nndw^U lirvoUfe ind, aJdid lo Uio Spttiisb U0gl«ct of reosuL iiu- 
wowiMrafci in rig-^'ootaihljrt thn ifilttidii«iiiiii of thn bovlinc— mn J«««l 
Ooot v«r7 inforkiv l« lh« Eogliili in lb« open bm." 

And Dot <aU vm ihn% Ihie iafmonl; of cbo «|)Jp«» then «M 

•4 loul ■ contqMndiafc Infcrioritt of iLc aoftcieu, TIkO Qpnoui^ 

Lpan (a bet, hi « t^nitt (ixti:nl, fftir-wfiiUi<<r ftaEk'n^ Stiiae ibero 

Mcmbdeai «nn> who biul tioublni (*ipc Ifrim or tlui Ctpo of Good 

fflopo, bnt bj &r Cho grvAtcr num]n?T bad liulo cxporicnoo bcryond tho 

f]luJitomii«a&, or iLo «qiiAtiU mti duwu Ulc uodc* 1« the Woii 

wiiliuL To tiio BoglubvOQ tb« oilier buid. uuctiatuanDd fruDi bcj- 

^ncd U) tlir Imh or Iceknd diditrioi; In minh^H-nl to lIm rojti^ 

|9 tbo n4>rlb<vrMt wiib Frobuttr of Di^tj*, or roond ibo vorU vrtth 

Dnkcf tbo tfumtuior gifcles of tbo Cbnnno] were, hy onin|>ttrI»oD, phwdic 

lki£«»--tUiigB lo be wudod ot bnl not to bo ft^um]. Etod if ibo 

uaaa btd boon rqumi in qiiiJJtj, tho ^[muiitb h1ij]« wvn terriblj 

IVEtdontiuiDod. Thu KcoTDiia bntcitiiiUly gavo dIaoo to tbo toMltfV; 

Uio aoldiom ooimuAudod ; tbo voimotL did Ibo drudfcorr, ottd oot ODO 

wu bonio is ovotott of wbftt LLdr aoldior nuuitori ibongbl nocoMifT- 

T]m tbvutulu uurnbora epc^k fur UiuiuKilveci. uid ofiti cnmpnriMia irUl 

be Bofidoiit. Tbe Am Jfnrrriir of 1000 tons^ tb(* flugahip of tib* 

Dako of Modioft-SidQuk, bad 177 Mtunon and ^00 ooldiurtt. Tb« ArK 

of SUO tc^UA, tbo flbgohip of Xicicd lUwnrdt optwarc to bftTO bnd come- 

tbing Ukn 300 iXAmon and I'i^ trolJierB. 

Moro Imrhorbknt. bfiwi^fir, Ibui onm tbUlnfftrftiritr of tho Spudih 
abi]>a And MLildrK, wntf tbo inf^rioHtj of tboir ^no uid guxAon* Nov 
bcro 1 oomo on to what in, I boUoTC, to lEtoot of JOTI now grooDd. 
Yon bftTO Alwftjtt b>^n iK«u0toDMd to boor of t^ naiabor uid »i>« cf 
tba 8puiiftb RUUK Tbo fttotemoittfl to Ibat oflect nra ab»alDlolj 
JpootToot. tTm ^pMiUh gnnn «oro, ha b nilo, tmoll: 4-, G-* or 
QC^oundoTfi ', tbor woro oomporcitivol? fot^, and thc^ vofO omorMj 
vonEod^t TIed oiicf Iu6t vruy (9 «bow tlm U by fl aoinpv«t]TO InbU of 
SktiuauH^ts. It ia not i>«rftx;L ; it lh itut rigiol/ tocunle ; Uio mcwM 
to ooDftlmrt A p^irfcTt or iirairimto Inhlo do not, 1 four, MiKt ; but to 
^ U it ^Dui, the tublo on tbo op|>o«tU pagp> ombodiux tbo bcttt in> 
fbrnuhtioo nttainnbto. 

Tbo Eui:lt»li uiurHooatB aiiovtn iu it uo from n Ikt dnlad 
IGO^lf'i^tf iifjil iitAy ])(iBHib1jhTL<t» rtr>iii« improTomf^ntontbevinuimil 
l^fT «li:pfl cnrried in 158^^ I fi06 no n>Aaoii> ljo«dVi>r, to suspMl Micfa. 

• Oi>mpnro Mpokai, la CtaroLili, iU. pp, &12. 310. 

t Dnfo. li.p, 2a7. 

t * Arcbieojagd; Xiil. p. 27 ; Dcnisk** * KJbv uil Pn^ nvi of iht RojaX Kanr/ 

p. Sit. 

tin.) tm the Jnriinttiite Armada: it Tft^Mt^n/ir^ Jt^lrmtpfiei, 319 

IkrvnotbMn mblo lo taie» lb« ori^nal from vhie]i ihia finpcr vaa 

iroW^.lml I h^To fottttd of Uia mma dttt<\ !£!>&, MiLiiuAtos for tbo 

A of liiTMi nhipii UQW in bailding, * tbo onluADce for U}e DraU 

C'^MTARftioji «r Arut&vnrTS 









70 I 31 





ro^ao^ 13 xi 9 







bdng dMcriliH u '^niEKivoniblc to lb» ym-nx tbfttnrc In 
IWKt 0a»Diir." i llii>rc<fnrfr afcow lift» (Jio tho Ai-niiLmont of Uko 
J« Omowv m giTM in tbo pofici in tbo ' AroJinologiu,' ntnuvdj 




EhBOlptJDn of tlanh 





ftrHflMtr » 
M.IJM » 













AiKriLer c»tjm«lc tbiLt Mems oatilb^l ta credit, ie that given of 
Ibi irar****"** of ^ci R^xfUffe — « bLlji uf Lbu thuuu aizir' mid utmibur of 
^■i W tbo XnnpfA'/, vhicb wiui taki>n by the S|KuiiiLrtlfi iii Ifini^tiKt 
■M tvported by tbem (o bflvo JS Itrum gmia ; ^0 ou tUo towor dock 
vr from 4000 to CQO<) \U^ woigbt. nad tbo ixst of from IIOOO t» 
UCMXt Tliei^HMtorwoiflLbcun^Hpaud tvLtiu G0*3Q-or Id-puiuidcnir 
IbiMVftlW Id lbo9-U]d (-piJuijdtirK. 

Of IIm tJ|Antiib ArtTiftiriiinl no nmiiot epMk vitb thaHuni^nbfoliitd 
kMvlblgO; bvU it sccn^ oiLoiitUtL that tbo giUc«H<0 wcfu tbo mgnt 

* -ebit tViKf*; D«n£«tk, FtUtL 111^ «IU. 13, 

t Ducv i p. T4. 

Pr^fimtr J^ £. Lat^ton 

fc«tTlbftmal«liipf i&>1icflecl; nbd of tkcoe tlic San I/ jfWm , 
wu IUD» off C&kiit. iriw ihu UrifnA uid lunvinit. Tlic nport 
unwDont giTCtt fc^ our paopU. who h^d poMMMiMi of Imt fn . _. 
ltmd,«ciTf««|Nia^f«iHyitoUiHlbllMGAo^ TboJAMifr« 

^rntrro dt^ JfMari> mM tbo 2ftr|p) thip Cftptnnd bj Dnke abI Mnt 
li^bi Tiirby-t nor unuuncoit in given frrnn tho nffloiml ini 
tU:fiii ftt Tr>rfLD47. tibo ift qwkvu of I17 Duro m oflw«f 
poivtiful ftati M«l aliipt of tb« tle<^t '^'^^ otbor Im sbipe 
#t«n dktt&iTQiflkod io *uy ^uy fr^ia otticn of tL<i BUi^ ai 

drv Stmic of 800 tomn ftui] 26 gnim, wliii^h i« cpukfrD fff on Isi 
Ukon « pmmtiicut |juI iu tlio »utii>to of 'Jl^lb JtiLjr. I Imtd Bot 
vntli ftijy •oc^'iuit vf ti^j ftrtuOpiikiml of tbo nbip* of the Poi 
MUMilroti, UJcllldil^{ tie San Martin^ San F<iip9, waA San 
vAiick M UiTup nofo in Uiq tbic^iBit of tlm tiKht, At>J tlio 
wdni drJTOD ou fttKin> in > M'nkiiig ulnto, Neither luv» I 
U^ ianmt>ry of Uic Avnftm ^f jloni de la JUma, ih» «kip lb*i 
pftiimMj b1i>vrti apiVid wummt lulo WcjiDoolti. I doiiotofi 
itii[i|iiH<r iliai ih^ man etlvciiy" fjt;1jti(i|( M\w ttf ilin fleitt werownvil 
like ilicT jtnuutaifd or Stntu Mfarm dt Ti/tni ; bnt I do t«1JfrVB Ua^ 
tho unauuoTit irf ili»c ie IX fair rcprvMUtativc of tbftl of a very Urw 
proifortLnB uf BhitiA ttifil Imvc been coantcd an cffcotiro, ^ 

I luutt r^lflj uWi. Iljut uliirituti tbu Sj^Auirih ebipB of buluwSOO tanffl 
btirdm cairiivl four or faiv i^mAlk umifl'— n mnrtily nomlnn) unuUDAflii 
— Etif^fib Ebipa of 200 ti^uK comoit ft very rwwctiblo kreuLDW&t, 
ood Hbiftf (ivou iilill iiiupllvr were uot nltogouor dcapicftblo. Of 
thu ^«uy ill -hLikrb lIic Ku^UaIj mciruhiujt rtbipa iff«TO UBicil, nn bsro 
no bh(iw]4itlgn; but oniiKulrring tltnt tbu fittii;^ Ibffii niil fur piirpusM 
of nur voH Tif> iickT^lty^ llml titihny of Ibcm bfi^l pri^btbly bMtti eft 
priTatopting eruu<!ii bufihro, bud llmt tbc Pr/ti\in or troMm JIimI. in 
irbicb l^nko ncnt r^iziicl tbo wi>rld— n ship of DOiA^iulIy 100 Uma — 
bttd II i^iiua, I wi>uU^ dlnLiiK-'Lly 4|(]rtiti(iu Biun>Vii jiiil^i 
*'Uic>k\t\u tA tlioir tiiriiiHjjjo, r^vi^-tbiTiU iif lliMn^ nt T^«Mt. 
itw-u of liCilo, if jLtjy, flL>rvjc<i| oiid iuib'^l unAt Lato raqnlrod 
uiioc^mon vi^lLujcv to kE^p tlicjia onl i:if h^m's viiy/'( Thvjf 

uot, imlocd* lie aJuiM tbul noro Ic^ ljti fnuijil tu tbtj furv-'fnait^^H 
ligb^-liu nitiru wfTtT tbu AWy^u«or Ntiiod ut Trafkluiir^lm^^^^l 
no r««iMia Io dovtl tbat tbcj did. £11 tUvir owd vny. rutd^r good And 
offid«Kt «cv tjoc. 

Jt^von u^t ciily ui tL«; DiunboraiLd ^ciubt of gnavtLat Ibo BogUdl 
lind a grunt compnnitivD wIvnittiigD ; tbtijr vnxc imiui^Kdy imponprw 
tha H'orkiTi^ of tbinu. I may qimto hon> from Cnjilun Diuo & ruij 
ranibrkabk HUttWviit. wtioh, howoror, 16 folly corrobovKtcJ by 
origiiLiJ wfili^rs Mjd ty kuowu ftcis, tty tbv Spaoiaxda, bo mf^ ( 

• '8t4!* U|wr*/ rocnc*tifl, pciiii, e7i Uum, i, p. TOO, 

1 ' fttfctfl Pfcpwn," Dpm™ii<s ooiv, 071. 

I Dam. I- p S3> ^ ''tiiiiiiU' Ifli miii fmirt'4 V m^^jfir'A'l'^ 1* AriBii^.* 

i 'tirtc-ri)iubi';p,a7o. 



m tMe Turiucihle Am^ri : a Tercsnlcnanj BrfrwipMt 321 

*4<«kDon w«H hold lo be ui igtiflblo nrm: well tnoiiffh for tbo 

ti^VDQ|{ of Lhf> Craj, and lo pm a^ny tlii} timo till tUo mocttiiit of 

M^bg luutd to libQil. Unit 14) of bonrJiu^. AcUmtul hy suoU 

tNnuite gaurKirA Mriw r^c^nuttiifwulii) ki ftim hi^-h, Mt hm U* c1!h- 

■ttit tli» MKimy anti pisiTont bin Aompo ; hntf u a vnrti<^1 Htlck is a 

Mnil tkisff to hit, the nwult vtivd Uiat nliot vofo cx{4iEid«4 hormJotnly 

hftsMO^ or, ftt boot, niJ^ •omc boluia tho eaile,or cut a fovr mpctf 

tf Kt ignAt atnmx\iiivn<:v-." On l]i« ui.Lor linuJ, thq ^uti ivha tbu 

ittn v^itob th«]t Kikglifi^i <u£1i~krft hml e&rljr laiune^l to f.rnat to. 

Tltn fuTftctioo Tnif^ht iip|K«> coittcmptiMo enough to ua Krcr'^/'.ttf'ii 

ftt'«<nv, but cTcrjibitt^ rsTUit tmvo a boginaing- Witb ao diEfparts 

«ad« Bulv*, vTitb ou liid bej^>uil pueniblj a mikrkcil quuiu bu \aj thu 

PM boniontal, litid wtlh Hln^t vb[<ih — mrliii|>s n ^'iiod inob Icinf In 

naoln Omu tho boraof th^gun^n'obhTcL] fi'om ailQ to aiJo, or fri>in 

lipl> bottom, l4:«hTini;; tbc ^in ui niiy iinglo th^l cbjmco dictate, the 

loliliC tl>o ol>joct fticiod iLt vu eicctifiirclj <loiibtfuL Still, by tiring 

iyst many Kh^vl. tbvj lUil im&n&gn Ui gul Iwtae miHi sulHuiuut Lo du 

• RDoA dMJ of lUroim. Tbo 8|mriUU fU!co»nu, apcftkiu^ of ibo 

flHthSMB of t^o Kii^«b flfo, cfitlmatt) tbo tlaglish ofH^r^ditiiro of 

■M M %bont three timoa Ibcif one* CiptAiu FitxQo'AM boa 

waartly cmllca] AtUntioo to tbo pouibility of rufiJ Giti of guiull 

fVubntDa fvund fzi lKk fUj of bittl4» ttii|Hirinr Uy Lbv HbiM' firo <.ir big 

fou. 11 is ft T^ry ^r*T« naMtloo, and ono that d4>Aurv(iri lill tlio caro 

vUeh Oai^aia KitiGcnlJ cah pDrAuftdo irtir ai]tb<iritJiiH lo \i\vo it. 

Hit lu tttc cftBo wo are dqw cnusidciiiig, ibu coitdLUi>ms wore KjvorHcd ; 

U WM Iho benvj anLUiuiiTttt nhioL yita qu!uk (triug, tliu ligbter gmiH 

abUsh ver^ alow. 

Thm i* acotLoj point wbit^b mny vory probnbly imvo ftlw nU»nd 
^flia way of the Spftniiib Knnaorii, iliTuu^li tb« greator |>ari of Itmt 
oe&titr/, Uio portii gf B|iaiiu^ liuo-tif battlo sU\im vrert iLtmbi miiLb tna 
Mall, vitb uw i4i»,appftroi]tly,of kwjjtug out tliu t^cc' ray's muiskclr/ 
itol, bot witb tbe ao>iul r«eult that ibvir (;uug ooull nuith^'r bu 
^■■d, danrtoaod, or oLorktcch In thiu m-ty woe jiutv^ibl-; Bui:b an 
■Gtioo ■« taat botnocn tJio (il'trumo, * TO-giiu >Jii]i, hiutl t}ir AV47 
Oaoryr, A (Hgato-built privat^i^r r>f ft3 UWIa, In 1747; m which Iba 
l»o ahipa l^gftgt^ WoadaJda tf> brot'itidD tvi wivgrLiI hoim, without 
tta pvmtoor imiTi&g any ttropurt]i>uatu d&mngc.t lu tbo bo^itioitLr^, 
•ocaafiMJl fiult waa k^iuw; Afid to a T«ry ^n:nt uiU<[iL tUu ^nri wita 
bodl^l In bear by the nftfnti r>f tho birlm ; but it iji td Ifuiiit iin^lHiltbi 
thai flpaviifth abips oamvi] it lo a Mtill pruator doffroe, imd thivt tbia 
Mi^l, lo aoma Mt«nt, axaggonito tba baditowa of th« bpouiidt gunnor/ 
inotioa. which was voEy M iadeoJ. 

All tlifa wM qnitfl wnU ksowB to Philip, aud th«i'ofijj<o to tbe 
pKndpal oftM-ra in tha float b«A>ro thoy \a{i Liabon. The kinDa 
■lilintiiiiiiii to Hcdina-Sidonia aay:^^*Yoti ore evpooiaUy Ui toko 
totaea tlai llie acmaiy'a objc<:t »'ill bo Lo i:itgDgo at a difitaiuxr, on 
iocoaat of Uu ad^antajfo wbii'li tLey liiivu fnjm thuir uitilltify ax>d 

• Dofo. IL 3n. 

t ' mud^i« In XavlU IHfltory/ p. M3. 

^^^^L tiio <d'aftvve flf(nrc«l[« with *hvch Ihcj vUl bo proriAoil ; and «b lft^| 
^^^^H dlior Kft&d, tbo ot^^ect oa our ti^c nbcmid bo to cIoki aiad K^ttraiWu^l 
^^^^B eapwe buad to tniul/' l*hi)t |itr)FHp» uuj jiuttj ^iplmin tno eon-' 
^^^^^ puravi'lf RDftll qiuntity <-f hIkiI p'l- giiD jiroviJud for Maul) t «ut 
^^^^B ODdorUJEiag; a ^naotit; no aaiolL, tii*t* notvritlistaDilJJig Iho aI^hvium 
^^^^■4! tivir €iQ^ dio7 iMi uort «t<r *flfir Um> ikinai^M tc Iho CksJUid. 
^^^^^tr Jn aAinMtiiig U» uppovitig furow, tbi* gnai a^Mirioiritj of lb* 
^^^^BfcmUah anaameot mut bo taken {oto aoooEmti Of SpKuafa «bipii of 
^^^HVOO toDfl ukd i^w«rd«,tb* aimbtr tbat loft Li«boa vu oflcuIJy 
^^^V «latodM0O; bnlof tbci^ 18 WM«fmb>dB4fdupsof burdoa <nr<^u </« 
^^r fnf^J : nod Uioufjl; ihvy cutritA itMc^ oJid n^mo tC^iw, mniil uni 
^H bo rvitmt^Ml mt uflcetiTu BliijM <if vtnr. Of tbo rcmfemmjf rV2, mujj 
^H ou^^iE 1(1 V.11 r<^kon«d te lb» sun* oiU^r;- An armnmout lAobM 
^B ILaI of Uki Anuncia*ta or 5f^ JTor^ apf^k* ior itavlf From tb« 
^H uLKubvr t'f hibliurn tbcy carrieda and iVoia ibov Icifl> t-t^ii* nnj to^- 
^^^^ cutlui, Hudi shi^ uuuld be d»ti{pirmtii uoougU ui a bud-ta-lNMl 
^^^^B Sglit, bnt tvurv iH^tf^Uy bnnfiloks oa l<^tig ** Ibujr vaf« kopi at a 
^^^K di>iU»c7t)^ Uut ouniitinf; all ihoie, VMt liAVO tb« tuUawoMg Gomjiariaan ^ 
^F (>f tlicdo«ta:— ■ 

^V OrSntoMauJ uirwvOi.. ., 


"^•^ ■ 






u> 1 
ato ■ 



^^^^U%9 Bnglitb ibipa of SDO Uini being iTicln^cd n^ unqncBtioi^Ujfl 
^^^^Pttqwrior atf fi^tiog macbutfl to tauiy of tKo luocb Urgor SpumtiH 
^^^^ idiipii. ■ 
^^ I nta doling nn tlitvo prifnLa — to mnnj of «bkob 1 do not Ibiakfl 
^B Rifii>i(ii)t HUtii^tifin liiu Ihjuti piktil— ai>t a» in any vrftf d«4raetiiig ftonfl 
^H tho an piirlfttj vo mi^il of t]:i[) EtiizliAlimciii who nJUKbl and vou in IboiV 
^M groab battlon but ua sljovlug Uuki ihtni ocbioviMnrnt, bovov^ fff^^ 
^f vu still within the UmntliK of litmiiLTi pmv<«ui. Tho ^lULnianlfl of 
that tinu wet« among the moat vplondiJ vuliliorv Ihal tho worbj bift 
soon; and to tpca)! <tf oar mon «ngGkpr:u t^jom and dciCMting Ui«tt, 
ag}«in»l hacb LrimeudoiEs odiln n» are cvKum^ulj i>Li.twn, is uul to emit 
»ar benM«. but Ui inweiy Ibooi uilo jHtladinii nf impciwdlilf; rouano^ 
or — 'in Epito (if abiuirliiT;! i^vfileoioe bO tho cotitnuy— to ropivMatl tbMU 
and tbo nuid tbey dcfonitod m Bavod from ^^jtonninatioQ onlj hj Iba 
direct iiitorpneiiion cf Providoncc^ atid bj a brfivon^fttiul goluof vind^ 
Tiuio will not permit mc, nnr du I iLiitlc it ninxtKAiiry (rj dr^rribc 
lo ycm tn (b>bLil, tbo tigbt of that (ivontfill wcnk : tn tvll yi'»n how OD 
Siiuday luoniing, 3Itft Jgly, tiiu £tjglbb( bftving gajDCHl tbo wind, &U 

^ •Dnio.ii.S. 

M tke Ih' 

ImoiliB.* a Tfrcenlenanf Rclreepert. 

Jtttlianincx <1« Rn^blc in iha Santa Aufij uwX wit}ji)iit pctrniittitig 
ftM h> 4doiio« Atk thcj nu&t^ Uiod to do, bonodcd tbcm with thoir 
plA||BM for tbo Bpciau of tbixo LoufD, wilt uiu^b effect thbt Jfi>crLldc 
Ml to Don Pcilru dtf TaJd«A fiT MMJhtnncc, liia nliip Ijfivuiff bccQ 
UM an^ntl tiiunu, Afui hvr formnimt WUy 'anuiiiliid ; Imw TVm 

m»y lottlcd fint one i^ud tbon uuotbcr of hur conaurU, lont b«r Ixiw- 
iftiU BonuMiBt AAil iuiuut^>p]iWL«t, ftun] WM loft Lry Uixlicii-tiiJcijiict, 
^OMKMTi?d it Ut Iw liih Uiitjr kj |Mjpi1i 4m Li Dunkirk, cxn Jit Ibu 
MtiAoft of tfals Iju^c nnd ]iowc«rfEtl »bip, wttic)] wu ukon pi iiuir'i44irin 
4 bf Dt^o the tioxt moruitig. and c^ut iulo Torba^; bow nnotbor 
^\ Ibe Jii^wcj^m ScJii>rd i^^ h Uff^^n, of IJifi iuujs, wofi piLttially blnwn 
^ud WB» idEmlArljr lofl lo b*.' tahtu |K>»«i«Dicin uf by urdur of tto 
JUoinI, &n(l lo lie stint intn WA^vuirmtlL ; ilo^v on tlir Tiiimiljijr tb^^m 
•H «mo4lMir tliup w^tioD cff Purtlan')^ ahJ <iei""t ^ Uiir4 on Iho 
Tlranil»7 off tbo lalc id Wif-fit, wbon ht^olJi?'* altip, tbo Hania Aim, 
tf 768 IcOM. r^Mivod bo mmOi fiu'tbtr damnj^ Ibat ehu lufl tbo dact 
«dr«a bmalf Ailiont iK^-nr HihTm; ]jim T,lit< KngliMb^Jniiifvl, ik^ Uii'y 
fHMd along, by tnttay HmikU v«hi:Eji full r>f men, but filling th<>Jr 
rt««of iliOi nmnuiit vboTt, wro content for tbo next day vith olntcly 
ftHif iiiit Dp t£io ^AA^urdo, who dei ^tuixlny ikftcrnoon ancJ^urui olT 
lUifa; vltillit tbo Eu|:IihIi uiicljuri.'tl tkbuui u [uilu Lu wirHtwanl and t4) 
viBilvitil of thorn. Xlt'Tn fTi>«nti] wna Jii^nnd by tbo "tiqiiitdrork tf<f 
Ibt N»mtr Smu,"* und«r LnrI Elciiry Soj-monr- aiid Srr WiHinm 
Wynler, by tKo oontiiigoat of llg City of London, under Nifholjin 
Garx«««mt>d by many pnvato BLipFi» brhj^in^' Ltiu [iciiulior up to n groMt 
fetof of noMiy 20i>. a W^'.^ pniportiuh af Afiicli uorti vf^ry Hiimll. but 
•if alikfa, M I bavn ftlrniLdj iihown, 43 vfifo 4ilfiM^itvo Aliipa of w&r. 
TW Sfiftbiidi numbctv bod been rodoeod by tbo Icm of tlirMi, \i not 
la«r, c« tbcij- UrgMt >nJ bt^st «hip«, nnd ^rcro furUior roditoL^d otT 
GiIm tiy ibo \otu at tLo Sua Ltflraiv. I.bu lui^ht utiil tnoHt bcuvJIy 
•(■od G^ Ibe g&lraAHnfl. For on 8i]Udny ntj^ll nmvuri] utut togbt 
inU|S is omonpd tbo Sjrnnimb flwt: tbo ^pnniurLU, T>(LniO'»tritDk, 
frt Ibifr oiblOA. »nd by vrind nnd tide Mror> n^L^pt {at lo loritvuTd. In 
Aa oonftaskib, tbo &n Jwrriut* Jauih^^cJ h«i rudJur, aad iu Cb<s 
— Tfff^g ma ctrituf afrbor4.s And Jifl'ir n >ti>irn ll;;)rt, niptitrud by tha 
Wis of tLo JHt ftnd Boino of tUa ■timlb^T' i^hipA, Bnt tW fiviX wnn 
av^yotf Gnkn^lm^, (Lud tbc^v oa tbat Mou^ayt i^lfth JuJy, tr&H fL.iifJtt 
d« gnai bMttlr nbicb — more Jiatiuctly pcrbap* tbun aiiy bnttir of 
ttaJiftt liin tf* b m luouldud tli^ biatorj tl bji]ru|iu; llm buttli^ wbtab 
«Vit«d Um 0Jg*TiUc ponur t,t Sparn, wliUh riljaKi^ir/tl tbo S|xiuiah 
|ftj|]iii:_ Bod ovtabluljcd tbo biuifl of Kn^^Larid'a Kri)}»iT>^, 

Jt voAiJJ bo pIcuMit to dwell ^n tlic dciluln of tbin i^rcat fliclit: 
ID Idl jom lionr lb« 8pftuiard»» Ujiviu^ totrnvX ihotufuhaa in a baJf- 
M^B- oovVO^^ty in fnjiit, MtTO rlmrjteil or» t)io wtn^ nud rMflre by 

Ar?t ; 00 tho iFMtommut ot Inrboarrl wing Ny DfaIkii witb 
Ht^kvnVt IVi^biocT, Foutoo* Fcnnetf niid otiiom; in Uio tn^ntro by 
and liif^ ki&Knico« ifitb tJjc Earl of ('umbotlwid . iLit4 od the 


Profeanr J, K. LtiuijJifuii 

[Mujr 4, 

aUrbuftrd wing by Soyinoiir* with W^tor timX tho »(|niLilroii of tli9 
KArrow8<Hb»; bowtlio uJugD wcro dnTon in on thoir ouutro; liow ili« 
eliliHjit tltHM (Irivim Uiguthur, foulul each olljur, jmil In; a liilpI'TiiK uiil 
Jnnrt muft, wTiilil Iha Enf;ltsh pminilud th^m iei f^^mpnmtivn Huftty. 
"Xliu fiplit/' Wyntor wrote, *' oimtiuUfil hrjiu nirni of tlio clouk tmtil 
HiK of tlLo olook ot iJi^iElit. lu tljo vrliLcJi limo tbo HgHUusb unrtj bur^ 
ii»ujr N.N.E.ui- iiurtL bj Mat aa niLicbutliojcoulJ,ko.'tiin^ i^juiimiiy 
mm with ftnntlx'fl-. ... I clolivor it tn jonr Jicmuitr iiju>ti lln* croilit of 
A poor i^cQtL'iuikb, thai i.>ul uf my iilii[> tliuro wiiii sLut EiOO tljot of 
duiui-caimon, Duivcriii uiiJ iumr-oalvunu ; ou^t aLl'Q I ^viis fortLcet 
cfFiu diHcLiki^hi^ Ally uf iLu |i^cix>t,I wa« iiul uul uf tlio hliut uf iLiir 
]jikri^uuliLi8, >itiil iiuihl tirmiM williio »po<wh oiii> of amiTili^r ; ami mjrtily 
Avcriy nun did w*ll No daiiLt tto «liiTigblor atjd Imrt Ihciy rtecivnd J 
WM racot, M timu wlH ilji*ovcr it ; and wlion ovcty inun waa wtarT^ 
Willi labour, anil our cttrtrrd^ftMi ejxiit. nii'l inuuitioiiH fviifituJ^ — 1 tbink 
ill Hjuio ull j^utLiT— *» u kuibul, ani\ fidlowt-Al tlip iijjijiiy," ■ 

Tlifi Hiihjimt is t)T\c\ ilmi U:iQ]itrt Ili pm-iiun ii ^till fmtbE?r^ tnit tiiiia J 
wamR mo Ui <Uqw to a dono. il mutft bo ononf(li ibeix to wy ilial iho ^ 
tijiauiai'iin wort torribly licnUn i that t^o of Ui«ir lor^et nliipi!, slips 
of tlio cnu:h IWIu^ilI b^iijimIl-ou, llm Son F'^iifK and f^^^ii Moio', r&u 
lln?Ti»Hutvcp iiHljiU'e on lli* NnlbrrWul/ <'tHiKt to tKiupe fiMiutU^riuy in 
1]ii> (.tpon Kt'Ji^ Hiiwdrd Bitvfi IbnC Ibrnfi vr^ro tiHTik, aiul fvair cjT fitig 
dnvotJ Mhoro. Inonc oubo t<i can scarcely hikvi) been tniriakcai. 
0)0 SOtW* Lo flayo, "oiioof Ibo onooijB grtivt rthipn wMCHpiod lo b« 
in grcikl clmlroBF by tbo ou|ila;zi [Hobect CriHunij uf bur ]hI^ji.'«Ly'a 
tbiji (iLlInt Oil* //rrf>£, wliri, bting in Hp-un-b of jIitMing nnto Urn snid 
<rApUkii), Ixifut-o Ihoy ooiibt ogron <-n coi'titui cionditicUA, sauk proftontly 
biifiiiv tbcir cyen.'* Tbia amy hnvo bnen Uio tian Jimiw ikt ^iVtViOi 
u^Licb nvm »uv(rc1y Untcu in tiiu Jlgbb awl uevcr rvturtitil l<>dpi&iii| 
tliuQghit wAFinut kiiuwu Low nlie^ wns loEt *T]w uctiml loHh oflSfu « 
<wrtfriiiLy yvry groftt— liow grent wjim nuTOr known, f^^^ tbft piimuit 
Iho Eii^litib Olid tlio lornblo pniB^ugo round tbo west of Irobmd pro^ 
voiitinL ntiT cittt^iiipt at ufAoial Ti^turu«. Of tbo 1osai» lUiioDg ibo ialo< 
of StiiiLliLiid nrtd on tbo ucukAt of Iniiuui] I ibmol iuttiiid imv Lon|>uik. ll 
IB BuMcMoiit for my purpoiio to suy (ba'» uti4.*urdirig to Utv Ex^At S]>hikiUi 
booouutfi, wbioli, ill urioii an tivfir^vbLdaiiiFjs' (, Ai\r ratbi^r miiod, 
abuiil bulf of tlirijH^ULkl ICO fjut Ilwuc n^iitu; miiuo apparently bjr Uuk 
ttlrripb^ linji.4L>fi of nut ^'^'i^^^ fiiitbi^r than Ommim. >cjiiii<. us throo of 
tbo ffolloyB, by tiiriiiiig bnt'k bt^f^Liri? ibcy croEKod tbt^ lUy of lliAOAy. . 
A puihl of moro iiiiuiudicito uavtii inturvnt ropiltln Itnif ftttihiaGuXB 
tbat bavo bcvii lum^u of tho ivbolcniLi tloalb of tbo Kn^liab ncomoii 
frutu vtai^^liou, ur lb<] un^boImuuKi nntnti.' uf Lbo TJi^tuoln wbidi tho 
Qn#<tn't4 Bbamofal jmniimctEy cntnpnllfd ibom lo wit, I nin no 
portibuhir lulmir^r mf CJnixrii ICliuibctb, bill 1 do tbnik Ibul m tlila 
matter ebo brtB biui ImrJ mLsiatiro duolt htT. I ditnuny sbo urui a« 
tnoan iu Lbt? luattvr uf bvr Accouuta ns abti xvaa ia many otbcr UiLujpi ; 
I djLi\<Aay xbo ri>fufti'il ik btili(<V4i in tbo nc^cctsity of Mipplying pnv- 


♦ VyaUr lo Widf juHluim, I A»i;vit, ICW^.— 'Plalc Pnpw*,' UuuvsliCi ceoiT- 7. 

tibfHv cvr \rt Ui«^ Ixulnivv nf luimo ^nt vnro onniicimnoil ; aiul I ilnrc* 

«f Itatt w«itt roocb Buf&rj'ng and »onid ■idcDCH in co&w^oczioft. Kat 

Ikawkiie^ th*t fto ti-irilil^ ocourgod oarvhipa' nomprkDics iv?cm» to 

bnWm of tUo tHliiru uf IrpliuB^ nnd to liava l>oe[i hany in Humn of 

Ik tUps, *nd wtpvcblly in lUr Flhahflh JitmjM, lit f »rr tW 8j>iiiiiAiM« 

«&• iDto til* CluuiEiol.* Tbis pntilcucc n'i>t[M, no joutt} ba nialoH- 

^j a^:jffm^^JboA b? •CMreity aiul bml jituriainnd, bnt it wna priuLiiHLy 

■pA flhiefij dno to infMiiun iiom tbu nli<^io auJ frcia igtiomncnor 

M^eel of wbttl wv DOW ku'iw ^ks «i«iiil»i'y luvfi», ] nmy imjIlim wimt 

HM* «i lifUimtllog pi^hir, tiut tho flhtjH oriEnmniLiit^l hy rhd f^t- 

UriwiOOil olil Hiltii n^m to haro cccftpc^ compariklivcly lightly. Tho 

^npA liAKicd iwi r[»-;4t hrarily Mcourj^td iktc Uic Elizabeth Jfjnn^, tho 

irb« iloor, ftail tbu f,rW, coLumiin<luiI by IIou^iitd'Fi twiui-iu-lnw %nc\ 

tt>|tiw, IVI.-D A|Umu1M jn i}im ility nf Imltlti, but uf nik ox|if<riufi(ii> m 

A* Tory ttooanntry art nf kncpinf? a ship (dean Ami swhtot. A Btmilnr 

■fi^ilion, k&«CTcr« i>fintiDU<x] cwaiunomkUj to bcmut^ onr iihip«' 

OMpttftMM, mttA dtill more frc^incablj awi more seTcrolj Fmacti or 

fipniah Alii|itt' o<i[iijtiTiiift> till uimr tlm i^Iifm^ uf hvtl cvulurj. Li uur 

•BtIm, lit iMkhi, it IS now happily nlmnct for^iium. 

QifcoQ I diEtHh. iiior» arc tmi or lIirtHS ^gucfftinnA trhidh I ftm «nrno- 
iMi wdltfJ, nad on vbich tbotcToro It occmn not out i^ place that 1 
ibttLJ Mtj m (c^ nxinLh 

WhM Mitfvo «liam hul Hnilng)i fn thn mpiiTtK^ ttf tha ArmniTft? 
Xme ml bJI, of* £&r fta I can MccirtJiJii, It in nttUid hv 04rnd<in, ^vhttni 
EiiB»rd4, ill bin L'fo of HaJ«i:1i, f)Ilotrii, tliitt bo joid^hI ll« fleet dlT 
IWiUmI dh 33nl July- I think ihin cxtromely di^nbtful, and tho 
■OfQ ■» BftCkmitMi Sa <wrtHiuW ^vrni^ in rttii^vvl uf wimmitht^rKwhotn 
btiwporU lo hftTOjcinad ftb<vtt llip «vLm« timo. It iH,rir<;imrsri. poivi- 
Ua |£m itftlc|zb went on board tho Arit, uid Aorvod a« ml (Liimt»jnr im 
Ac ittalT of tbc Lord Admiral ; but bin auno in vutnut one* Eooationod 
b vij feucJi cfiuiK-'ctitm. niii] I Ktiluju ti> wiy it ih tiapnib»b]a 

Wb*l trtlth 1« Ih^ro in tlnh nf^^ry r.hftt tbi^ Annm^n tniHivT ii Inf^fi 
Oflkbttr of prioitU ftppoiciti^d aa miflHionnn^A ^id jhlfm ^Mv<ji<-Jr;irrf^'ar>« ^ 
Ik9# bI (iU Tbew vore in ibo fleet IbO otrck niikiiuct^. not an inlrAvn- 
pai niunbor wb«Q no ronuMiilMr that tlHiiu ^vuru miuiy iluMim of u 
ivftk ubifb ckiebl wt<lT tintflh< t^i^'rn V' Iniv- n privatr- rfin]j1aiii, iLn^l 
Ibat50 y«ft^ Uior it v-]l« n{>t vruitsmtl f>^ a French ^hip-ufwar tr> 

bMD two ohtfll^DH^ 

WbU frbaot tba offlocra of tbo Inquijiitioj]? It womp to bn fi 
imfiuDd nlory Jkrinut; cut uf tbu prcNOOoe uf » rnifularly npiiiilutLHl 
ftDToil-nftnhAU inn Atslt As tn the <^hainti and inntrntncitlA of 
tortmit X prttfiuntf tb^i story irui iiaAj^iiiAil by atm^ of ltL« nirm whi) 
VHO on iKiird the S<^n Ldivfud off ColaU* tukil Mvr Iboro tlio iitm* 
md Air tfrf '■t"'g tbo «bitEa to tboir btiicbci^ 

jbid lUHT Id cotiduilfL I b«nj defiuriUsd to jrud how SOO }«au 

* llrflVttH f^ fhA !.4^1 Trmmivr, liHh Aiigmt 1,Sh(9: TTnAnnl tn iTi'^ C>iiFiAi|. 
oc«lv S'^itfST. iixn. 



^^ Pr^tmar X^w^&fM 0> ihf Tmri^tihit Armada. [Ut; I, 

iigO tlio <io«DlrT wM capovcd i> a my fttcol Aukffsr, vych itm inaJo 
gnftUn- tfOl t^ tLo tnMortftintj of t&a OorenMHrnl m to Uio t^roper 
1MJ bo ntaet it, tnd b?- Iheir UUd^ betaMM two opinuir«. n*d Um 
i»im«7 wbM^li v'M wMlod OB VMlMt iliora d«f»oec« in CngUnd a a 
l^cr|GirciiTut iif inHhfdforPbwknbMaapVBIin providing « low i 

AuD to Uw mr7 aniwiinl cirvmiilnm waA « mr luUt-ml ntjv^oali 
— Um vkcoffj «wil4 bftw bi«T) mom amum. Ah it um, 
it «MBM to me tlut wo h*vo bufur* » ■ ffr^ad «xpem»«et 
tolbiOtteiil}Oc«inAdil,moatiMcfn]aAdiapoirt»nll«Moflifl. All 
i^ubjoci t > t)ju moat grinduig pandmanj, oar tmrj ia tbo ^ly of asid 
WM foand ^loal (« wh^l wbn tvqufnd of ft rfmaBr>r RoddjUl' 
wo bad no Bftvf wortb j of Um w^tim baton tiM dija of Um C< 
wcftUk* Ub is in «iw> Wo b«4 &nl oiUr * tiftT^, but a imtj 
by Um con koil prwlcooo uid tufloonity of iIa pnadpnj vffitxin>, uj 
j7«Iifii7iftUjr of H*wkjii«s wb^ b^d baai fiv rnnao j-imrii iU ovntilmUnT, 
wu iBporiar 10 tfio Qa^ whfdb, in powUr rP|ivlo. was lb« mod 
povorfnl in Um world. It wu no noro coadm whi^ib mode otr Urge 
»bi|M moro bft&^, moro imlliorlf, moro IcvtUj 4ra>od ttiaii Ujobo of 
8paiii. And, iplNiTn aU^ wbicdi bad Utcm rvady wbnn Uii^y uvrt waoied. 
Ik ttin tbc oMo ftt thfl prcMnt d^y f I fiw n')t. ! un muinf<kmcd 
if oilber onr Ahipaor gout ar« aiiporiur to tiuMO of oar acijchboiiff; 
il u, I BJD Ivld, an opoa queaUon wboibor ^lo Arm^mcuta of o^t nbip* 
vo boi iii(«j-iur lu lhc#D of poMiblo aitamm ; iu)<I I aiu HiHrakin^ nui 
fllom pojiiilu BiMji <ir iMwqiftp«r pomgnjilis l"it trtiux (SKchl 
Qltonncoa in tbo Huni^of ComuuDB, trbun E uy ih«t ccfrai of our 
k«et«bipa — lb« Triutnphg or ^'ivorUio [>rc«L'Dt day— «t« lyiniC in 
bwliour uoolcM for trant t4 tcotiv^ wfaicb are not likvlj lr> W mppJioi 
for wxDo uontlji^ ; (ir of ipiii dttiujia, dwonvn^d tn bo dofooUTo only 
vban tbn »bip ia ordcrad fhr QominiMioii. Umdi baa booQ «dd of 
vLAut of moi>cr— of tatiioatoa r«dQO*d b«lov •torratiui) ooicL Tbo 
lAUil borc^^ at Inugt« is nnt of mo>noj, but of jiidj£»)0n1 nod knofviolffo 
ADil «0h:Ilvu »iipurrUlc;[u It wQl bo littti; cux^qm to tbo uhLdd to 
altrihntj^ ony pooLiblo dinuiLrr to n dcpiLrti^icDUl nrtoT— to a itisal 
control — to the oulragixiui foot lliiit Uio iiLi]|i^i|y of iiliipa ip niffnLitnt 
by one boojd ami ihnt of gnua by uiotbcT; tbo tno warkinf* imlc- 
peudt^tjl uf. utid Bijuiciiiuciii ot ranatjco witli, cftc-b ulbrr. Dot Uus Li 
Wyotid tny (irvH vjI [piiqxJiWE. I vtill oilK ibdd tlul. ui iiiiLtatitid JA ibf^ 
•ino^^ost fonn ci tntu^ry^ uo u u*dii\vva t'^r ucliuu, uunilaf to Ibat 
wbicb ocublod oor f>«ofatboro to aohiovo Una p^al nctot_T, will Ixi 
tbo Uucbt and tbo bottt conuaODnoratioa of Uj^ ir jrl^^n^- Ami yet I 
Ihiuk Uiul iu Uji«. it* Toroontcna^, tboro is n ih^Litiur ^tutwi iti tfae 
dwriv 111 pcroul it on n Tiiublo mnritiiiient St*iri«l nm or nnrtiiELtvil 
bjpt cannot, itiJwd, call biuik tbc As^tivg braulL vf Ibo grckt d«»d; 
but tboy tiiay jxid In i>nQiiT'Ving tbtdr 8IOB10tiOA» a li^Ll tu lij^tou our 
jjhtlj aiiil lo Kilidti uUT f(K>t«to|iSi [J. K. L.] 



0«Mny iT^aJAfy Meeting, 



Stt Jftvn Cvoittoiv FlnovKi^ V,T>, LL.D, F,1LS. Vioo-Pnvddont, 

in Uio ChuTt 

TWt follcHTing yioc*PL'(«k1culji for IIld ciuuing yoat fvero 

Kir J«iEi« Crichtoi] l^rovmo, MIX LL.D. F.B.S. 

Wnmn do 1b R\ii\ Et-i- U.A. D.CX. FMS, 
OdVH^I Jvnnn A, Gmnt. CB. C.S.T. F.1L3. 
8cr Fr^unrk Pollock, Bnrt. M,A- 

John Ban. H.a LUU. r.u,». 

Hc«ry P^JIwL, E^.TwMttTOr. 

Sir fV«4eHL-k JtrftUw«Jlt DuCL F.Rfl. fTnuornry 8tH.^^«LH^y. 

John HciUon Tklfonr-Browu*, Etq. Q.C. 

T- a TLwi*. E*i. ?h D, F.R.9. 
<lMl«d Iboiban of iho R^iyAl Jn^iitiitinn. 

JoKtf Tnroux, ffcq. D.C.L. LL.IX F.K.a wui ultxstod Qoa^rftry 
of N4kinl P»jU<4ophy. 

Tbo BUI Uon- Lonn Hayl^ou. U.A. D.OL. LL.D. If^ELS. wm 
ckctel Pr«Mfr>r of N^inml Plj)li>«ophj. 

T^Spociftl Tbiuika nf llioM<imbert w^to roturnod far the follotrins 
lo Uie Fund for llio PrDmotion of EipuiiujoaUJ IUib«ucL :-> 

BHgftdier-GnuenJ H, Oultou 


T«B I'uasjit^ roooirvd mott Uio Ijut Mooling woro laid <»ti tho 
taUi, w»d llao thttlik* of tko Mcmbom tctaraod for tb« sarao, ria* . — 

rjT fjfrWm / •^-'-f— /lulii— RflTflrt on PubHo ln>trafflii>ci i&ltcEi^, 1HSCU7. 

fcfif^fli 4ti IiJv«C te^ Rmna— Aiti, Setie QuiLrta : RoiidEc<>[ilL Vcd, m 

>-6ttMti«.Fu'^ lt.13. Vol IV.Fuc, I. £vo. 1^7. 
Mmk Bmittm «f J^H Jcmrad, VoL LVL Put I, Xa«. %3, ?«i| 1L 

3^ Ofmertd M<mtklg JHatfii^. [lUj 7, 

A'fnrm'm^l S^elf^ Rcfol—Uoathij yotko. Y.A. XLVUI, No. 5. 8vo. 1fl8& 

J^Uriim. J. J. Erq. if BJ. (tkt Author}— A Figfat with mBtancei : Tha ^aim, 

Baniivn Uludi. OuwIa, BriUiili Cdunil-tB, CoIk, Bahuuu. Std. I88& 

Vi>] L SroL l&<^ 
B/ri^. J'Jb>.£*f-FJI.C^. JfJ^.I.— A Oftjr ofthe Lul WUl imd Tefbuwotof 

1 bocDU Got. l-.'ma. 1733, 
fTn'r^ JrTJk;fftf J. RofA IvtUtOt d/— ProccediDfrA, 1837-8, Nc& 12, la 4ta 
Srymvr, /JmiLh^ £'j^. (fibfr jlrd^jn#l>"E9pivt of Cwudiui ARld*& IWf, 

rArH'f '/ Sm^— JoorTA] for April, 1S8S. Sro. 

CkitfSiyital (H^rvr, T-^^. d fv|p— AiiDtial Report ToT ISHL fivo. 

£ifi fivfu ^rtW'ofJH—JoDJIHll, 1R88, Nol 1. 8TfK 

£Ji7or* — Amrrinn JonriHl of Bcvue lor April, 188& 4Iol 

AtuItsI ror ApHL l&88^ 8tcl 

At^twum fiT April* 1889, 4ta 

Chimin] Xevs fee A.priL ISSS. Sro. 

ChiDoat ud DrdfSut for Ap^il. 1888. Sm 

ED^a««r fiv Apnl, 1888- foL 

Enidoeerinj; for Ainil, 18S8. fol. 

I1i<r<-lnt'k*j JouTuI fiir April, 188S, Svn 

Iiidii4ln>« for April, 1^88. foL 

lr*^n f.-r April lP=8S. 4(0, 

]klnmyV MA^aimt for AptiV 1SSS- Sto. 

NAlnrv fnr ApriU 1088. 4la 

Kcvno Soienufiqac fnr April, 18S8, 4b\ 

EV'^enlific Nevi for Apnl, 1888. 4to. 

Tele^THphic Jonnu] for Aprils I88& 8rck 

Zoopl^iJiil for April, 1S88. 4lo. 
EVit. G. B. Erg. if. A J,— Brituu'a Salamta : or theFiL'btof 158S- Qj W, H- K- 

WriphL Sto. 1888, 
Fti*. Jacob, Erq. (tJtt AaJAor amd Tnuulatar) — Sbakspcre and Montaigns. ISnw. 

Lock bIct Halt Dach aecluEig JahrciL Am dem Engliacben da Locd TcDDTna- 
12IDO. 1888, 
Flortnee. BiUiolmi liaHauoU CEnfroh— B lletuio, Nam. 55. Sto. ISSSu 
Franliin Imiitnti— J Puruul, Nn. 748. 8to. IS88. 

Oengtnphirnt Society, ffoycrf— ProwediufCP, New Series, Vnl. X. No. 4. Sto. iRfiS, 
G^u-nV^i; liffiilmJe. Impenol, Wnma— VCTbaDdlangeD, 18^, Noa. 17-18; 18S8, 

KoL 1-4. Sto. 
Jo/tru Hopkitu Viiirertitv — Ameriran ChcmifalJonm&l, YoL X. Nr^ S- 8to. 188& 

I'DiversitT CirvuUr. Np, Gi. 4tD, 1888, 
LUntan SonHy-^i-umol. No. 139. 8ra 1SS8. 
JWnrfr™ <?t*nTTimrtif Cnrhiii JUittmiii — Coiiw : CatalogiK Na 1. Mjat«. Bj E. 

Thnrakffl. Bva 1S88. 
AffirfrrVI Som/ j4ni<feiHH of Srimcet — ADiinTiOf 1888, flvo. 

Meruoriiu. Tumo XII, XIll. Parte 1-. 4to. 1887. 

RtviritA, Tomo XXII. No. 4. 8to. 1887. 
JUaneA^ff (V«?3i™igori*i5f— TrftnBfletioDft,Vol. XIX. PertBl6,17. Sto. 18S8. 
JMf/r-inreflJ EHginar^ fiiB(/luy/on— Proi"P*?dinge, 1888, Ko, I. 8vo. 
3Ii./eOToiogical 0^«— Beport of Meteorological Council, B& 3lit HArcb^ 1837. 

8vo. 1S88. 
Meteoroiogicol Society, Boj/fll— Qxiartorly Journsl, No. 05. Bto. 1888. 

MelenrTHlngical Rtoord, No. 27. 8to. 1888. 
Sotioaal t'ori^yftrr Pretfrving MemotiaU of tht Doatt — Joomal, No. 6 Bfarch, 
iefi8. 8vo. 
Fourth \Vnr1y Report utid List of Membcn, 198(i. 8ro. 

Chn^nU JtfbiOUy Meeting. 329 

Mm Ttik Aatdem^ of 5ta£Bna»— TrvTimotjona, ToL VI. 8to, Ifl80-X 
tmfm rif n Booitii — Chroniolo aod JoaniAl, 1888, Put 1. 8yo. 1BS8. 
(ftiiik|feal BoM^ of OntU .firteaf>»— Trumotlona, VoL XX. No, &. New 

Htfte. SvD. 1888. 
n—inwitfiKil £ii>ef«fy of Onai AtVoih— Joonul, April, 1SS8. Sro, 
fhfcinjilifD awfrfyjonmai, TqI. XIL Vo. 6. Sto. IBSS, 
ftiMhJM JfculCTwa Jbr JWatemfltoffm— Bitaiineabarinhte^ XJ..-LIV. Svo. 1887. 
|fa4iJ«M*vObHniai0ry— Bev1aU,Nofi.2, a 8to. 1888. 

a* Hbii. BoUb. JlT.iLJ. (^ JidAor)— Bmoke in BelBtion to Fogi in 
lindozL Hwo. 1888. 

■B ftrf^ d^ Sn«nf«f, Soyol — Ilulologuoh-hutoriaoha Olaue : Abhaadlan^a, 
Bud X. No. 8. Sto. ISSB. 
•t^Arla — Journal, April, 1688. 8to. 
kol &xH<p— Journal, ToL LL Put I, 8m 1888. 
AiHW, fi. p. £■} . iOu Bdiittr) — Oltntotx-Comwallu Controrenr growing oat or 

tha CampaJgn in Virginia, 178L 2 toJ. 8Ta 1S88. 
Mipivi Emutn, Soeiky oZ-Jcnimal, No. 71. 8td. 1888. 
ZmmwUf o/£owlm— Calendar, 18B8-9. Sto. 
Jawkm mt BafVrdenmg da GnoBr^jIncMt in PmM#n-^VerhandluDgea, 1888 : 

Hefta 4tix 
JUapinJ &eu^ o/ Zi0fu{M>-^Timnnct]onH, VoL XH. Fort 7. 4to. 1888. 
rmatdiiig*, 1887, Put 4, 8to. 1888. 


Fridfly, Ifftj 11, 1888. 

WnuAN Cbookbb, Esq, F^.S. Vicc-Prosidont, in tbo Chair. 

Prof660or W. C. BoBtRTs-AuHTEN, F,B.8. MM.L 

Some curious propertieM of Melah and Allo^a. 

(Abatraot deferred). 

Vol. XTL (No. 83.) 

330 JT illpAonw Bauud [M>]r IS, 


^OHN Bab, 1I.D. LL-D. F.R.S. Yioe-Proddent, in the Chair. 

M. AliPBOHBi BiKARP, LL.D. Hon. M.It3,E, Cor. G.8. 
Cufftlor of the Boyal HiuemD, BruBselH. 

La Reproduction AriificielU des Rocket YoUani^/^^. 

"Xeqoe enim alind eit natnra qnam an qnnlBin magiuL" 

l^ofunz, Pto^oqSa, it. 

Pbise [k sea d^bnts, U oonnaiBSftnea de I'eoorce tarrestra est toat 
utiUtaire, si jo pais m'erprimer ainsi : dftna sa premiere phftse, elle 
nous uppor^t comme imposL^ k Iliomme par U nSoeasite d'oxplonr 
lea coadiea du globe, pour en eitraire lea miueraisi lea mftt^rianx da 
4^natmct]0D et lea mati^rea oombostiblos. 

Four qai<M>Dqae jette nn conp d'<fiil Bur Thiatoire dee acieDcea, U 
deriont cvideutj qn'ellea doivent tontea leur origiue a on hat ntile et 
pratique ; qne tontes out poas^ par cette phaae initi&le ponr sniTre im 
ddfoloppemont r^golier, dout je Tois eaquUaer la marche poor la 

L'homme commenoe done roi:plontiou dea profondeoia terreatra 
pour y puiser lea mati&rGH qui doivent serrir 4 aes beaoiva, D'abord 
il lo fait aona r5gIo ; maia k mefmre que I'art da minenr bo d^roloppe, 
la rechercho dea richeaaoa min^ralea est pouranme areo m^ode : on 
observe lo9 conditiona dans leaquallea lea min^raui et led rochea 
nttlca ae rcncontreDt aa aein du globe. D'empiiiqaea et de localea 
qti'elloa etaient k Vorigino, cea obseirationa ne tardent pas a ae 
gcnL-raliaer; ellea permettent alora d'etitrevoir quelqaea-una dea 
trtL^ta saillunts do rarchitecturo de notro plan^te. En fouillant lea 
outraillea de la terre, on en viut k BO convaiDcre que le globe u'm paa 
eto fait d'uu aoal coup, qu'il doit sa formation & doa ^poqn^ anc* 

On Gomprit onauito que, pour interpreter Hitatoire de la terr^ et 
le Tfile dee cauaea en jeu dana aon ^ification, il fallait ae lirror k dea 
6tudca aur le vif : appreudre k cenaaltro I'etat aotnol de notre planetei 
En comparant lea diverses conobes du globe aveo lea terraina qui 
a'cdifient aoua noa yeui, on parvint k retraoer lea conditiona qui out 
preaidti k la formation dea aasiaea dos pSiiodee anoiennea. G^eat 
ftinsi que par r&nalyBe dea faits et par I'lnductioQ qui g^n^ralise lea 
obaerratioiiB, la coDaajsaanee de Tocorce terreatre entro dana uoo 
pbaso nouvetle et vraiment acioDtifiquo, On a^etait propoB<^ d'abord 
do decouvrir dea regies pratiquea pour le mineur et Ton eat ftmeud 
gr^uellement k dt>cbiffrer I'hiatoiro do la torro. 

V^ pnnoipo foDdjuntfutal ooob giiid« dABfl cotto roooortitutioa <lii 
f«( Ab W pian«U» ; o'c«l i|i» rflMonoo des forcei oui «Qt act *iir Ift 
IKN^ nV Jwoftiii c1iiut|^. On uf '1<'i( fl^oo mrncmbirr iiAUfi Ii>h 

■Am, pmt-rm diro, ^«o cecx dont notu Kxatuci lu t^moiitf, ot qoo 

LMfBii oiwv v«ni la flnduei^leilvtiilertoa eoiumuug/i « D>j>i»li'iuL^ 
k BititkodA itidwdTtft k IVtnHA d«i tnnnmt mfnAnln fiimiRnl r<^mfvfl 
di ^oW, Jl Imit u«hitcct(iro «t am ^tra« dnnt Im J4bri« mdI no- 
<Aw<» claa* l«» kminfl, an rahto ^uBombla do iloomnonta n'ctft 
■B^BvU >ltT llluiotTO il« uotre plaiioto. Dunul QdUo |i^<h1o, U 
fUogiB ft'4«t ilDna^ inr (TiiiiinuriMiA pntJJr*^&, iyal p«> Ini UT»«ont 
tin 4 cevivr i Ma otoAei;, Iaa tuitma branehc^ do« «cifltif?tit nalnrollM, 

VcifCtttf comnent, co mctUuit «ti jcn octt^ m^tliodo uial^t^uo, en 
^mmjsaI dur rinJucikvi, lo p^ufiio iatcrprrto la fom>blkni {lea 
todim^ IiVH rwiboft BuUla uu li> tail, I>^s imunm niiu^rulvH hij1i<1f? ijiii 
MMlMiMt Im liimlinL T/obnATTfttlrm iiatih ftpprr-jid k\ y (litiingnfir 

fnotioc gTDiijMf, cj^rut/Hb^ pax la dispoGition on coaobt>« on nin 
ov MU^t IcH njcLcs stdiincnUirc*!. Vu bccohJ gniopc, qiii no 
o&o poitil ccUd itjapo't^oa «lnitifi^«, (niuprvnil lea rocliui <lu 
voJcmQiqiiij, k fltnieturo Dvi«flW«. L* nlntotiiro K 1a criinjh>«i- 
Ibsfll ftifl&rtfiUtd* Mfl d«tix grnndm dmEfnuH lTtbolo(ci<|iiciii, nnmi 
mrfaii A CfifiMMir MUc#-ei oomcno forTn^^od dAno du conditianfl 
■f/ciala, ^iB oat ujm6 tear cmprdntc vtn L^hacimc d'cUoft- 

Ndni mjou let Tucbai B^imuuUicuri s'tjdillur, lumqiiu iiuim ub- 
MfToaft oomBCOl l4« Ouii conrAEit<« «t ]« nit^r roiilont fi ilf-jMOiml i4rir 
Unr Ul <k)i CftUlonK, do teblo, ot dn limon, Apr^fl U inert dtti 
«q|MkiftiMi <im TiTcnt dans oc« «ftQX, lean eqtiolcUM on Icam 
MpOliA TiiaiaieBt po m^ler am rabriaocat n>jn^i»lvH ci ^oTcrnvcc 
MUvt-d dc* fcothM i1« B^a«fiU. C<« Tribti^rAH ftinKi di'-pcw^ 
ymiiBiBi, pfti ftpport tiiAMUaif, Ia dupoflHlon atmtifli^*, TonU** \*a 
fftftKal'A 'fiM If^A conAtitiiGutt i^ffticttt primitLToniont do* (^rninft ifoVtfl 
•I uui piiilci'l ciLCcEc Ia Ukco do leur viiipQo: oo lionl dc* d6l>ri«i do 
1Mb** lir^mUtiifLUv Till ilm rlc^mui]l«a dcir^tiiiirn«i» qau d(» koliuiu 
yfcjboo-«bipiiquc4 pAM<.'rii>an4 p«4iT«nt oEmontor. 

CMD|ia>ou n&ibtiRiftnl coc dt^nuU inodomc^ AiidimonUifCf, cnrftO- 

inr 1* dispiMtion fdr«ti6^ ct li\ nntttrn d^'tritiqao do ku* 

lla, h cBrtoincH crnichDi d'» rommtioiiii g/idngUOCtf, NoXM 

Biir 1m rarfUMM <>fliiiiDtiuialM. du« iuuuhi dont la formalian 
a«K p^riodaa g£oJogidqo«, «t qui olfi«at doA aaalofpea ^ftroilM 
4'aUinv el do »troc4an^ avco 1«« maUnaiu qni lo dfpofrmt, «on» doa 
jimi. don «a»K OdTidoa «i mftrinof. C«llo €oiii|MinUMiQ houa am^o 
a ffwiiunr In* TtHiofl atntifi^'ca ancicniica fvimmc fonn^o* hoiu 
r^iftir* aon m^o* canats, «t uuiia loa iiit«T|pri3kiu8 ooutmo di'ipoi>/'«B 
ana U eacr oa |«t loa mux ouuruitiHu (.r^nt donn mirlniit TcAti 
mi ait A J'uraiTC daaa I'^JficaLlon dt« mAMt^v tt^-lioxjDtoirca oa 

La auoiwl S'ovi^t ^>it i^^f anroni h triutor ap^aleraanl, oom* 

« 2 

r Aif^otm IUft*ird 



bpeod 1m roch«« muBjtoe ; ooUov-d ft'obMTKo^ «o Tcoc do fovuit^ 

mn cralM* » I^JmI^mi ^jum Uji ooofibM «4diiM«&l«it«^ m nnfiwliilflM 
Mr MArttidkvKMBL Let fiUmnstn ^«i ^otutitiuat l«« IkfiA tonl dn 
n^ridoi cffubdJiiw, d^fdoppCa %txx i!«']wiib dc U filtc on fuxm ^i 

nMii i|iM Man fttUrlikriiH. inni A Vtunirt^ k ro mcA. A potlcf iToDa 

miria n'cit rat ukdiqn^ poiu* ou bdmbm £ni|iliTa« : an livn Jo 

LyhoriBonhJiti pnaxtiro, iki U Ktpoqicntlkni rAgoliftro ik« coocIms 

rMmsifltat BOOB ftvoiM iImh les Im^ nne ftlliin qaS imJiiiiiu U 

poonte da bM «« hftut. ft Uqndb Mm ovl dU nMBBateM Ion >iu lonr 

iraftion. Enfik, coa ro«^ctt noMttTOft «o<it cUpourTuiw d« drt rii 

I CbaipuiHitt, A luur l^tar, c«» pTu3aita vDl(»miiiu<ii omtcaipoiuiw 
mW3<iarteiaMltwhrfiMiirfi*im4« rrI«t*Tllm<i : l«« gr&nit««, W |iorph7ni, 
pm indijlai, !«• bOA^IU^. Nam vbfrfrroiiifl qiM cm d*raiJRH poMA- 
' 4eni^ ftvoo lo* prodoiU do* ToUana t^v^ilU. dM aiiAlo|[w« {lioilM i» 
ptTLjctarv ct do componitiua, Uu peal eijudaro do eel oomvUffdi 
IrfttiN cancl^niciqnn ooniiuauH, qtK- If8 mcli«« iddabttm. qui tnTct^ 

noduRioi. f nJML^ do MA m. bant, «1 <ju'(ilto« p^Ha^onl rtoo <nlW- 

^raifi inndlt ipie tjoim vttyou% nb funnor, mn ntm jimx, 1m vodiM 
aMitneiitntrvc. quo Im oonditioni qui prfisidcDt A Ioof origiDO p omMt 
An niviot cL'omqi prAv, qvio oatto nuTA a'Moomiilit an sr«^ jovr 
Mqt-oD d£r^ Ue ■»*»«« ^pti? o« a'^labonut dn&a 1m profvndviuo do 
ift tovro; loar gi&te ««t tai qni^lqnn ftort« ddUiiuA* de mjitJ^n^ b 
r«ftAH TLD pant oond^r 1m twAm r/wormin cooUmiiu, oti cm nttiicci 
cti fution cc p^trtBiEK^t <t d*oh oUm aout pTOj«Uv« Ion dM ^nptioM 


pltiA finn itTift]74p, I1IH miK'Oiiirin<riiLK Int plnn Hnrn's iw» ponriciil kii|^ 
r|J^ aui doiHi^M qui noiu niau'^uriit: Ui «oM itn}miH«aU A nnui 

^prcndro U^MUn lo* onoiwa cu j^n Ouiu In fununtioi; dM rocbM 


hMk tontd Uors da MpTodiiiiw ortzfldrlkTii^^iit 1m nkcbM TelMBinDM; 
d'cu U.ira Ift nyDtliftfo. Anno den H^jduoco Jo I'obMTTDtioDqvi dolvml 
•prvir dc aiiidcT. oij nVffurco, par dos niniiipulntioiiB umntu. d'tmilor 
|« prodtltU du In ualurtf. Lo Aokaictf Ju In Ueii\ (rkimlytiqu^ qq'^lln i 
4UUp «Diro d^H lorn lIrjih imo dorniJim pliAM^ oollo df>« eiip«ricnc*;4 ■ 

QLiniqii^ rapcUtf".'! ^ 1100 ftpDnroil«t OM OMaiB d'lmitar 1a naUuv, 
(MuduiU luir riittcUJguuL'o do Ijiumiars «3^ul£a pni »m Utfuiifl* hd 
ponrLetk<i]t du fAirff iinTIm d«» ftite Mi«1ogim A uoiu qa'O vfot 
appr<>fondtr, do dtrignr ot liii narvi^illcr I0 niftrcho dot phMoonJiiM*, i* 
to nsnilrv uu cotnpto oxnci dc Icim rd^itJ^nt H do faiti^ Tuior i 

^H 1I«M vononK d'iudiqticr * pmntU traiu tri>iHi:<tApc(idaDA Ut taaicha 
^Kk$ eomiMaMBCO* rclotiTce i Vtooroo lort««trc. Nona lc« nrooft 

r BMlka* iitiUift pnnr ryimuuiit't ; uonk In ftronji KnLTirn nliin tAhl, 
I knfnc, Mr gvidftiit pof 1 uUorvJitioti «tl« rt&iiMDauminil, otlei b ^aVAKitit 
i k livit«tir >l^iaiio MOMiaiMk Lft gAologk^ oritn« duns nuc dorufuro 
jdiMct, w kmncfurtiio ftiotntfdliTii en #cionco OTjuVijEJuultilo. 

Kniui ^UjQit mmtirff mi ttruliKut lit injfnxlm^LliiM ftrtlflui«llo <tc« 

ItbvmMM neoviaLl apportcr A VoXjeonnUou diroclo do Ja nataro, 
ICii* *TUit dVi[<i£cr r«t proo^^ do la ftyulboso doi rct^lcA (^rnptlTo* 

I liaa 4«» fkJCA oiit ftj^prw nor 1a miuiitLilicm ct In mo<U da fonnAticnx 
i^im iiwoa Tokaui^qc*. h<t point do conipani^ii do« syDlhAeoB bo 
Itcvtc 4ukt W Utcb niitnrcliuai oo aont d» modileB ^nVin njit 

I fopitr; ii unpuriu iVviic itir km oonciciiro ptf lo Aumu pour (urivirr ik 
In f ttdl^T lUiiB I'M d^uUii >ritJm<«. 

Rftpppoloui done oc if 00 Douft nvom doi Invoaot don «<iii(l iUonB qui 
Htaidsat 1 kmr foreatticm. Nout q'bvoub piu ^ noun AriOltrr iui btir 
m moil«a mBsifoUtioDe dcB forocA futoruu* du ^^*Ak^ u] bur lo 
nHan ils fb£uoi*&o«B aul lex rL4:upiit|iii(^ii(iDt^ hut cvt^ '■Ta]ttU'iiit 
^nrmmMtm qnl fhranlffnC V volrnr jtibc|il4i dtna bob fond uiu cuts, ot 
pB^liwit dc^ iDBdM vitncsn pahvri««ctf «t dca pictToa iTirilruB^cii, 
am mUwv do «<t cttUcljcmc, lo untCro ot Iub fUac* do k ucjuUguu^ 

BBUoOTOrtB M>ILB 1* jrOB4B6u dOB lUBBWA illjpllvw. UilUCEll Mm\in9'r 

Am iiiti de Uttb, qui na djrculdtt wxr \cn piintMi, «t m'j BoIidEliuni 


t«B £bi1 c«{iatBl do I'tiHiptioD o'<«t I uniBiioii d« in Uro.. On Bppollo 
ibii la* tMQiacibi do UBtiiroft ToudBOB qui s'ualnLpjJii;! dn rr^LlnrE*. 
A Daiifird'uiM inftnUrB ff ni^rnK <in nn poifl inittiu ci>nip!LNir In Invn 
^bA na •WTTB lU^n^'ft^ lonii rinflamicc d™ Itniilng t>iDpvrBlHr<iM cjui 
rv^oBsl fi^iiB r^corcc u>\vio dn gLo(>«. h^ ctbflcrvntiijrjs dircctm vur 
b Iriupfi^tDtc dc U Uvo liqiuA«o Jn aral<fv, lait«a an motticni turuio 
da rAmptioti, Mini uuUrnira do jiurtU <|uo |iuu d^ibivmLUrEira ^.ni 
«•* Bftuolcr, Anivd tut prnMiliJiiA-nrni^ nnr iu» {loiMt. quo <!<■« 
MiattboEkB AppMXtmatiTCjji. L«b icIcauji, c^ii IVpurK^Jiomont den 
kfiCB no d^pttvn PB« mi ocrlfttc dogtv d iutcDditi^. aihi» qiu aont dBiiB 
n ^iBt ^^Wiirite inoiUn.%] «1 |>urnitLii«iitv, oumuio k Ylh IIiubI, 
Bni fMBiuiii ft iViiili/j^itlivi uTAnU d'B|ipnwliiir bhbcx pr^ du rmtiire 
pair UaLor d'^tttliut !■» Inmjh^r^tnm do k innsnn )^r]aifi(j>o. lU out 
pi fimBhlBf ftinai qn'oIU <«ciU4 eutro lOdO' ot 30W €. Umm d^ 

r> 1b Uto b'^pbucUc^ Ib tmni-^ntiiro bBiBM rapidcmcut \ m »iu(aw ; 
BBfpn H(|iiiiii: mi il^uuvrc J^uuo COUuIn^ pluB uu ixioum it^iM^i, <|« 


jr. J/pJUmu Bt^rJ 

[M-jr 18, 

In alloi^uKtl «Doard Ic point do iaaiott 3o Tftcicr. Cod oc niinhai 
a MoHl* 4|iri crapfeebtt l'itrailUUj>rj p1 qrii povmtA aui inuMft^ qall 

Kooa t&d)qiM<K)Dfl pl«i lom 1m okmavniionm av Urn ^iauaniibm d« 
tfrioUUiKUm ^loi n pMseftt dau ce* tiutUna £puieliiciL«o*«i« fhiAm 
^iM^momm, pfltON k h 3^r. Yuyuna tuot d'aUird qttDli|uat-m 
I auutbnaeMoaiiok d« U Mmotura vi <1v la oompomtUm dca Uiva. 
BooTciil «oa prodoiti *»(«>£» lool bvlleax, aoDriao««i qoolqMfoiit 
Ml oontnum, ila ae |>KMoUiii% conmo mo naaav tHrvom. boao j ghpi^ 
4a labile pluaou riouih fonc6Q^ak Taul fta ao di«Uiitfiio uicwi oumd 
lioifi. Qiiclqnciaiii Aiutfi wUa BMiiBa eal muiu p£iri* do MiBtwOT., 
id(>Dt la tttlmmx, «d noabM ^aa oa not&a ecvatd^iBblo^ atnUo 
f«f<>aU<r UpdlcTiliviiMqai taaomflfito. Oa roiftJ4ttttz ftinai cspdlta 
prtentenk It'ivtiio leor dhtAopfctataaX oat complvl* dca foniioa \tAj' 
idriqiwvi H^pili^ciiB cfiEigiUiitw puur daKViLe i3cs njiArau: nn lAAt tim 
Ma, c'tmi ^ dirOf Im i&diTidiUi parloiU da mutrnLu miaorKL lli oot 
dona U iDan» priiDitiva ntnius«h laa vl^ieoU okuuiqaot qm k« 
tDiiiiatiluctLL ot qui m aoul ieru4i|>^ aiunot Inura alKiui6» ; ouimiio «ft 
n£ b'Mi^uu Jrer, dacu iiii LiiLuide Atut^ d'lU aul, lua cvUt**! dost la 
ibat4aoa 4lMt divonta duna 1 nn m^re- 
Lft mi&^Talogio nooa appreod I d6t*riuiii«r Ua o^^ca miaiAka 
qui oriatAlliMTDl dau lea kvc«. L*aaJr*ft ckimi^i]!' vicnt a t»ua (oar 
IH fimtuir dv |]rw7ioiiaca ioilicntjona aar la ouuijioaitAin dva jtrvdoila 
l1oauii|nrta. Si Von tmile, [mf Inft pnnxWia de la irbimki, Ioa roc^li^ii 
irup^Toi^ofe tti3*ivo^actoiito»i?oiitiaiuiuiU nno qnaoAild plotfo* moina 
c»ciaidor«lilc do silioo oonbiti^<^ qu |«iit «*Jtora- an d«f» do 6fi poor 
^ecut do lo maaeo: e« »^it 1o* I«*«a acidna vo IJftetM. On patMcsnita 
kiuhslecUanaituvuK aui Uvua lia^iqaat on loohlaa, dcoit U 

aUJO«t dinJDiuuit gnfliielltuniinl, n'attiiint plna qqa A^ ik 4A po«r 
A. La aitioo doat l1 a'ofpl ii'ob«lo ]aa k i'i-Uii Ubrts da«^a lea lovof 
ootikmponiiloa; ooRo mbaloiico j oct ooEaUiuAo. aquv la fiuno do 
idlloabH^ avoti ValumiDo, lo for^ la chooi, U magoWa. 1* iwtaaD oi U 

Koua troQvooa dAiu 1m luititn do rmdaatrt* nUtellvgi^no daa 
prodoila pr^oentant d«» uiAlogLM btimoa aroa ««« doa volouiOi InL 
•n pcnsfc do tuo de U comjioaitioa quo do uodo do fonikaiioai. Cm 
woritt artlfldoUoo agiit, aiiiai quo lea lafoa, Ibnn6aa do aiUcalM oA co 
qai ropprocbo oncoro oeo durni^raa dc* laiMMs, c'o<t qn'oUoa dodvnt 
5tro eaviaoeta oumiM r^ouBio do ttoyKH toilolliquo mkrno^ dooA 
^oa foniioni«Bt Itto anoca aapfrioisMp Lot dl^vroocDO qoo nooo 
luimbra laur ouDaponUju r/vnltcraicDt du fuit qu^dtca aoaa viouuooi 
do Sanaa pltu on moina prufmdi^a. 

Noa coMiaiimnooa aor toa ro»liet 6rnptivoa d«faioDt o'oftrioKic 
d'ouo maQiifo inMpdr6o ptf I'^pplkotion do uioroM^po 1 Ia litbo* 
logio. Nvuo uVtooo tiao A nppolor Id loo rianllato prtoquo mcf 
vellt^ni qii'a pCBrmla d'atbjndni iv nunln d'inn«t;){BtIon, loaugci^ 
par H. C. Sort^. Fonr tout ditc on on mot, Vuialyao EDicT\jBCOpi<|ny 

.] mr la It^pr^idaflion AtHfinrUt det Bochft VtJcamqne*^ 335 

tMlii« par rn BoavAUi pntv^l^t iloiit la il^liruUfcv?. U HUffli^. i-t 
IHlfpnni n'unt d^ ivrpftWAH* ^lutm aiiooiic Ariti* IhiuEKjIici cli« wienotti 
MlttvUc«. Noa «onlMB«Ei( iIm '»tit nnHlit |H>AHiUu Ia vMfioAtioa ut L* 
mirtlo JMhyKillitpai; nutii i]» l>:ii tint ]caidi'«« ct Ckil ftbcotur ftox 

L'oQ ui^ ik« |t1t]« forU« Ioit^i.^ ri» pi.iiivi^t reoc»ntiaUi« dtLD8 loi 
Utrtf. i^tto 1m utfA^TttJU en«ta1Lw« d'uMS gmnduB ditDtm«iofi>; 
IfeMliM cLuaiqiic no duEUiftit, [c pluji «0GT«mlt quo ]fl covnpaaitidu do 
U BftflM U4hI»; 1a ouwiituliikii EiiJiicrAlcigii|uc ii'i'tAtt quVutii^vur. 
Lt Idslmo inLimo 6c U nwhc nwUtt inijiAiifCrafiLd ; on no pt^iiviiit kq 
tw4n vuMiit* tl'oiM oi>tt>Aro uurtuti^o <lu tVnIro Am*»ut Ic<invl Ita 
(UatDcmte tU> G>i;lto IBM** fotidao AVuiuni suliilillvti, hi «o ropn^oiitor 

priniorilialcii, Icon iiqtic^Ji&tliSt ct VBi<pv<:L tlv ]m nichv h noh 
kU^t^K (l« ilt^'Vvlopp^-iDvnt. ApplirjtiuuK If) iiiu>iro«co[ic] k 

Lb IsTcn. Atoutt-iioiia tlit. pvoTOut ^trti vcan;NLrL'oii >\ di« miL«fHifl 

fi^cmir iin jirtxluit fcuinpgiiVno ct limpicfr, IrK muth'-rvc 1ii|tiif1jV:ii 

liar EA«w«, dcH vW.tittiuU Ji f1 1 rtjJKM\'& Lo vorro qiti 1m reaf«niio 
4iit ctea cou^idiTtv ccotnio un v!-ti<ta da crwUlliMtiuu oh da 
tttattvat iikUriiluA rrJAUilliDK tati |iiiiju^ liw ^l/iiumU quJ o^nAtituoiit 
knr «i|«cv, D»» on v«rre« wI«itihiul-i uoirii. Ivrillbpti^ oMiquda en 
If |ttrau>«, J-r<{>ourTUB do loato ctistaNkilv, lo niicrwco}>o dtonvro na 
■MO ^9 fotiDoa miudnlofl. II urjiw moritn> IcnrM iliTcm ijuu Jo 
minttODk lottn amStv ilo d^rwJcjppciinc^it di'^tcniiiiitii pr^ la ctinmiiU 
4iAlm plva on luuiiw fApido ilu I& nuumo. C'MtHTirtJiiitclnDKtL^trwtirft 
«d oainrDMr*^ ^J*^ l''^ tottilcjuunt luuTiial»rc vitivriHr:, )ji.nur^..'n«t 
• Vmai an ooimmf* robftnlieituiv if ii'un Uouto ccftcnstuui mdiiut^iiUircs 
^ Igon U£4irt^ ifitHuJcn poa dc la inali^ anjoipht) duu« m.iii 
piHfii k IVitBt mimllin. Gr<V^: ti In mpiOUr'^ arn-. hiirnMo. U fiAtn 
Tfcwe a'oift fig^ 1<4 CTtiabiitx u'vut p^i crq^itro ; Zcur (]vful<ipp<iiic]Ut 
t M brtkB<lKMiiiiiC^t arrAip. Do lu cvb vuit'rrvna ifu ciidlutuL c|ui 
■faB4«M doaa !<• rnrrva iiotutcUi i;t iiuVuj a ■l^'-'^ii^m^ houm Ic r(4a i)o 
tfiiAiWito, ]>9 trliUlliU* UTiAlniirLu:!! «ii jiriJilutMOhL ilibiiH IrK ]jtiti<:ra 
4m iMiita rrnnirniT^ ilout uuiut iuitiriniom Ljitt ik I'liouro Icm rL^Iulioaa 
■Iwika i^ni lua lUiEtKiut aui anlieive liLTii^nor. LVttu coiiiujiKiu 
avigtBO HO Inilnit t«r dnt traiie <l<r fauiillc qu^incuiuo lu tu)cr<»K'4riTC. 
Lci laitio^ffUUDinuvcn Umi'« mijivtuiuuiilrvi^tiioifuniKiit cri^Ulliitufl 
nJttnrniUJjtfi aomlilailctt unx f rinlAlb'tiv jIiiii vurma volpaniqnt^a. 

ICaia d*«Tdiuainf tci c-riHUiuc no Hunt paa mttft ik ccl vlot 
MilMjpuuwirCb til la laro nv a'totpiui trop briiw|iii.^miiDt roinriitio, 1(4 
tnomnnU Mwl^uUiitfl, cvuMrvat^t Uiir liWrl*': J Mtiua, iiiAmo dau 
naa bhmo acmJ-ltfinidfr, la pAto ji pii donncir luuiiuiii^ j\ doi indtriikw 
ffrirtiUiiia ilo trJM pctilo dimcmnoa, leu tAi€tntUlicM, Coa criatain 

M. ^fp4M#« Bernard 


tuicnMCOpIqticft xiTtt n& ku »r!a Hn ]« muvn vltnnuM paiUnt qn'dlfl 
io 00B«oU4ut IcntcmcDU UnlgHi lour in&m dftiataiM, «■ MlitJ 
poljUTCtt pcnctiUdQt do rvttvnrof, atoo qoo c^Actitado vicrvcilkaHv 

[ iiu«d» Iikki6nl qu «it iodirldiu branoouy ftiM Toloiaiiwiu, el dusl^ i 

r eonp rtr, <a db pomdl scrnMoiiBor k pt fa mco duv k* kvM. lU 

fonDciit mtvcnt d^iu U ft^lo, pu loor onokertouiiiGCil. vb ftiminUft 

rt'v4u criislAUin ct pr^nt n k roc]i«» 4ib lis M aoal oeTckpfM^ 

I tjjMioom— t, naaplMt bMn quTik apfjtiomofti ^ uno |bAhodo 

qi^ik «nt AjS fbtrnk & u mMKnt oti la kre, coouro en m«tt 
I M ioliili&ul ; lis vW tonl t^jAr^ pcuikut Tacie uUbms do l*£pui 
, cement on dv r^rujklion. 

•riflUllttoi^ qui Mcml dn dcraior ctoJo ^ octii*oliiktion, U I&to ftppevto 
[ ftY&o oik nito pnmBion do orijiUux rlua gnnd* «t do forca« plot 

ckvt^9Pp£oq^^JbpDuibicmMurauid]Alltlgt|fI^ih^lMt1llt. Oevdmiicr* 
['ODfc pTU iHiMBM difks <!« oonditJoiw pliu OftllUW, Mld<^qoft A o«Um 

Jitt prtMnlo ttn fluido truiqaillo oti k orifltAlUMtJco « pQ •« U» 
one mai]>6ro Icntc. Ik «o Aont IbfinAs dftOi k Imib viiiTnlqiw ca 
fuMau.&lonqu'il ^lut ciMxitcreufeiinddaiwlesrittcrTOLn wsjCcrmbL 
' Oot AoarolttcoMDl knt noiu <«t rnoiilti d'one nun«^ ^riikoito 

lOQT llkpO«itJOQ Ml SODAS COI>COILlnqT|IM ot pAT kVLlV lllniOIUauiM. 

icraripk cii«kai, B|tpi>rti6* tout farot^n danji k krc, au mixaonl do 
^uptioa, Hoinfc oachAafs dooo do* loicroUthoo on dMw nno 
TilT«itt& C'lttI apr^ qo'ik u'^taient d^vdopiiAt %f*se lunti^&r dvu k 
mogoii, doruil k pbuo intntUUuriqtiOi qiio k moaio oil ill DAoMioiil 
■k 4l6 sodIotAo^ Uno |>^«do d'uibktion ft ouoo^A ftQ ookkOt Ia k^ 
cuttniute ikToc TiL>]eEnoc a clum^ccg cnAtmiut, kii a brM6«, cvnvKUSk 
bro/^. vt fiiiulDK uQ ln^t[r^ Lo iui(iruiiuu|Ki tuiun uioDtro ncUmiMtti 
left pb^mrnivtritM que j^ npp^illos On Tuil 1m gnuib crulua 
4kldqttii^ Joan fngmv^u mocI diAponfa, kira ftrtk* fai'^imr^, 
ol rOQ0Sa>; iIa Hont onvikhU ol pWtMA pftr k |4tt<\ 

FcDdAnl quo lod uctiuQjt pbvKiqou ut cliiiitiqau. miivs on J*« 
k mouvomaut du k kvis K'ftlliH|U«Dt iiiuHi fk J^uolir Ioa 
LBoleo^ &&k80»t loc ntirrolilboi. 0«lta m>li5n) vftniudi ot floC 
t<V grftnd» oriHUQE, bo prood om im ftmu dlniliTidua mforoctoouqniM^ 
Ccux-oi wa ratkclkoni ooDC & oikc m:oondci phuo do k CiriotAlliB«tL4iii, 
0a BMntl (ii:iguulr& dmim uu uni^s viKjtieut luj mouTVinnit ; tfnr 
df^kfpOTiwtit ultfrifltiT OAL HTrvt^ pAT uii rurruiil£iis#!&ettt »Mcx fftpido 
qui jOTOVoqtto U prii;^ on nioHait, 

Ia dUpi>«itiuiL lliiublo rloN iiuoroliltios kdiqiio pftHiutometil 
rd'ullour* <[uo octto poanUc iirutjiHiiio b iL^ coubimporufio du aioh' 
nont dcf 1a ooulir^rr. On miiinrqtic, on tB^ dAQi ks prf^ 
KBioToooopJr|vc4i qiio l«s micTulitbw «'&ccuTiitiIont ftQloaf dM nadoi 
aoctioitfl oriAliilli«6ca ; ik omlulont, f^inonl des Irftbttoe el pnkonlcDl 
cvtto dispoaitiau que lot lujcrogispkw ftp|)cLlcLl Mmctan jfuiifaJt^ 

ttSS,} Mir hi Rtfro^uaion ArtaficitiJ^ d<* Bvchf^ Volcani^u*t, 337 

Xjut«iiio COA tntii^cji do ifiicr^jlitbcs vic^aQont h routxiutici cW 
CDc^vfic de litmouttEonv pJuftcoiiuidj^Tiililuit. iIn lot ftonloumcnl, 
•t praiMot duiit Jut iEjUrvU(Wfl qui flvpamiit 1«4 trnuiddii aeotiotiM, 
^■ppliqncdit Mir kvn botxls ot noua f^tfroEit lo doruior iuoun>ta«Dt do 
k amaam ttu monustit mita9 oa dlo m figeo. 

Lq nipcrH<xjpn nauH niadgno dauu r|do ta cmUiUiimlinn dAmiTni 

dant Jbqoel !«« gnnilB onatitiix d^^a forniue cuii^iatit dnaa muvi moBoo 
4W«li MVt nppoMT «ati4itoinonl ▼itT<iiiM> Att voooi^cl Umpa. )e» 
alsfoImM* «t lot ionuc* n:i»tAlIiu<.it cmtryoimjiiMit vi^Milj^nl; Elti 

d« 1* COtlBotirllUl(>B do U tVCb^ 

Cm Dli«crrbli<^iti« nuotioscopiqnoft mr loe cHhtaut do U socondo 
pflnBottsDld^jidoccHiclnroqTt'Ih cut ii6 furiu^* pui-uuKiirl ut 
it ]Nir rtiib ign^n, hleim qu'im duiro faim untrnr m Juti dwi 
lMl|i<raHir<» nil di ■ { TuiMJunii hTjniiln'riniii ij, kQir^iuilloii on rocoun^it 
Mlnfoit; RoiiA NcUmor tta r«pM abdulu qu'uQ uuiiubt^tuit coDimo 
vhtmrntit |ioQr que dea miii^moz i3iii«»ejat crlffUlliMr ii>;:nli^tviiii^iit. 
Ol ^t, «i cflet, ]c« tai<!n:i1itboH no formor Aprf« rtifJAiJcliiMiuiTjt« A la 
■mmw lnrtiiD^<lrir]i]4\ A uii« tuinjxl-nLturtr i^ui uvt liin HVlri; niif»d 
vUrfa qq'<iQ t& aujipoK&tt; on voit lea oribbiux noitru pcndtut 1ft 
—rrlin vteo dc lu cvuUo. Lor#^uo lo refroJdiiMuukoiit c»t tr^ 
Wiv|ap, Im lubciclitlioii ti'oEil I'M In tDiupi) do «(i furmur, U uji»ti^ 
bviqnc no iloniko HfliuBniinn nltjni l^u*a diis crifltAllitru, 

lUi« U micToaoup bou jK-nuct d« liiur d*utiu roftni^ro )Jm 
imainfio MMOro Ia «bro4ioiogio doaoHfltniit dori Inrctt; nmui rtiiaiivdo 
dMagiwrduisWiir bisboiro, doai gmndofl iM)ttu<lcs; iujiquijua d'lmo 
Btattn gbi4rml<ii comiDcrnt on peat, on quolqniT Ki^rU, fuMir U duto 
ft1*i|wdlo ehftRunc d« »p}«r« do cm dcui gr<>up« va koiu iqi>U<4 da 
*wi^ LiM putioulATitik qtii ccttdu^GUCl i\ Ja dfjlL^numutioa do louf 
l0i nlati^ o« eutit k« iocla<ioi]«. 

Va orwtttl qui M dfndoppo dune ntft»M vJtr«use, vugluba «aarmit 
fa Mrtii3i1f«i dti nUiou dat» loquol il isrult. O^ont ninfli ljiii:i oj<rtame« 
toitiiMi App*mii««Dl u icii«ro«00p« oiiU^ do oraiDA vilroiu.on-' 
niientt6« ^ I'iat^rioiir dta frrisU] ot •onTfOit dUpOtftfl Buivftat 1g« xohm 
naocmiMeiiNtii 0<3t i[)olu»Ioti« itnue nwnbKnt a T^vidciuoo qoc 1o8 
crirtftox m qiHxiMm mnt ei& d'uuo njntti^ro vhr^^iiH! 1ir|Liiil'?t) pjir la 
eUiv. UuM d'ftOtm cot, co buuI <^cc np^ciE tniniiraltiA qui mo 
CwT tm i iocllWW COM U rormo do t»icrohl];LU, oa tiuiii d'un <rrialAt, 
n ttft MJCOil ilofft quo ccfl iniotulilLoi |>rc<:iusUiui^t nu mimViil qui 
hi Rmpfisur iic. 

Duia d*«iiliifl OS cnfirjf niir do* orictotii tiottpnmoTit Ittnnin6«, imo 
M ^i ki tI«iI m tnotiLeF, s'afpliqtior, Ktnplir tons lot intotvliciM outro 
1m nb^Mu d4j& Fonnffl: oocl mootro itioouloatKblomout I'uiiuriutit^ 
do cm ikmCtra* 

Kfl UfkftBt ctmpto do ov foiU, qui parknt pAr rat-m^Riw, oa oit 
pttTOQ A drecMf do* IuIm ^-bro&vlogtqiicii iodiqiuat [loitr clmcuno 

33a if AlphoMe Senard [Ma^ IB, 

(tvs or'i}i-ccs cIgs df^iiT grandoB pJHodcs, 1ft (Uto de hi crbullintion. 
Je nv m'urrttcrai pas a voaa les citor, mftU uohb TOrrona bieut^t Be 
<U-j^'agor par \ca oiftOricncoe Bjntli^tiqnes, la loi qai pr^ido k la fbrnA- 
tioii HucocssLvc dcs criataui et ib lonr ago relotif. 

J'ai rL'trocJ les grondcs ligQca da tableau qui qdos ofTre Thutoire 
d'uuc Uvc; j<^ n'ni pu oaqDiafler qna certaine details da c«tt6 repr^Ben- 
t:\tiou dcH phijnom^Doa litliologiqacs que lea invoetigatioiia modemei 
i>uC roridus avoc Qua si Tivaiito rualite ; mais ce quo nooa en avoiia th, 
buffit JL luotiCrer d'uno niikiiii>ra frappante, ^ moa aTia, oe qua pant 
TaualysG EccuadL'O par lo raiBODnemuut. Je croia no paa mo trompei 
i^ti uvnii^aiit, qnW co point de vuo, Ti^tudo d'aae lari?, tella one noiia 
iiims fiouiMitB L'flbm^s d'on cipoeur lea r^auitata, prcaento on dea plna 
bi-'iiui ciumplus do I'application dus metbodea indnctivoa mxix eoioitcet 
iiatiirclW r ou DC eoit co qne Tud duit 1o plua y admirer, on daa 
proi'otK'S luia en tcuvre poor Taualyao, on da la fineMo de Toliaerrft- 
tiuii, on du lieu logiquo tkvoc leqnel on ft bq rattacbor tona cea 

Pcmvoir rutracor avec raxo stricte fidolit^f dans nna masae Toohatiso, 
oik V*ci\ nu ne doconvro qu'nn amaa iudtBtinci et toat d'nne renne, 
la iiiarcbo do la crifitAllifiatiou, puudtror daiia cot admirable tiseu dea 
prudiiittj vulcauiqnce on, dana un contiiUL-tro cube, viennent B'agen<!er 
di-a juilljonado puIj:c-dte«,d6tormtueravco uoe prociaion mathematiquo 
1;! fiutiiru du cliacuu do oca corpa inGnimont pctits, lea prendre k lonr 
imi^miLOT Il'H aaivre jusiia'^ leur outiur d6voloppomont, retroQTcr la 
Imixi do UntU'A lea modificuCiona qn'ila ont pu aubir aona rinflueuce 
ilvs ui^cuta pbjBiqnca et cLimtqnea, voila oe quo ce puieaant modo 
d'iiivctjtigntiou, I'auftlyao microacopiqoc, a pormis de ri^ser. 

Toutefois pour le cbercbeur ceuaciencieui et modeatei, qne da 
cboGus oucore iuconunea dime ce chmup ea apparence ai reetreint et 
dcga ti bIcD feuille de Tbiatoire dea produits Tolcaniqaea! Quo de 
prulilvmea dont la aolotion no peut etre donueo m^me par Tobaerva- 
tiim \a mieux condnito 7 Loraquo lobaorTfttion ne auffit ploa & 
iittdiiidi'o CO but, lorsqu'on a epuiso toutea lea rcasourcee de ce modo 
iriiivoKti^utiou, il ixiate encore cellee dee exporicucea ajntbGtiqacs. 
CcKt un pAB de plua dans la voio qui m<^ue k I'intelligonce complete 
di'S faitd ct qui pout couduire k dea BoIutionB de£nitivea. Uaia, les 
oi^crutiojia ayutbdtiqnos pour arriver k ce but, doivent Hro dizig6efl 
Avcc iutoliig^nco ot doBsein vera la fin qu'on veut atteindre. 

Comuie Ta dit Seuarmunt, Tune de« cuuditione esBentielles d'om 
HjutLufiO goologique, c'est quo chacnne dea opcratioua artificielleB, acdt 
coiiijHLtiLlo aveo tuutca lea circ;>Q^taucea ou I'op^ration natnrello ft 
1ui^t;u dos troccu caractorlatiquea. Les laitiera et loa eooriee de 
rindtiBtrie^ dout nooa avona montre, lea relationa avco certainfl pn^ 
duits de la nature, soot en reality dea ayutLeaoa, maia dea syittbdsca do 
bazard, qui, malgrc lo liaut mtcrot aoientifique qu'ellee preaentont, ne 
ponvont etre inisca aur lo mome pied que Ice fiyntb^Bea intenttonuellw, 
df>tit jo vais i>iLrloi-« uii roTpcrimontatoor, tenant on tub Iq probl^o 
k ruiioudre, a'oEFurce do imliacr, dans lo laboratoiro, dcs oenditionB 

qgW vciBt Uuiter^ 

Dtt* Tordr* lomvkT, ]a« Kic4bo<I<tt Ar&tlictiqn4A saivftDt cm naolquo 
mtH 1m ivogritf 9a i'obaerrfttiua H ^o L'Muityao. CVpoDOoiLt <ai 
^aa, J^ Im pvcouWn psa do U g^jlu^o, qiiDli|im liniuiaD« 

Ml s^hI^ a jottCif duut oollo ftcicDc^ l(uA>i> <ldiaoiilrA 
'4«« MMW im to gmaito «t k« priiiei]MliM lacbM <n«tftUiDc« tool 
_ _fiili« «4 ^n'lfllni *o tmufoniKDl mr 1« toiko eu mfttOn rilicuva 
QmIhw* aiitirm ■PtM SfttllADsuiJ esfaiita ime longne t£iio U'ox- 
pirimuM iur U fnsicio tb ttvm^ poni dteqlrd ]«« po^^ ^id rf^oaiaiit 

Itftit o'oM KTi/tost k Sir Jua/M HoU ipic roriont I'honnour d^ATotr, 
far Job av*b ml^ cti^brm, iiWKjpEir^ 1 inpi^^rieiicci oa gwlugio : il tta 
% ikwmtTf\ rAjif>tiMl&oai tVuna nuu>ii^ miigi(itrft1i> vi il !'• g^<uvr«ItB£?, 
Jtom n'a^r<ikl £ tUTtM^ar dtUX$ lot Inv^rii do Kail, quo Miiil qui 
lOBillMMt i U <7t)lli£«D lUa KKthctf. Von I'upoqui; oii 9|w11&ittjUu 

ffrifrit, |ar Ew lODoJd^ cb Libonloira lea ooudiliotin do fuiLutittii 
ditf UvtB, rUlnidtu gMogne ^ooawlrt fuudftll iletrrtalim ^niptivucckna 
9m t*vinivDt en gntpUw ; il oWmlt qii» U jinxluil du <^»4tM fimkiii, 
nfrcidi bcnaqvKPVMDt, doQnaib vuo nuuao vilnuM 4m<4r|>b«, Untlia 

}a*iSi infiiuJiiaoiiiirffif (ijiu Icai 7 provoquait U furni«rii[t iici vrifllAiiXi 
^«« Hall avftit iltjl rmjims par ToxjiiiriauiiL-. lu fui ciL{iit&l pinir 
ka ■jrnllw'ari falurta. i{ii<\ ponrri^n^NirUacHtilaoTiVuiicrLtt'Zio qu'uu 
a ftaida*, U faat inairtlvrjir I4 r*riO provokaut ^lu la fnAU'ii. iV li^id I4jiji< 
pfialan] £I«t^ ; txntU infcriourc b>Lil«ft4ft » In clmUar » Uqittillc ou 
a iH neuarir pour f»ui1ro ta iccLc. Diinu^t co icoa'n, uxLiiaA 
■iadraiDI pouTcait rrutuWifcr. (V<s Mu n-iit A nicttrv en pamIli-Io 
■laa oMix 1(110 w-ua aicmtrMt lua Uvo« au moouml ou la Icfnpvriitaro 
«*afaaiaM aprfa luiJaooLoiuoat 

V«a Ut cuttmcDOtfDOttt do 00 «aal<^ Orcfw? WuU ilirJf^ kim 
nrtai«b«« daiM la iuAjihi Todp: 11 «^rimotilo ntr ilm mH«i^« <1i» 
bt«lU *lo 709 liTTii^ il let find «4 Im laitn^ rD&ijjdir pondant hitit 
^twn •tfva nnu <viiob« do cliarbon qiii >o ouuauiaait lenJonicaiL Doranl 
v rccuil prvk>cktftt dea ooacr^ioiiA «pli\^'^>]it]iiqti£« fibn>-j:aiii6c% t3o 
wa ««ti|Lin«4rm Jo dianttro, >'is»laicjjt lUn* lit Tom noEr ol u^jua 
nKiomr la Umtm An buallc ; ctiltn cc rorm paaMdt A T^lat pietroiu, 
dfinioaii ffrcDo, ae <tkar]gcait da tHawlloB cr.^talUiwe trift nunodiL £& 
•4Bko tcmpa, tufi utfciMUmo ao^ODlait ul u douuU orooMMit da 

Caa ooBclitJium du rcdinmbea do Watt, r]ui ur raiLxohr |iar lijcfi 
4a poialN A ooUo da Hall i|qo nona voQCua d'«xprita<jr, o'cot qao la 
Tfirtillfialf-n poat «o prwU^rc daua mio periods ob U xauli^ro fotidno 
ammtOMto k to aomidor. 

At vioDft&t ob Toa pr^panul aliud ]m toIiw do la a/iiL1j^ dot 
L'aaal/a^ H 1m uioycua d'ii)T«atrgattnn ii*aTai«iit pav atuiut la 


K AJfJLen*0 BwJtrd 

iMrfrfitiou qii'«ll« pottUont ftujourdlui ; ^*ud utre eW, lot pt^ 
wjUK^ ^tu r^iiMiit Mil ^Ijq to d* la g<S>)u|f lo micuniulaMnit tlm obBtaol** 
rqrai M jondt ininnonU-? qQ*ini domi-dicla pliiA lard- ZCuvft b'aTottc 
yu h oona ftnAict ici «iit U brilUtito period* dM i^th^«oi saiodniM 
qo: [tuirtt do iiri« )'c«Bor de U ohiiiuo ot da k tnio^nlof^ 11 mflt 
do ciicT l« aamh tl'Bbeluwa). do fioM, do ]jit»cb«rli«Ii, dto SfTnarnHXi^ 
pour f>TAi|n^r U MmvMitt iW tnnAnjnftMM r^nliala d# Ik r«pn>diu>- 
Hon artilcioUd dtti nininitti. Mftui In nMlta]'di«A do om iBT»k1fl^ 
portoiDUi pnneipdentooi nr JA vyntbiM d'oapftoM mlUem et doo mt 
'li»rooLoK,^iil tont d» ■crcgAte d ca»i«os miouiJak A pulnrd'uBc 
BuDil^ra g^nAmK loura expArlftnoM olaiaot fturUiul d'lirdru iiuc^n|o< 
giouiH ot D4> touohaiont qoA tacotiS^nrnvni k \tt Utliol'i^u. Tunte- 
ibi« Im •csain do coc baldlo& «x]k£riittaiitotourfi, I'^laitvr^^iit bioa 4t« 
probl^Oi £6olceique«. iln buOB prouvcot mhiiu .conuocnl a'^:*! 
raiaiutcQiio et wioeuiu^i & oiuHum <iou »o d^vdopnient t<« momoi 

nitbodot oxpfinmoTiUJefl, I14 ooiiipn>liaru^ou plu^ oonpltMo dic« ]>htea- 
aJtK* do la biioro. l^fiu on It^CG, Daubrf« trace k roio do U